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* See Admiralty chart of the Pei ho, from Tientsin to Peking, No. 257, scale m = 2^
inches.

t There was observed no material change in the level of the river between 23rd Sept.
and 7th Nov. 1860.



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688 OULF 09 PE-CHILI. [ohaf.x.

•bool IS mik« north-wast of the Poi ho at Tungchowi in 39° 54' N., long,
lie* 27' E.

wwm-VMMU BO.*— From the entntnce of the Pei ho, a low impassable
shore fronted hj an extensire flat mns north 6 miles to the entrance of
the riTer Peh-tang. There is firm gronnd eovered with tombs a mile or
two north of Ta-ko, and also sonth from Peh-tang, but the remaining part is
a swamp* or low ground broken bj numerous ditches^ and nearer Peh-tang
an arm of the sea stretches 4 to 5 mOes inland, across which the road from
Peh-tang to Sin-ho runs WJ3.W. on a causeway, with wet ditches on both
sides of it

The river Peh-tang receives its name from the village <»i the south side,
within its entrance. Two forts stand at the entrance, one on either side^
the cavaliers of which are good marksf to seaward, there being one on the
north, and two on the south fort. On the south side is a long strip of
hard mud, which dries considerably sooner than the surrounding flats, and
on whidi are two huts. From the north point a sandy tongue stretches
to the south-east, but it is surrounded by soft slimy mud, with ridges of
sand on it.

Ttoo Bar is from 2^ to 4 miles below the forts, and is marked hy shakes
at its outer and inner parts. It is entirely of mud, as are the banks on
either hand, which form long spits on either side the entrance, drying out
4^ miles at low tides, the outer part of the northern spit being of hard
sand. There were never less than 2 feet, and never more than 13 feet on
the bar in 1860.

TXBBSd — ^It is high water, full and change, outside the Peh-tang bar at
3 h. 33 m. The greatest range of the tides was 11 feet at springs.]: In
July and August, the night tides were the higher, near the springs ; and
the day tides near the neaps. The highest tides always occurred on the
second and third day after fall or change.



iCTZOBS. — The Peh-tang, though a smaller river than the Pei ho,
has a deeper and more easy channel of approach. To pass the bar, ap-
proach its outer part from S.E. to avoid the tongue extending from the
north banks, after passing which, steer N.W. | N. for the left part oF the
south fort, till the water b^ins to deepen, when bear away gradually, till
the course is N.W.byW.^W., the edges of the banks being then steep, and
generally uncovered (particularly the south bank), or showing by a smooth
or ripple. It Is recommended to cross the bar at high water, and if the



* See Plan of the Peh-tang ho entrance, ficale m ^ 1-5 inches, on Admiraltj chart,

Chi-kau to Ning-hai, Gulfs of Pe-chili and Liau-tung, No. 2 732
t In 1860. '

% The obserraiions were taken during a light westerly breeze in June.



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<JHAPX.] THE PEH-TANG HO. — SHA-LUI-TIEN ISLAITD. 529

banks above the bar do not show, to wait a little inside before proceeding
up the channel which is 1 to 1^ cables wide between the bjgiks.*

The anchorage off the Peh-tang is open only fix)m S.E. to South. The
depth is 4^ fathoms at 8 miles off shore.

The COJLST from the Peh-tang runs about N.£. 10 miles, and then
East and E.S.E. for 40 miles. For 15 miles from the Peh-tang it is
fronted by a mud bank extending out 1^ miles ; to the eastward of which
if cannot be approached by ships. The coast 30 miles east of Hai-ye-tse,
which lies inside or north of the Sha-lui-tien banks, has not been
examined*

BAZ-TE-T8E and CBZAiTO-BO. — ^The village of Hai-ye-tse, 19 miles
from the Peh-tang, can only be reached from the south-westward, but it
cannot be approached, even by boats, except at high tide, as it dries out
2 miles from the shore at low water. West 3^ miles from Hai-ye-tse is
the village of Chiang-kau, at the entrance and on the left bank of a small
creek, the Chiang ho, in which junks unload, and from which the village
derives its name.

Both these villages are very poor, the country desolate in the extreme,
barren and uncultivated ; a desert of dry mud, sand and salt, with here
and there a stunted shrub. The inhabitants have little or no subsistence
but fish, and have to send 12 miles for drinking water. Small whirlwinds
are frequent and raise the dust in clouds. Poor as both these villages
are, they both pretend to batteries for their defence, which, however, are
unarmed and insignificant. There are three other villages to the eastward,
but they have never been approached by foreign vessels, as they lie inside
the Sha-lui-tien banks.



SBA-abVZ-TZsir zsaajtb and BABBS. — Sha-lul-ticn island, distant
120 miles N.W. by W. of Teng-chau, and 30 miles E. | S. of the outer
anchorage off the Pei ho, stands at the south-east extreme of an extensive
group or mass of sand-banks, the outer edge of which is 20 miles in length
in an E.S.E. direction, at a distance of 12 miles from the coast. These
banks, some of which dry at low water, must be approached with caution,
particularly in thick or foggy weather. The island is low, but it has a
small joss house on it, which, standing alone and upon an elevated spot,
is conspicuous. It is covered with long gi*ass and, unlike the banks which
are of dark river sand, is of bright sea sand. It is steep-to on its south
side. Light proposed.

There are passages between these banks, which small junks use, and
shoals innumerable, over which nets are spread, but there appears to be no

* No alterations hare been reported since 1S60, when these direetions weie written.
S0251. L L



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580 GULF or PE-CHILI. [ghaf.x.

optn duumel between them and the mainland ; there is a jank passage in
•ome part, ariulaUe onlj at high water.

From the island the eastern edge of the banks runs to the north-eastward.
The western edge, which runs nearly north, is skirted by irregular off-
lying patches, and has many openings, one of which, one mile in breadth
mns in 2 miles eastward. The lead gives good warning off the south-west
part of the banks, after shoaling to 8 &thoms, but not off the island which
is steep-to in 18 &thoms. Grood anchorage was found with smooth water in
lat. Z9P 2' N. off their western end, with shelter from NJE. gales, to
which the anchorage off the river is much exposed, and a vessel may
be hauled up for the position, if desirable, when running iTor the Pei ho in
an East or N J], gale.

TIBBB. — ^It is high water, full and change, off the western part of the
Sharlui-tien banks at 2h. 50m., and neaps rise 8 feet. Near the banks
the flood takes a W.N.W. direction along their edge at the rate of 4^ knots
at springs, and the ebb to the S.E. at the rate of 3 knots ; on their western
side the flood sets to the northward, but its velocity is not so great.

A strong north-west wind drives the water out of the head of the gulf
of Pe-chili, reducing the depth a little ; but a southerly wind raises the
level of the water.



lows. — ^Having entered the gulf of Pe-ehili by the Chang-shan
channel, Miau-tau group, the course and distance to the anchorage off
the Pei ho is N.W. by W. J W. 140 miles, with regular soundings of 12 and
14 fathoms, deepening to 15 fathoms for 15 miles after passing the meridian
of Sha-lui-tien island, after which the depth gradually decreases. With a
strong S.E. wind caution is necessary, lest the vessel be driven too near
the Sha-lui-tien banks.

If desirous of sighting Sha-lui-tien island, a N.W. by W. ^ W. course
must be steered, and passing it at 2 miles in 12 to 14 fathoms, a W. by N.
course for 30 miles will lead to the Pei ho anchorage. After passing the
island the water should not shoal for 22 miles, after which the depths will
decrease gradually. On the flood, which is said to run from 3 to 4 knots
at springs past the banks, the water may shoal sooner than expected,
and any sudden change of depth shows a vessel to be set to the north
by the indraught of the flood through the many channels through the
banks.

Commander Goodenough, of H.M.S. Eenard, 1860, observes, that if
Sha-lui-tien island be not sighted and no meridian altitude is obtainable,
it is extremely difficult to tell on what part of the coast the ship has
arrived, when the soundings have decreased so much as to make it prudent
to anchor. Should night or fog prevent the island from being seen, it



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CHAP.x.] . SHA-LUI-TIEN BANKS. — ^DIRECTIONS. 631

would be better to steer direct for the Pei ho anchorage ; but should the
vessel be verj near the island and the reckoning dubious, it would be
necessary to proceed with great caution, for there are 13 fathoms water
within 2 cables of some parts of the island, and not room thei*efore to haul
off on its shoaling. In such a case, or if there is anj reason to infer the
vessel may be to the northward of her course, it would be prudent to
steer S.W. (or even more southerly on the flood) for a few miles, so as to
ensure passing well south of the banks, when a W. by N. or W.N.W.
course, (which latter is parallel to the bank,) may be kept till the soundings
decrease to 8 fathoms, when the supposed position of the anchorage
should be steered for. In approaching the coast, the soundings should
always 'be reduced to low water level, by constructing a rough tide
diagram for the day, according to the moon's age, and correcting them
thereby, otherwise the depths are liable to be nearly 2 fathoms in error at
high water springs.

To cross the Pei ho bar (page 521), weigh on the flood, which sets strong
to the northward across the flats, allowing sufficient time to reach and pass
over the bar before the tide begins to fall, if it be necessary to cross at the
top of high water.

Commander Goodenough also mentions, h» the result of many passages
across the gulf of Pe-chili, that the Benard was invariably set to the
southward, at the rate of • 6 of a knot per hour. He therefore recommends
that it is always best to make a direct course from the Miau-tau group to
Sha-Iui-tien island, which, if it can be seen, can be approached witho|it
danger to a quarter of a mile at night. The observations of the I^lades
in 1840, When anchored in 15 fathoms N.W. by W. of Kao-shan, Miau-tau
group, corroborate this tendency of the tide to set a vessel to the southo
ward, for the tide is there recorded to have been setting W.byN.f? flood),
andS.E. (?ebb).

In making the passage from Ta-lien-whan to Sha-lui-tien in July, the
Actceon made an exact landfftll without being influenced by tide ; but the
Cambrian^* making the same passage in September 1860 from Ta-lien-
whan, was. set more than 20 miles to the northward, for it was ascertained
that in the course of one tide (a five knot breeze blowing at the time) she
had exceeded that amount, the flood setting north.f If this be the case,
the dkections given above for making Sha-lui-tien are of the more import-
ance. It also seems to show that the Cambrian* s course was aflected by the
flood setting into the gulf of Liau-tung, which is very strong round the
Lauti-shan promontory, though not much felt away from the land.



* Robert Oilpin, Master, R.N., H.M.S. Cambrian.
t The flood tide therefore would appear to split upon Sha-lui-tien island.

LL 2



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632 GULF OF LIAU-TUNO ; WEST COAST. [chap. x.

GULF OF LIAU-TUNG ; WEST COAST.

Aboat 10 miles north-east from Sha-lui-tien island is the south-eastern
point of the province of Chili, which defines the limits of the gulfs of
Pe-chili and Liau-tung ; from thence the coast bends to theN.E.b7N.
70 miles to the Great Wall of China, to within a few miles of which it
eontinnes to be quite low.

T^m CMOmm B^t* the entrance to which is 16 miles N.E. by E. of Sha-
lui-tten island, is some 50 miles in length, but apparently convejing a
■mailer flow of water from inland than the river Lau-mu to the northward.
There are 4^ fiithoms water at 2^ miles to the S.E., and 2 fathoms at one
mile to the east of the entrance, but the anchorage is exposed from N.E.
round South to S.W.

The passage into the river is through a break in the extensive bankci
which here skirt the coast for many miles, and across a bar on wluch
there are only 2 feet at low water. Inside the bar there is good anchorage
for a large number of small vesseb. The river has two other entrances :
one from the eastward through a creek which dries at half-tide ; the
other from the westward, which is nearly as deep as the main entrance.
Mud flats, covered at high water, extend for some miles in all directions.
A sandy beach stretches nearly 5 miles south-west of the main entrance,
and to within 10 miles of Sha-lui-tien island. No good landing can be
found in the river before arriving near the village of Ta-ching-ho, where
large quantities of grain are landed and stored^ and which stands on the
left bank at about 6 miles within the entrance. Any vessel that can cross
the bar will find sufficient water to enable her to reach th^ village.
Junks ascend the river in considerable numbers, but apparently not
farther than the village.

To the westward of the Ching ho is a mud flat, formed into an island hj
the main and western branches of that river. A few miles west of the
western entrance, a ridge of sand, which is covered at high water springs,
joins the Sha-lui-tien banks.

TidM. — It is high water, full and change, at the Ching ho entrance at
Ih. 20m., and springs rise about 6^ feet.

Vh9 &Air-Biv BO has its entrance 16 miles to the north-east of the
Ching ho. There are 4^ fathoms water at 1} miles S.S.E. of the entrance,
and 2 fathoms at IJ miles, but the anchorage is open from N.N.E.
to S.S.W. At the entrance there is a narrow bar, with 8 feet over it at
low water. Having passed the bar, 15 feet may be carried close to the
west point, and 12 to 13 feet up to a village or rather a series of store-



♦ See Plan of Ching ho, on Admiralty chart. No. 2,732.



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CHAP.x.] THE LATJ-MTJ HO. — THE PU HO.. 633

houses, about a mile up the river on the right bank, where any of the
junks discharge ; a breastwork affords defence at this spot. Some
junks ascend higher^ and there is said to be a fort to protect the upper
anchorage.

"Water. — ^A strong stream of fresh water runs from this river into the
sea, discolouring it to some distance. A vessel might anchor off the bar,
and pump in fresh water during the ebb, for though of a muddy colour, it
rapidly settles, and is wholesome for drinking. The water in the river is
exceedingly good.

Tides. — At the entrance of the Lau-mu ho it is high water, iuU and
change, at Ih. 30m., and ordinary springs rise 5 feet.

BSZir-SBAX-xiAir, about 2 miles south-west of the Lau-mu^ is a bar
creek, into which junks sometimes run for shelter in bad weather. The
adjoining country on either side of the creek is an extensive swamp,
more or less covered by the tide. To the south-west, large plains of
sand and hard mud exist for 6 or 8 miles inland, and present a desolate
appearance. The shore has a sandy beach.

The mirage on this coast is very deceptive, giving an appearance of
water to the dry sand, and distorting the objects on shore considerably,
small huts sometimes appearing, when first seen, to be large forts.

From the entrance of the Lau-mu the coast runs 10 miles N.E. by N.
to Sha-ti point, and about half a mile off it is a bank of sand, nearly dry at
low water, forming a protection for junks, which enter at high tide
through one of the breaks in it, and unload at low water.

Wherever the breaks in the sand exist, a sort of river seems to form, in
which there may be 2 feet at low water; this sometimeii extends inland
for several miles, and occasionally joins the sea by a circuitous route some
miles distant ; the intermediate space of soft mud, covered with a thin
layer of sand, dries at half tides.

At Sha-ti point the formation of the coast changes. This point is the
southern extremity of a ridge of sand hills 30 or 40 feet high, extending
to the N.N.E. in a straight line for 17 miles, as far as the Pu ho.

The pn BO, which enters the sea through the sand hills, though shallow
and of no great length is made use of at high water by junks, which
discharge their cai'goes near a dilapidated fort mounting six or seven guns,
besides having a parapet for gingals, on the north bank, about a mile
within the entrance. The bar is nearly dry at low water. The rise and
fall is about 6 feet.

The anchorage off this river is open from N.N.E. to S.S.W. The depth
of 4^ fathoms cannot be carried nearer the river than 5 miles East of the
entrance, and 2 fathoms at one mile S.E.



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634 .GULP OP UAU-TUNG; west coast. [chap.x.

The Pa ho ranning from the westward, drains a flat of rather a
•wamp7 nature, and a eoathem hranch of it originates in rather an
•xtensiye marsh or swamp behind the long ridge of sandhills to the
southward*



JkMU MO antf TAI OMO MO.— From the river Pu, the ridge of
Hand hills, 30 feet high, continues N.E. 8 miles, and one mile beyond their
termination is the entrance of the river Tang, which is very shallow, and
though a few junks pass a short distance up it at high water, the greater
number discharge their cargo just within the entrance, whence it is
carried into the interior in carts. The depth is 1^ feet over the bar,
and the rise and fall 6 feet. The beach is composed of sand and mnd«

The anchorage off the Yang is open from N.E. hj E. to S.W. The
water is shoal, the depth being 4^ fathoms at about 4 miles and 2 fathoms
at about 1 \ miles from the river's mouth.

The land adjoining the sea to the southward of the Yang is still
unfertile, and apparently at high tides partially covered. The line of sand-
hills along the beach is at the distance of 300 yards from the water's
edge, and extends inwards in places about a mile. Near the Yang is a
mall earthen battery for four guns, with a musketry parapet, but without
any huts or accommodation for troops.

The river Tai-cho enters the sea one mile eastwai'd of the Yang and
about 1} miles south-west of Liu-sia-kwang. The Tai-cha is described as
short, rising in the low hills at the back of the village of Liu-sia-kwang,
and running first in a westerly direction, then south. It does not cross the
great road to Peking. The bar at the river entrance has only 1^ feet on
it at low water.* Between the bar and Liu-sia-kwang the soundings are
shoal.

Tl4es. — It is high water, full and change, at the entrance of the rivers
Tai-cho and Yang at Oh. 15m. ; and the rise is about 6 feet.

iiZV-BZA-M'WAve. — The anchorage off Liu-sia-kwang is open from
N.E. by E. to S.W. The depth is 4^ fathoms at 2^ miles, and 2 fathoms
«t a quarter of a mile from the sandy beach.

The passage into the beach near Liu-sia-kwang, is between two sand
banks, the one running out from Rocky point, the other from the mouth
of the river Tai-cho. The depth in the passage is 2 fathoms at three-
quarters of a mile, and 4^ fathoms at 2J miles from the shore ; the beach
is steep, and the landing good. The rise and fall of tide is 6 feet.

BnppUes.— The land about Liu-sia-kwang is cultivated from the water's
edge to the foot of the mountains, which are 4 to 5 miles distant. Horses
and bullocks are abundant. There are two wells of good water at the
village near the beach.



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OHAP.x.] SHALLOW BAY. — ^NING-HAI. . 535

8MA&&oiRr BAT. — ^From Liu-sia-kwang the coast runs E.S.E. 2 miles
to Rocky point, between which and Creek point, 6 miles to the north-east,
is Shallow bay, about a mile deep, clear of rocks, and the shore sufficiently
steep to allow large boats to land easily. The depth is 2 feithoms at half
a mile, and 4^ fathoms at 2 miles off shore. A reef of rocks, which
generally breaks, encircles Rocky point at half a mile distant.

CSSBK PonrT, called by the Chinese Tsing-^ng tau, or Blue peak
island, is a rocky head on a sandy beach, with a joss house on its summit*
There are rocks off it. The passage into the creek on its west side, is
shoal, serpentine, and nearly dry at low water ; small junks go in at high
tide. The rise and fall is 6 feet.

The sandy bay to the eastward of Creek point and between it and
Shoal point off Ning-hai, a distance of 8 miles, appears clear of rocks ;
the beach is steep, and the o-fathoms line of soundings is about 2 miles
off shore. A cultivated plain extends from the mountains (4 to 5 miles
distant) almost to the water's edge ; horses and cattle abound, and a large
portion of the country is good pasture land.

vxxasAi is a walled city 2 miles from the sea, along the west side
of the Great Wall. The anchorage off it, near the extremity of the Wall,
is open from N.E. (round southerly) to West. With the pagoda bearing
N. by W. the depth is 4J fathoms at 1^ miles, and 2 fathoms at a quarter
of a mile, from the shingle beach ; inside the latter depth the bottom is
rocky and unsafe. A shoal with only 3 feet on it and steep-to, extends
about a mile off Shoal point. The land in the vicinity of the city is
pasture and cultivated, and cattle and com are abundant.

From Ning-hai nms (along the plain at the foot of the mountains) the
great high road to Peking, along which a great traffic exists. From
accounts gathered from the country people the distance is said to be 680
li,* or 223 miles English, though according to the longitude of Peking as
generally received (116° 32' E,), the distance would not appear to be
more than 150 miles. The road is described as being good, and fit for
the passage of the country carts. As a rule^it passes along the foot of the
mountain ranges, though at times it runs over some hiUs of no great
elevation. It does not lead through any woods or forests, though groves
of trees exist in its vicinity in certain localities. The road is crossed
at intervals by rivers, but there are none of any size ; they are not
bridged over, but are forded, except after heavy rains, when ihev are
crossed by means of ferry-boats.

TZBS8. — ^It is high water, full and change, at the [anchorage off Ning-
hai at 12h., and the rise is about 6 feet.

* A Chinese li is about one-third of a geographic mUe.



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680 .GULP OP LIAU-TTJNG; WEST COAST. [chap.x.



iV W^AUb mi CMXMJk abuts on the sea on the western shore of
the gulf of LiM-tong, in lat. 39° 58' N^ long. 119° 51' E. It originates
at tha edge of the beaeh, to which it descends in broad t^rsces and
massive flights of steps, now much mined, and having a masonry pier
jutling out into the sea. The Wall rises generallj from 20 to 30 feet, in
sections similar to the walls of Chinese cities, and with a thickness o£ 15
to 25 feet. After running round and enclosing a portion of ground dose
to the sea side, thus converting it into a fort, it runs obliquelj inward to
the west, and at a disUuice of about 1^ miles from the beach embraces the
citj of Ning-hai ; then striking over the highly cultivated plains at the
foot of the mountains, it runs up one of the ridges, and apparently to a
great extent along the higher portion of the chain, towers at reg^uJar
intervals marking its course, aflter it has itself ceased to be visible.
These mountains, about 2,000 feet high, approach to within about 4^ miles
of the beach, and though to a certain extent covered with vegetation they
are devoid of all cultivation ; not so, however, the plain at their foot,
which rises gradually from the sea shore to a height of about 450 feet up
the sides of the hills.

This part of the country appears to enjoy considerable prosperity, and
is in a high state of cultivation ; wheat, millet, and maize are mainly
grown, and it is dotted over with villages and trees.
, North of the great Wall the western coast of the gulf is mountainous.
The ranges run in a E.N.E. direction far beyond the head of the gulf, and
nearly parallel to those on the eastern shore, from which they are distant
about 80 miles, and either can be seen in clear weather from the opposite
side of the gulf. Although appearing at a distance as continuous ranges,
many of them are distinct groups separated by extensive plains, whilst
their marked and peculiar forms render them excellent, as they would
soon become familiar, and useful landmarks, when steering an o^hore
oourse, which would generally be the case when bound to Newchwang.

From the Great Wall, the coast trends E.N.E. 6 miles to Temple bead,
and after bending north for 3 miles round the head, it continues in the
former direction 26 miles to Sand point, round which it turns abruptly to