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will be about 4^ miles from the bar. Vessels of less draught can. choose
their own depth upon the same bearing, finding 15 feet] at I^ riiiles from
the bar. A vessel anchoring in 8 feet more than her draught at half tide,
would have from 2 to 3 feet to spare at low water springs.

The holding ground at this anchorage is excellent. A heavy gale brings
in an unpleasant sea, yet with good ground tackling and plenty of cable
out it is considered that a sailing vessel ought to ride out a summer gale.
The anchorage seems to be a wild one in winter ; in the gales of Novem-
ber, some boats only were lost. At a later period ships cannot anchor
there at all, owing to the ice.

Sometimes vessels anchor in their own draught of water, for the mud
is very soft, and if the wind sets in from seaward the level of the sea is
raised, whilst with off-shore winds which diminish the depth of water the
sea is always smooth. The di£^rence of level between high water spring
tides with a south-easterly wind, and low water springs with a north-
westerly wind is 12^ feet, the spring rise being 10 feet. ,

The anchorage, called officially the Outer anchorage extends from the
Customs' junks to 3 nules outside the bar seaward.

PZ&OT8, Blveni. — ^Efficient pilots certificated by Her Majesfy's Ck)nsul,
are usually on the look out for vessels entering during the open season.
The rate of pilotage to Tientsin is about 8 dollars per foot of draught.

The native divers are very skilful. They have been able to, recover
boxes of specie from a depth of 26 feet. As gales sometimes come on in a
few minutes without the slightest warnings boats alongside are liable to be
stove or damaged.

TXDBS. JLt Takiu — ^It is high water, full and change, outside the Pei ho
bar at 3 h. 30 m. ;* ordinary springs rise about 10 feet, neaps 7 to 8 feet.
The actual time of high water sometimes varies as much as 1^ hours from
the computed time, butseldom at springs. As soon as the flats are covered,
the tide sets across the bar along the coast nearly parallel thereto, the
flood running northward, the ebb. southward, about 2 knots at springs, and
1 knot at neaps. * On the bar the tide is always weak. The influence of
the direct tides in and but is not felt on the bar except towards low water,



* 8 h. 40 m. by the observations of Com. J. Ward, B.N., 1860 ; 8 h. 10 m. according
to the surrey of M. Ploiz, of the I^nch Imperial Marine.



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(80 THB FEI H0« [chjlp.x.



wImd Iba ftreftm is eonfiiied within llie mnd banks. Outside the bar, the
flood sets North, the ebb &SJB. The tides are subject to great in^^-
laritiea. North and N.W. winds retard the flood and diminisb its rise ;
East and 8.E. winds increase the rise and retard the ebb. Slack water
sometimes ksti 8 to 4 boors at the neaps. Therateof the tideintheriTer
is 2 to 3| knotiy its maximum 4^ knots.

At Tlintsin it is high water, full and change, about 7 h. Om. ; it is
estimated to be about 4 hours later than Ta-ku, but Taries verj condder-
aUy. The aTcrsge rise and fall is 8 to 4 feet, and the greatest range 6
feet When the snows melt, the river is said to rise 2 or 3 feet higher.
The times of high and low water are irregular ; the water will somedmes
remain at its high lerel for 8 or 4 hotirs. The tide takes 6 hours ix) rise
and the same period to fidl, but at the forts which stand some miles below
Tientsin, the flood stream ran only 4^ hours at springs ; the ebb thereforo
must have run 8 hours. At the above forts it is high water, fall and
change, at about 5 h. The tide ceases at Yong-tsun, 23 miles above
Tientsin.

The flood tide has a velocity of about one knot and continues to flow up
for an hour after high water ; the ebb has a velocity of 2 knots and runs
out until two hours after low water. At times when it has been blowing
from the northward, there is scarcely any rise of tide and the stream is then
always making down.

TlAs Ms;«als.— The following signals* are made from a flagstaff with
yard to show the depth of water on the bar, the starboard yard arm being
the northern one.

At masthead: —

Ball signifies • . • . Slack water.

Bed flag „ .... Bisingtide.

Two balls „ .... Falling tide.

At starboard yard arm : —

Triangle over ball „ . ... , . 8J feet on bar.

Ball over triangle „ H „

Triangle hoiBted alone at starboard yard arm, in conjunction with the fi>]lowing
signals at port yard arm^ signifies an additional half fi>ot of depth.

At port yard arm : —



Triangle f


ognifies . • . .


. 10 feet on bar


Triangle over ball


w • • • «


. 11 „


Ball over triangle


» . • • «


• . 12 „


OnebaU


f> • • • •


. 13


Two balls horizontal


» • • • «


• 14


Two balls vertical


»> • • •


• 1


Three balls


»> • • •


. . 16 „



♦ Communicated by Nav. Lieut. James Cole, BJ^., H.M.S. Salamis, 1869.



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CHAt.x.] TIDE SIGNALS. — ^DIRECTIONS. 521



I.* — ^Having passed the Entrance red buoy, steer to pass to
the northward of the South black buoj at the bend of the bar channel,
and thence towards the Inner striped buoy, and from that for the mouth
of the river between the forts.

The beacons, before described, have been erected for landmarks in
case of the displacement of the buoys, and are used when the buoys are
removed on the approach of winter and until the channel has been re-
buoyed in the spring after the breaking up of the ice. The beacons are
on the mud-flats below the forts. To enter, keep Mud beacon (white)
just open southward of the north cavalier of the north fort, and this will
lead in southward of the Entrance buoy and up to the* South buoy ; then
the two South Bank marks (poles with cages, black and red), on the »
south beach, kept in one will lead up to the Inner buoy, leaving the
South buoy to the southward. Pass south of the Inner buoy steering for
the mouth of the river.

The river, from Taku to Tientsin is not difficult to navigate, yet
owing to its winding course great care is necessary. Steam vessels of
nearly 12 feet draught, and 200 feet in length, have reached Tientsin at
the period of spring tides almost without a check, but some of the bends
are very sharp. The most difficult portion of the passage is a bend known
as Double reach, about 20 miles below Tientsin, where many vessels have
stuck fast, and on some occasions the ^cargoes have had to be discharged
before the vessels could be floated. Conveniently placed warping posts
are now erected at the worst places, so that check-lines can be made fast.
Twin screw vessels do not require these aids.

As in some parts of the river the channel is very narrow, and barely
of sufficient width to allow two vessels to pass each other, it has become
customary for that vessel which is proceeding against the tide to run her
bow aground so as to make way for the other.

Should it be necessary to anchor*in the river during the night, a sharp
look-out must be kept for junks as they generally drift down the river
broadside on, and some of them are so large and massively built, and so
*high out of water, that they are liable to cause serious damage.

From the end of May to the beginning of September is the period
when the greatest number of junks are met in the river. Those of Siam
are the largest. In June 1869 the junks were moored five abreast on the
north side of the stream and three abreast on the south side, so that the
passage was exceedingly contracted. They are "generally badly moored,
and a slight collision is sometimes sufficient to break away a whole tier of
them, in which case it is generally considered the more prudent course for

* A steam tug is always in readiness at Taku to tow sailing vessels up the river.
For Directions to make the Fei ho from Sha-lui-tien island, see page 530.



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63S THE FBI HO. [cHAP.x

a 8t««n reMely if poMble^ to posh on at once, and so escape the delay as
well 9m the block and oonfosion that invarial^y ensne.

The regular steam Tessels nnming to Tientsin are moored alongside
tlieir rpspective wharres. In the ' earlier part of the yemr they can lie
close to, bat as the season advances the sandbanks in the river increase,
and they are unable to do so, and men-of-war stationed there will &nd it
necessarj to shift berth farther out from time to time.

BVmATIoW of torn in winter^ — ^In I860,* ice formed on the flats off
the entrance of the Pei ho alK>ut the middle of November ; from the 24th
to the 27th, during a severe frost, the ice packed at the entrance of the
river, which became almost impassable. Up the river, near Tientsin, the
navig'ation was suspended on the 30th. A thaw set in, and the river was
again perfcMitly free of ice on Dec. 5th. On the 20th a hard frost again
set in, the maximum temperature being 22^ Fahr. On the 22nd the
Chinese commenced carrying on traffic with sledges, from which time the
ice gradually thickened to 20 inches, which was its maximum.

The last communication with the forts was on the 22nd December, by
the CtowHy gunboat, but she was unable' io return, and had to remain in
the ice till the spring. H.M.S. gunboat Watchful held communication at
1^ miles offshore, landing two officers.

On the Ist of January, the Furious and Renard had to shift their
anchorage 3 miles out to avoid the masses of ice. On the 23rd of January,
the Renard passed through a field of ice 23 miles in extent, and half a
foot thick, and anchored 15 • miles S.E. of Taku. On the 3rd of
.^'ebniary, the same vessel fell in with floating ice, 75 miles S.E. by E. of
Taku, and at the distance of 32 miles from that place, the ice appeared
packed, and of 20 to 30 inches in thickness, and only to be traversed by
charging with the vessel's stem. She coasted N.N.E. along its edge,
which appeared a permanently fixed mass, and communicated with Sha-
lul-tien island, along which detached masses of ice were being carried by
the current Inside the island the ice also appeared to be permanent.

Conmiander Gk>odenough considers Sha-lui-tien island by fer the most
convenient spot for landing the mails for Pe-king in the latter part of
December, January, and February, as it may be approached within 100
yards^ and the strength of the tides is too great ever to allow the ice to
set fast at this point. See page 475.

In 1866 the Pei ho was frozen up on the 15th December, but the
general time is a few days earlier. The ice breaks up as a rule about the
10th of March, when it parts with a great rush, and in 48 hours has all
disappeared during a continuous ebb tide ; during its breaking up the ice



* Comoiftnder Ooodenougb, BJ^., H.M.S. JUnard^ 1860.



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CBUkP.x.] RIVEE FROZEN UP. — TAKU F0ETS. 523

is not sufficiently heavy to damage a vessel riding «t anchor in the
stream.* ' .

VAMJf roBT8» commanding the entrance of the Fei ho leading to the
capital, are an important military post, and were deemed by the Chinese
impregnable till they fell before the British squadron on Ihe 20th May
1858, and were captured a second time by the British and French allied
forces on the 21st August I860. The land ia so perfectly low and flat
about them as to make it difficult for a stranger to detect the entrance of
the river, and there is nothing to denote its position, except the shipping
and the five elevated cavaliers of the two principal forts which, from their
^yellow colour, are sometimes discernible with difficulty.

Five forts command the entrance. The largest or South fort is on the
right bank, and on its sea face, which runs N. by E., are three cavaliers on
slight bastions, one at each extremity and one in the centre. The fort is
built of yellow cliay and straw ; the cavaliers being constructed of driven
elm piles lashed firmly together with coir cables, and covered with the
above material. Its northern point abuts on the river ; the southern is
500 yards distant. The mud flats fronting the fort are of the most
treacherous character, and unfit for landing on when uncovered. There is
a smaller fort in the rear to the south-west.

The outer or North fort on the left biank is so constructed as to rake
the passage and enfilade the South fort. It has two cavaliers, and fronting
it on the south-east is a good beach of sand and shells extending a mile
or two and accessible to boats at high water, and the mud fiat in front is
less soft than on the other side.f There are two small forts about half a
mile above the outer ones, one on each bank, and commanding the channel.
The five cavaliers of the outer forts and the low pagoda-roofed temple of
Tung-ku are conspicuous objects from the sea, the former being visible
about 8 miles from the deck of a large ship. They are also swnetimes
thrown up by mirage. The stream is about 220* yards wide between the
forts, and from thence it takes a south-easterly direction through the banks
to seaward, for 4 miles.

About 3 miles north-west of the outer or North fort is Tang-ku on
the Jeft bank, and 2^ miles further in the same direction is Sin-ho, a mile
off the river, from which there is a road leading to Tientsin, and another
to Peh-tang, 6 miles distant. Tung-ku or Ta-ku village is 3 miles up the
river on the right bank, at the second bend ; its temple, close to the river
side, is one of the few conspicuous objects from the sea ; from this also
is a road to Tientsin.

~ * H. Vernon Bussell, Esq., R.N., H.M:S. SJana/,

•\ The inner part of this bank was crossed on foot without difficulty, when uncovered,
fiom a position 1^ miles south-eastward of the North fort, up to the beach.



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524 THE FSI HO. [oHAF.x.



A Britiah Tiee-eoiml is itattoiied ai Taku, wlio leodTes the papers of
all Briliah lailiiig ▼eaeela bound either tor thia poH or for Tientsin, those
of steaners being retained on board nntil their arriyal at the htter place.
The Tioe-oonsalale ia sitoated np the river, almost two miles abore the
forta, and about a quarter of a mile from the river's bank. Here also are
the Chinese cnatoma* establishment, pilots, &c.

■■ppMis^ — ^Near the sea thh banks of the Pei ho are flat and sterile, the
inhabitants poor and squalid, and their habitations mean, dirty, and
dilapidated ; bat higher np the whole country is beautifdlly cultivated. In
some parts of its course the river is rused above the surrounding
country.

At Tientsin and along the river ample supplies of bullocks, sheep, and
poultry can be obtained. Sheep are cheap and plentiful, and fatten to a
great siae on oil cake. Vegetables are rather scarce. At Tong-ku, the
village about 1^ mUes above the forts at the entrance, a junk for watering
the ship was filled, and the water after being allowed to settle, proved to
be very good. One junk load was about 70 or 80 tons, and the Chinese
were glad to load her and bring her outside the river to H.M.S. Piqtie for
a trifling sum. Water from the river, if taken sufficiently above the
entrance or at low tide, and cleared by alum, which may be bought at any
of the villages, is wholesome. Slack lime can also be procured.

TJUCV to TiaHTsnr.* By the windings of the river the distance
from the Taku forts to Tientsin is 49 miles and the distance by road
fi^m the village of Taku 30 miles. The whole country from Taku to
12 miles north of Peking is an uninterrupted plain of vegetable and fruit
gardens, orchards, and fields of rice and other grain.

Xolm is a large village, 16 miles above the forts, where a large number
of junks are always found at anchor, much indeed to the hindrance of
navigation in general and that of large steamers in particular. These
junks are sometimes moored in tiers, 12 abreast, and die utmost care on
the part of masters or pilots of vessels cannot always avert collision, be
the vessel ev^ so well handled.

Koku is the port at which all the southern junks from Amoy, Swatow,
&c, discharge their cargoes, and as many as 150 large junks, chiefly
laden with grain, and of great height and size, arrive almost simultaneously
about the end of July and beginning of August, and do not leave much
before the middle of October. Stringent regulations have been drawn
up and published for the information of the foreign ship-masters and 'the
navigators of Chinese junks, but the difficulties are not overcome, for



• Abridged from "Treaty ports of China," page 466. See Admiralty charts of the
Pei ho, Nos. 2,653 and 2,654, scale m « 2*4 inches.



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cHXP.x.] THE TEEATY PORT OF TIENTSIN. 525

the junks employed in this trade from their awkward build and great
size, are very difficult to manage in a tideway, and collisions consequently
are very frequent. In one year 40 arrived and went crowded in a body
up to Tientsin, anchoring in all parts of the river and rendering navigation
both difficult and dangerous.

Bonble Heaob, about 20 miles below Tientsin, is the most difficult part
of the river to navigate. Most vessels frequenting the port have, at one
time or another, stuck fadt in this awkward spot, and on more than one
occasion have had to discharge cargo, in order to Hghten sufficiently to
get afloat. In the event of thus grounding, boats are despatched from
Tientsin as quickly as possible.

TZBVTsnr or Tzamrsiiro is a treaiy port, and stands, as before
mentioned, at the confluence of the Yu ho or Grand canal with the Pei ho.
The latter, here called the Yun-liang ho, has run a course of 300 miles
from the northward,' the Yu ho a course of 220 miles from the westward.
They meet east and west, their commingled waters flowing south and
then south-east. Tientsin stands south-westward of the junction. The
city proper is enclosed within a four-sided crenellated wall, nearly square
and three miles in extent, with towers at the four angles. It is the
official part. Towards the river, suburbs more extensive than the city
itself extend towards and two miles down along both sides of the river-
Here all the trade is carried on. There is a population of about 400,000,
and the city is a focus of nuisances, of which the soap-boiling works are
not the least, though perhaps not the most unhealthy. Cholera, typhus,
and smaU pox, especially the last, are very prevalent, and carry off vast
numbers of victims every year. Tientsin has a water communication in
all respects equal to that of Shanghai or Canton.

The foreign settlement or concession is about 2 miles below the city.
That of the British is at Tz-chu-lin on the south bank of the river, where
is the consular establishment. It has a fine bund, where is a jetty at which
steam vessels can lie and unload. About a quarter of a mile below the
British concession are two large and strong earth-forts on either side the
river, and at the south of these is the residence of the Chinese Commis-
sioner of Customs: From these forts, extends on either side the circular
rampart and tidal ditch generally known as Sang-ko-Un-sin's Folly, within
which are situate all the foreign settlements. Customs establishment,
a small church, race course, burial ground, and the Elgin joss-house,
a small temple where the treaty of 1858 was signed. The imperial
government has an arsenal at Tientsm under the superintendence of
foreigners.

Trade,— The chief foreign articles of import are cotton goods, cambrics,
woollens, silk, opium, metals, needles, and matches. The trade is by no



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626 OIJLP OF FE-CHILI. [chap, x-

nmutf nnimportatity bat it is fast merging into the hands of native
mfrchantjs who avail themselves of every fiteilitj whieh is at the dispoe&l
of the foreigner, and procure their goods direct from Shanghai The
native imports are hemp, paper, teas, sugar, silk, sea-weed, beche de mer,
camphor, and ginger. The chief exports are cotton, soap, skins, felt,
wool, grain, drngn, and fruits.

The natire currency is confined to taels, copper cash, and a sort of
l«uk note current on the spot. Dollars pass at either Tientsin or Peking,
but on the road copper cash are more useful. Tientsin cash are not current
in Peking. The northern Chinese now accept small silver coins such as
ten and fivo-cent. pieces and sixpences.

•■ppiiM. — See page 624. At Tientsin there is so much alluyial matter
in the river water that it is even unfit for the purpose of washing decks,
unless it first undergo some filtering process, or be cleared with alum,
which precipitates the insoluble matter. Drinking water is supplied by
the compradors.

Ollmat«.^0ff the river's mouth it has been found both agreeable and
healthful daring the summer months, the sea breezes which then prevail
tempering the heat ; at Tientsin the summer heat is intense, rising io 90^
and at times to 105°, but it does not appear to be accompanied by those
debilitating effects, which so often attend it in tropical latitudes, and the
diseases, typhus, cholera and small pox, which are so rife, are rather
attributable to want of sanitary precaution than to climatic influence. In
winter the cold is excessive, the thermometer ranging from 25^ to 5^,
the most severe period occurring generally, early in February, when the
temperature falls sometimes to 5° below zero. The ice generally breaks
up in the early part of March, and the temperature rises to 65^ before the
end of the month.

At Tientsin, • in July 1870 the maximum temperature is from 99° to
105°, minimum 72°; barometer 29*60 to 30'02 ; light winds equally
from between North and East, and between S.E. and S.W. ; one south
gale force 10 to 11, bar. 29*30.

August. Bar. *29'98 to 30-10; therm, max. 97% min. 69°; breezes
prevailing between North and N.W., remainder East round south to
west.

September. Bar 29*98 to 30*38; therm, max. 90°, min. 65°; breezes
moderate from South to N.W., chiefly S.W. with cahns.

October. Bar. 30*00 to 30*80 ; max. 80°, min. 50°, winds half north-
easterly, half S.W. to N.W.

November. Bar. 30*40 to 30*75 ; max. 57°, min. 35° ; moderate breezes

chiefly from North and West, very little from North and East, some S.W.

■ — ■

* Navigating Lieut. C. H. Stuart Douglas, B.N., H.M.S. Avon,



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CHAP.x.] TIENTSIN TO PEKING. 527

December. Bar. 30-20 to 30-70; max. 48°, min. 18°; light breezes
from N.W., occasionally from S.W. Ice in November but river not frozen
up till 26th December ; small pox very prevalent.

January 1871. Bar. 30-56 to 30 -20; cold intense, average temp. 8° ;
gunboat housed in with stoves on the upper deck, therm. 30° to 15°;
northerly winds prevailing.

Pebruary. Bar. 30^58 to 30*29; max. 40^, min. 26P ; frequent dust
storms. On the 27th the ice began to break up.

March. Bar; 30 40 to 30-48; max. 69°, min. 30° ; dust storms nearly
every day commencing about 10 a.m., with the wind from north-easfcward,
shifting about 2 p.m. to a nearly opposite quarter. March 5th the first
steamer arrived.

April. Dust storms nearly every day, wind dying away at sunset. The
river which becomes considerably reduced in volume during the winter
now attainB its ordinary depth.

Above Tientsin, dm*ing the months of May, June, July and August,
. the heat is quite tropical, but after the 1st September the nights become
very cold.



TZBxrTsnr to pskzwo.* — From the junction of the Wen ho, 2 miles
above Tientsin, where the river is 150 yards wide, it continues pretty
uniform in breadth as high as Tungchow, which is 90 miles above Tientsin
by the river and 63 miles by road. The influence of the tide is felt from
7 to 15 miles above Tientsin according to the level of the river, and its
rate in the upper part of the river is from 2 to 3 knots. Boats of shallow
draught can ascend the whole way, but ships' boats drawing 2 feet have
experienced considerable difficulty, for the river in some places was found
only 15| inches deep, and they have had to be dragged over the shallows.
There is a narrow tracking path along the banks, by which according to
the number of trackers employed, and the strength of wind and current,
a boat may ascend to Tungchow in from 3 to 5 days. Here all boats
generally unload their passengers and cargoes, which are conveyed to the
capital by a broad paved avenue 11 miles long. A canal, the Yun-liang ho,
12 miles in length, also connects the Pei ho at Tungchow with the capital,
but it is only adapted for flat bottomed boats, foe the locks are inclined
planes of masonry up which they are hove by capstans.

The residences of the British and other foreign ambassadors are within
the city of Peking {i.e. northern capital) which is situated in a sandy plain



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