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the N.N.E. All this coast is low, along the edge of an undulating plain,
10 miles in breadth from the foot of the mountains, and broken by low
headlands on the sea shore off which are reefs.



», 120 feet high, is bordered to the distance of 2 or 3
cables by reefs of small boulders. On its east and south sides are cliffs,
and on its summit a temple. Needle rock, 40 feet high, lies one mile
W.S.W. of it, with rocky ground between and skirting the head as far as
the point 2 miles west of the head, where there is a small shrine on a



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CHAP. X.] THE GREAT WALL. — CRXJIZEIt SHALLOWS, 537

sand liill. Uneven ground of 2 to 3 fathoms stretches off also one mile
S.S.E. of the head, and as far as the 5 fathoms line- The open bay
north-east of the head is shallow and rocky, and its shores are of sand
drift, as is the coast between all the small headlands for 9 miles to the
eastward.

These small headlands, of which there are three, lie from 5 to & miles
north-eastward of Temple head. Off the first of them a reef extends If
miles where there are 10 feet on the edge, deepening quickly to 3 fathoms,,
and only 4 feet at one mile off shore. Off the second headland, the ground
is even outside the 4 fathoms line, but not near the shore ; at the third
point, under the east end of its cliffs, a small joss house stands on a lower
sand hill. Some rocks lie under the cliffs. All these rocks along the cOast
appear to be granite boulders.

East 1^ miles of the joss house, is the opening into a lagoon, which
small junks enter, but which is nearly dry at low water. The entrance
lies S.E.byE. of a small hill, 50 feet high, to the north-east of the joss
house.

Off the ruined earth tower 5 miles fkrther east, sand-banks skirt the
shore at a mile, and through their higher ridge are openings where a boat
may pass through the surf; the beach is steep at high water. There are
several small streams of water on this part of the coast, but not accessible
on account of these banks.

Several towers are seen inland ; they are on the great high road, which
it is supposed they are intended to indicate when the country is covered
with snow. Mount Fisher, a high double peak of 1,800 feet elevation, is
12 miles inshore, and at the south-eastern extremity of the high ranges,
which stretch to the westward. Those along which the Great Wall
runs recede directly to the north from the coast, and join the ab6ve.
A very sharp peak of the same height as Mount Fisher rises 4 milea
northward of that mountain.

BAJBfD POZWT, elevated 10 feet above the sea, is the south-eastern
corner of the sandy plain. It is very low. and there is a small shrine at
its extremity. Westward of it 5^ miles,* is a large conspicuous white
building, a little inshore amongst trees, and off the point where it stands^
is a large reef, the outer part of which is 6 cables from the shore, with
only 6 feet water inside the reef. One and a half miles nearer Sand point
is a small point with a rock close off it. ^

CKUTxaoBL BTLAXSmOTKrs are an extensive series of banks of coarse
sand stretching nearly 8 miles southward of Sand point. The main body
of them lies from South 3 miles, to S.W.byS. 6 miles from the point
with patches of only 4 and 6 feet on the central parts of these most



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688 OJTLF OP UAr-TUNG; WEST COAST. [ohaf.x.

dameroqi shoals. Thej are formed of a series of ridges, one of which
carries onlj 8 feet for seyeral miles. Even in moderately fine weather,
there will be osaallj seen a long line of breakers extending from the
shore, canaed by the tides which are very strong across the shallows, or
by the swell.

Sooth of the main bank is a swatch way, nearly 1^ miles wide, of 6
to 10 fathoms water. Outside this and parallel to the shore, are some
narrow strips of sand, but their eastern and western limits are not well
defined. Their shoalest parts are 4^ fathoms at 9 miles S.W. by S., and
also South 8 miles, firom Sand point ; and between them is a patch of only
2^ fathoms.

There are only distant marks to clear these shallows, but when the
weather is clear the vessel's position may be ascertained on passing by
cross bearings of the peaks. The following bearings will lead dear, but
very dose to the shoal : — ^the southern shoulder of the Great Wall rai^e,
700 feet high, bearing West, leads to the southward; the summit of
Tan*hwa island (the most eastern land seen to the northward) N.E.byN.
leads to the south-east ; Double hill, 250 feet, bearing North, or Boulder
hill, N. by W. leads to the eastward ; and the conspicuous building
North, or Mount Fisher N. W. ^ W. leads clear to the westward ;
none of these marks can be mistaken. But in hazy weather there
is still a good guide in the lead, if it be remembered that sand on
the arming is a sure indication of the proximity of the banks, which
are very steep-to, and the deaner the sand the nearer the banks. It is
therefore recommended ^that strangers (although junks use the swatch)
should pass entirely outside, and not nearer in than in 9 or 13 fathoms,
mud.

There is a passage inside the banks at 2 or 3 cables from Sand point
having 4^ feet at low water, but in using it beware of a bank which has
only 1 foot, lying 4 cables E.S.E. of the point, and which must be passed
inside of.

Anohorare may be obtained all along the coast, with shelter firom
West to N.E. or E.N.E. by avoiding the points and standing in to a
convenient depth, though as a general rule, not beyond the 5 fathoms
line. By standing for the conspicuous building on a North coarse, a vessel
may be anchored near the shore in 17 to 18 feet, S.W. of Sand point,
at a mile from the reefs off the building, sheltered from the eastward
by the Shallows.

Visas.— At 3 miles N.E. by E. of Sand point it is high water, full
and change, at 4h. 50m. ; springs rise 7 feet, neaps 4^ feet. The flood sets
to the northward along the coast, the ebb to the south-eastward ; the tide
turns earlier near the shore than outside.



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CHJLF.x.] CBTJIZEE SHALLOWS TO WABKEN POINT. 539

Tbe OOA8T for 6 miles north-eastward of Sand point, to St. TJbes
pointy is very low and sandy, particularly under the three hills here seen
upon the low shore which is fronted by a large flat partially covered by
the tide, the resort of immense flocks of wild geese. These isolated
hills are excellent marks to denote the vicinity of Sand point, which is
seldom seen from the deck beyond 7 miles. They first make like islands
appearing far off shore. Of these, Boulder hill, 300 feet high, is steep,
and on its summit, is a remarkable pile of granite boulders having the
appearance of a ruined tower. S.byE., one mile from it is a smooth
round hill, Quarry hill, 180 feet high, so called from a large granite
quarry on its southern side. Double hill, 3 miles northward of Boulder
hill, is about 250 feet high, and as its name denotes has two summits,
on the northern of which is a cluster of temples ; a village lies under-
neath it.

A triangular spit, steep-to, fronts this sandy shore, and at its outer
point, E.S.E., of Boulder hill, there is only 1 fathom at 1^ mQes from the
beach. A little south of this, a spit of 16 feet continues 1;^ miles
farther out on a S.E. | E. bearing of the same hill, and not improbably
joins the Cruizer shallows.

A small tidal river from the north-west flows north of Quarry hill
to the sea with branches passing to the south-east on each side of the
hill, but the main stream bends north-eastward along the coast line for 3
miles, disemboguing at two places south-east of Double hill. It is only
50 feet broad at low water, and a foot or two deep. Fresh water could
not be reached, for at high water the stream is salt, and at low tide, both
entrances are closed to boats.

'WAMMXM ponrr is 12^ miles N.E. | E. from ^find point, and 2
miles farther on is Strong island. These are the only two prominences
on the coast, the character of which is still rather low. The bay north
of Double hill is shoal, there being only 2 fathoms at a mile from the
beach. Along its northern shore for 6 miles up to Warren point there
are flat undulating brown hilla 70 to 100 feet in height, and several
low cUff points with rocks off them alternating with small valleys,
with sandy beaches fronting these. * Even soundings are carried along the
coast.

There is a hill 170 feet high over Warren point, the north-eastern part
of which is a bluff with a«ignal staff on it. The south-eastern point is
low, where are some rocks, and a practicable landing place at low water.
The village of Tiau-yu-tai is on the inner side, and there are many small
villages scattered about. It is very shoal all round the point, and the
ground is foul and rocky for 1^ miles off. There are two patches of 9
and 10 feet a mile off shore, on S.E. bearings of the hill and north point



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540 GULP OP LIAU-TUNG; west coast. [chap.x.

respectivelj, and 6 cables S.E. of the latter shoal a 12-feet patch, with
irregular souDclings of 2 to 4 fathoms about them all. Warren point should
not therefore be approached within the 5 fathoms line, but if desiring io
stand in shore towards the north of it, Mount Clarence in line with the
north point of Strong Island, about N.by W., will lead clear and to the
eastward of this foul ground. Eastward of Strong island the bottom is
again found verj eyen.

•nurar^ mbAVB* 200 feet high, when first seen resembles Turn-
about island on the eastern coast of China. It is covered with scrub, is
steep towards the sea, and ver j rockj all round. There is a temple on
its east side under the summit, the point of ihe little bay a cable south
of the temple being in lat. 40"^ 24' 22'' IS., and 49" 30"' E. of the abutment
of the Great Wall on the sea. This island is narrow and 8 cables long,
and 3 to 6 cables N.E. of its north point is a reef, the outer rod: of which
does not cover, and two inner ones show only at low water.

VA-Xir-BO«— The large deep bay to the northward of Warren point
dries oat as far as Strong island, with the exception of the channel of the
Ta-ku ho^ which winds through the mud fiats from the south-west, and
which is only accessible at low water from the south side of the iskmd by
a ehannelj midway between Warren point and Strong island, having 7
to 9 feet at low water; to enter which, when the south point of the island
bears E. by N., steer W. by S. and close the point on the north of Warren
hfll to a cable. The water then deep^is to 12 feet^ but decreases to 9 feet
off the point, after passing which, and a sand spit which marks the western
side of the passage, the course up stream is N.W. one mile, to where the
junks anchor. Yejy small junks can get up to the south-west head of
the bay some distance farther.

vifte OOA8V fi-om Strong island is quite low, and falls back, but con-
tinues its general north-east direction 5 miles to a hilly projection, called
JSouth Ning-yuen point, 250 feet high ; the mud dries a mile off the
intervening coast, the approach to which. has not been examined within a
line joining Strong and Saddle islands. At 10 miles farther norths-east^
is North Ning-yuen point. The 6 miles of coast south-west of tZiis point
is marshy, and the shore is not approachable on account of the Ning-yuen
fiatsy which fill up the whole space between these points. The town of
Ning-yuen is represented t6 be in this vicinity, .but neither town nor river
^ere seen from the n^ghbouring heights, nor does there appear to be any
trade or communication by water.
—. r— r-v^ ^ :

* The Chinese name of Strong island appears to be Keuh-hva tan, which name
transposed has been erroneously given to the groap called Tan-hwa on the chart, -which
latter should he Peih-kia-shan.



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OHAP.x.] THE MOUNTAINS. — ^TAU-HWA ISLAND. 541

There are seyeral remarkable mountains and hills on the coast^ two of
which, Sptir and Table mountains^ are 20 miles inland. Spur mountain,
about 2,000 feet in height, has a long shoulder to the east, at the end of
which is the spur. Table mountain, 1,800 or 2,000 feet high, is, as its
name denotes, a flat topped mountain with precipitous sides all round.
The 900 feet hill inland of Sand point has irregular slopes and a
lower range in front. The 800 feet hill has two summits divided by a
deep cleft, and a long ridge toward the coast. The 400 feet range has
four small conical summits of about equal height. Mount Clarence is a flne
peak 1,390 feet in height, with a ridge of steep hills towards South Ning-
jaien point. The highest on the ridge is a double peak, 800 feet high
with a peculiar mark down the side of the western one ; lower down is a
very sharp peak, 500 feet high, with a square shoulder on its south side ;
and still lower is a small peak surmounted with a tower : deep valleys lie
between all these hills. The high ranges north of Mount Clarence
are confused and difficult to identify, but the Coronet, over North Ning-
yuen point, is a steep, symmetrical mountain of 1,090 feet elevation,
easy of recognition, having on its summit a tower between two shoulders.

SABOabB zs&Am.— A group of one large island, named Tau-hwa,
az^d three smaller, lie off the Ning-yuen flats. The outer and southern
is a small saddle-shaped island 120 feet high, steep on all sides except that
a number of rocks project 3 cables from its southern point towards the
coast. There is a passage with suspiciously uneven soundings of 3f to 6
fathoms, sand, between it and the small island of the same height lying
6 cables S.W. of Tau-hwa. This other small island has steep sides, and
there is a 4 fathoms channel between it and Tau-hwa.

TAV-BWA zs&AiTB, or Peih-kia-shan, 3 miles in extent north-east and
south-west, stands out prominently on this part of the coast, from which its
outer part is distant 6 miles, but it looks much farther, as the lowness of
the coast between the Ning-yuen points gives falsely the appearance of a
deep bay. A f alley divides the island, making it appear when first seen
as two islands, the southern hills rising to 600 feet, and the highest of the
northern over its east point, to 720 feet. Its southern face is bold, in
some places precipitous, and may be passed closely, except at a- spot 7
cables S.S.E. of a sandy beach, where a cast of 4 fathoms was obtained ;
its eastern side may not be approached within 1 J miles, where a crescent
shaped ledge of rocks, on which some patches just dry at low water lies
along the shore, its outer part 9 cables off. The east point of the island
kept westward of S.W., or Saddle island kept open of it, clears in 6
fathoms, its outer part being very steep There are 4 to 6 fathoms inside
the reef.



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542 QJTLF OP LIAU-TTTNG; west coast. [chap.x.

On the inner tide of Tan-hwa are some low projecting heads, its
northern point, each an one, being onlj joined by a small neck of sand.
N.E. of this point is Table island, 80 feet high, the channel between, of
half a mile width, having onlj 7 to 9 feet water. Table iBland is flat,
with cliffs on all sides. Off its north end is a rock, 60 feet higb, wbich
from the distance resembles a saiL These mast not be approached within
1^ miles ; the western shore of Tan-hwa cannot be approached at all, as it
dries oat a long waj at low water.

T^m MZmO'TVmm v&JLTS wonld connect Tan-hwa with the main at
low water, bat for a channel 4 cables wide carrying from 4 to 6 feet,
nmning close round the point of the flats which project to within a
mile of the island. The flats are of sand and mud generally, abqat 1 to 3
feet above the level of low water springs. Some patches of rock stand on
the flats, of which the Cat and the Sattens on their southern part are the
largest ; the former is a black rock always above water, the latter a small
batch of rocks which cover, one mile South of the Cat

AVCrsosAOB. — Although not examined, shelter frx>m N.E. winds
would probably be obtained west or north-west of Saddle, south of the
flats, in 5 to 3 fathoms ; or even in the bay on the south side of Tau-hwa,
off the valley. On approaching the latter it would be well to avoid the
4 fathoms cast, sand, which was obtained 7 cables S.S.E. of the centre of
the beach. Anchorage with shelter from S.W. may abo be obtained in
4 to 5 fathoms to the north-east of this group.

AmaKTTACW wmmr lies nearly 4^ miles N.E. ^ E. of the eastern
point of Tau-hwa, and 3^ miles East of Sail rock. It is only one cable in
extent, and nearly level with the water, with one or two rocks showing.
Rising out of 6 fathoms, the lead gives no warning. To pass eastward of
this dangerous reef, keep Saddle island its own breadth open of Tau-hwa
east point, S.W.jW.

A sunken rock, on which are 3 feet at low water and which sometimes
breaks, lies 1| miles N. by E. f E. of the Armytage. ia calm weather
there are tide ripples about these rocks, from which it may be inferred
the ground is rocky or uneven. The bottom is mud to the north-east^
but sand and shells near the sunken rock, off which soundings of 2 fathoms
extend a cable.

To pass inside the rocks (if from the southward), with the mark on
for passing eastward of the reef, as soon as Mount Coronet is open north
of Sail rock haul in about N.N.E., not quite shutting Saddle in till
mount Clarence is in line with Sail rock, W.N.W. ; then steer North,
This course is given because, although there appears to be a good channel,
If miles broad, inside the Armytage, it has not been sounded, except
where thus indicated.



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CHAP. X. I TATJ-WHA ISLAND TO HEAD OF GULF. 543

AVOMOXAOB with shelter from the S.W. may be obtained in 3 to 5
fathoms inside these rocks ; also anywhere along the coast, to the
northward in 3 to 6 fsithoms, as it is comparatively bold and clear of
danger.

suiTTBR POZWT is 8 miles to the northward of Tau-hwa. The
3 miles of coast between it and North Ning-yuen point has three low
hills on it, and off the northern is a large reef. Immediately over
Hunter point is a ragged, steep range 820 feet high, the summit of which
is broken by a ravine, with a partially ruined tower on the outer part-
North of this is a sandy bay fronting a plain, from which the coast runs
eastward along a line of steep hills with some prominent peaks, (there
is a low tower on the western one,) and terminates, 16 miles N.E. f N. of
Tau-hwa peak, in the small bluff of Hulutau, at the end of a narrow hilly
promontory 2 miles in length. A few rocks border the co&st which may be
approached to half a mile in 3 or 4 fathoms, and except near the bluff,
the depth of 5 fathoms is at the distance of 3 to 4 miles.

BjrjBjrTAxr pkokoxttokt, 10 miles E.N.E. of Hunter point, and 1^
miles in length, is only connected with the line of steep hills by a short
narrow neck. Its south-east extreme is a round headland or bluff, close
off which is a high pinnacle rock. The bluff has 5 fathoms close to, which
decreases again to 4^ fathoms at a mile, which is about the distance a
vessel should pass it, for oflf the east face of the promontory, at half a mile
East of the bluff, is a small rock, 2 feet above high water, and a little north
of the rock, a sandy spit, on the outer part of which is a sand patch. A
reef also lies -off the north side of the promontory.

xxiro-CBir bat, formed between the north side of Hulutau promon*
tory and a point of land 6^ miles to the N.N.E., is divided into two
parts by a low hilly point, on which is a conspicuous tower. The south-
western part is extremely shallow, the mud drying out far from the Tower
point to the promontory, with only 2 fathoms at the distance of 1^ to 2
miles from low water line. The northern part of the bay is scarcely
less so, there being only one fathom at low water at a mile off shore, and
2 fathoms at 2 miles.

In the northern part of the bay, between two small heads, is the en-
trance to a small river, the Lau ho, 3 or 4 feet above low water level.
Between two small hills on the eastern side of its entrance is the thriving
little tovm of Ta-kia-tsung, at the back of which, on a low flat hill, is the
temple Yuen-shin miau. A rock lies one mile south-west of the town^
from which rocky ground extends one mile south-east. This is the only
part of the coast to which large junks trade. It is the sea-port of
King-chu fu, the capital of the province, about 20 miles' distance to the
northward, and situated on the Siau-ling ho, described on next page.



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641 GULP OF LIAU-TUNG; west CX)iJST. [CHAP.X.

•bout 10 miles from the north-west corner of the gulf into which that
rirer fiUlfl. King-chn fa stands on the great highway road from New-
chwang to Peking ; it has a considerable trade in general goods.

No yesscl of 18 feet draught can enter King-cha bay. The water
•hoals gradoally, and jnnks find good shelter from all winds except Sonih
and 8.E. at a mile or two off the town.

svmAVA a(&AW» lies off the north-eastern point of King-chn bay,
a mile from the shore, bot connected with it by a ridge of sand and
shingle dry at low water. It is very narrow, and with its rocks is a ndle
in lengthy S. by £• and N. by W. There are four regular, round hills
on it, the highest 253 feet, and the stratification is laid bare along
their western face by the occnrrence of land slips. A half-tide rocJ^ and
a sunken rock of 6 feet water, lie respectively one mile East and half
a mile S.E. of the island. They are each at the extremity of foul ground,
on which several rocks uncover*

MBAB or •v&v* — Gulf hill, 551 feet high, conspicuous, and 6 miles
N.NJB. of Strata island, markfl the head of the gulf. At 6 miles farther
on the shore turns abruptly towards the east, and becomes so low that its
high water line is not visible from a ship's deck. The hill ranges are seen
oontinuing in the N.N.E. for 30 miles, and eastward of them is a Tast
plain, which bounds the head of the gulf. The mud dries 4 to 6 miles
from the coast, and on it are long lines of weirs as far eastward as the
Ta-Ung ho. There are only 2 fathoms at 2 miles from low water mark,
and 3 fathoms at 4 miles' distance.

siaa-iiBff !!•• — This small river enters the gulf round some earth cli&,
5 miles N.N.E. of Gulf hill, its narrow bed taking a southerly course
through the mud flats, the entrance of the channel being 4 miles east of
the hill. . It is only navigable by boats, even small junks having to lie off
its mouth to discharge. Bang-chu fu stands on this stream at 10 miles
from its mouth.

Obserration Roek, lying S.S.E. \ £. one mile from Gulf hill, was found
by observation to be in lat. 40° 53' 45" N., long. 121° 9' E., or 2' 4-53" E.
of Strong island (measured by three chronometers and two meridian
distances).

TXBB8. — It is high water, full and change, near Observation rock at
5h. 30 m. ; springs rise 10 feet, neaps 7^ feet. The tides appear to run
regularly up and down the west coast of the gulf, turning at high and
low water. They are very weak at neaps ; at springs they are strong
off the headlands.

The TA-Azvo HO, the entrance of which, 22 miles east of Strata
island, was only partially examined, is apparently an insignificant stream
without sign of traffic. There are 6 feet at low water on its bar (in
November), over which the river flows in a direction nearly East



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CHAP. X.] KAE-CHTT BANKS. — ^LIAIJ-TI-SHAN PROMONTORY. 545



l-CBV BAincs. — ^From the bar of the Ta-ling ho sand-banks extend
S.W. 8 miles, from which point towards the Liau ho, in an easterly direc-
tion for 17 miles, are the tails of a mass of dangerous shoals known as the
E[ae-chu banks. They are very irregular ; some are dry, some covered,
and there are passages of 3 and 4 fathoms amongst them.

fi.M. Ships Cruizer, Dove, and Slaney^ carried on a triangulation for 33
miles along the head of the gulf in November 1860, to long. 121° 54' E.,
about 12 miles from the Liau ho bar, and H.M.S. Actceon sounded to 3
miles west of the bar, so that there is a gap of 7 miles in the delineation
of the banks, at their most important (in regard to vessels making the
Liau ho) and dangerous part ; near also where the Si/lph grounded on their
southernmost part, according to the following account : — .

The Sylph, opium trader, in November 1832, was obliged to. anchor
here at a great distance from the land, there being only 2\ fathoms water
about 6 miles off, so flat is this part of the gulf. Not being able to com-
municate with the shore, which was fronted with ice, and having no
shelter from strong north winds, the vessel proceeded from hence towards



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