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a reported anchorage off King-chu. The Sylph, after weighing off the
eastern coast of B[ae-chu fti, deepened the water gradually to 4, 5, and 6
fothoms, then grounded on a sand-bank in lat. 40° 34' N., long. 121° 43 E.,
about 24 miles from the land, and narrowly escaped being wrecked,
the vessel striking hard for a considerable time, until the wind changed
from the north-eastward to the southward, which raised the water in the
gulf, and floated her clear of the shoal.*



GULF OF LIAU-TUNG ; EAST COAST.

UAV-Ti-BBAirf PKoncoxTTOK'T. — From the south-west extreme of
this promontory {see page 499), a hilly and bold coast takes a northerly
direction for 14 miles, and on it are two bays, the southern of which.
Pigeon bay, has anchorage in 4 fathoms, protected from all except westerly
winds. Louisa bay, a similar anchorage 5 miles to the northward, is a
shallow inlet, with a small island within the entrance, outside of which
anchorage may be obtained in 6 fathoms, also well protected except from
westerly winds.

RBBF Z8]bja.xrB, 400 feet in height, lying 4 miles off Louisa bay, has
a reef extending 3 cables from its south extreme, also a rock which

* The floating of the Sylph was, there can be little doubt, due to the rise of the tide,
which is 10 feet at springs, unless, which is not stated, she went on shore at high water,
and could not float till the southerly winds brought a very high tide.

t Or Lau-tieh-shan, Old Iron hill. See Admiralty Chart of the gulfs of Pe chili and
Liau-tung, No. 1,256 ; scale, m = J of an inch.

30251. M M



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646 GULP OP IiIAU-TTJNG; bast coast. [chap.x.

aocoverd 4 feet at low water, half a mile W. by N- from its west point.
The tide here runs strong, with eddies off the rock.

IBOV is&A«l»« the native name of which is Si-han-shan or Sea hat,
is 7o() fo4't in height with a somewhat flat summit and sorronnded by iron-
bound clitf:*. It lies 6 miles off the north-western part of the promontory
forming the south side of Society bay, and although it has not been neared
within 1| miles on either side its appearance indicates a bold approach.

•OOZBTT BAT is a deep indentation of the coast line on the north side
of the Linu-ti-shan promontory. It is 26 miles across at entrance and 20
milcH diH^p, its head branching into two arms, separated by a hilly pro-
montory, the ftouthom of which arms, Kinchau bay, is very shallow and
approacbea within 1^ miles of Ta-lien-whan. The northern arm is Port
Adams. Convenient anchorage may be found anywhere, and shelter under
the grou^is of islands in the bay.*

The south shore of the bay from cape Collinson to Wedge head, a distance
of 15 milos, is an indented coast under an irregular mountain tract.
Wedge bead, its most prominent point, lies northward of a detached
range, the coast along which is bold with the exception of a patch of
rocks which uncovers at a quarter ebb, 7 cables off a point 4 miles south-
west of the head.

Wedge head, the cliffs of which are along its northern face, should be
given a good berth, as the coast on both its sides is skirted by reefe, and
the bays on either side should be entirely avoided. In the western bay
a rock awash lies 4 cables off the western part of the head ; in the eastern,
a large reef, of which several patches uncover and which is very steep-to,
stretches east one mile from the head.

From Wedge head the coast trends easterly to the head of Kinchau bay,
and appears clear of danger as near as it may be approached. Warren
cliff, high and of a dark colour, and the smooth bare cliff a mile east of it,
are conspicuous objects.

Klnobau Bay. — ^The small walled town of Einchauf stands on the plain
at the head of the bay, under Mount Sampson, where the mud dries out a
mile, the shore being only approachable near high water. On the north
point of the bay, are two prominent peaks, the eastern of which, Osbom
peak, 720 feelfhigh, on the western part of a range of hills, has a stony
summit ; the other. Key peak, 590 feet high, is a steep isolated peak at
the north point of Kinchau bay, overlooking the sea, and half a mile from
its base is Fishbourne island, 290 feet high, a smooth, round hill with
cliffs to seaward and a small rocky head on the north-west. Close to the

* -See Admiralty Plan of port Adams, Ko. 2,833 ; scale, to= 1 inch,
f " Gold District City." There is said to be gold in the vicinity. The principal
gold-bearing district is ^ast of the Py-li river, in long. 122° 42' E,



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CHAP. X.] IRON ISLAND. — SOCIETY BAY. 547

north-weBt of Fishboume island is the best approach to port Adams
from the south ; and insicfe of it there is & passage of 13 to 18 feet, 2
cables eastward of the islet off its south-east point. Kinchau bay is very
shallow and the bottom of soft mud, with the exception of a 13-feet bank
of fine sand one mile wide, and extending 4 miles in a southerly direction
from Fishboume island off its north point, and on which is a rocky patch
of 10 feet, S. by W. J W. 2 miles from the western point of that island.
This bank is really a continuation of the Long bank from Port Adams.

SuUvan Bay. — ^North of Key peak is a shallow bay divided into two
parts by Drury island, which is formed of a ridge of low hiljs. Both parts
are very shallow, the northern, Sulivan bay, being the better of the two.
Entry island, having two summits and bold cliffs towards the sea, lies off
a hilly promontory which is the southern point of entrance to Port Adams.

ncorclitooii and Kline Islands. — Murchison island, 210 feet high, in
the south-west part of Society bay, 1 1 miles N.N.E. of cape Collinson,
and Milne island, 180 feet high, 3 miles E.N.E. of Murchison, are the
two largest of a group of islands and rocks, through which vessels are
not reconmiended to pass. In appearance they are long, low, and undu-
lating. The western outlying danger is an islet with a reef extending from
it to the south, lying half a mile off the north-west side of Murchison ;
the eastern outlying danger is a rock 2 cables off the east point of Milne.

In the interior of the group, there is also an islet off the east end of
Murchison, some rocks with reefs off them west of Milne, and a patch of
9 feet midway betv/een the islands. All dangers, except the two outer,
appear to lie within the 5 fathoms line, which is generally steep-to. There
is also a bank of fine sand carrying about 4 fathoms, extending N.N.E.
from Murchison, the shallowest part of which, 22 feet, is 5 miles from
the island in that direction. The bank decreases from one to half a mile
in breadth and its edges are steep-to especially on the west. The best
anchorage is on the south side of Murchison.

RIpon and Mveremt Islands. — From 9 to 7 fathoms may be carried
for 11 J miles N.E. by E. ^ E. of Milne island up to the west head of Ripon
island. Ripon and also Everest island, lying eastward of it, are in appeai:-
ance long, low, and undulating, the hills being from 100 to 250 feet
high. There are several small islets and reefs about them, chiefly to the
north-east, but the western parts of Ripon, with the exception of a fringe
of reefs a cable broad are free of danger, the western and almost detached
head of the island being so bold that it may be passed at a cable in 7 fathoms.

In the passage, 6 cables broad, between Ripon and Everest are two
patches of 7 feet water with 12 feet between them ; and a rock which
uncovers at a quarter ebb lies E. by S. 8 cables from the south point of
Ripon, with a 4 feet patch 2 cables inside it.

M M 2



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5 IS GULP or liau-tuxg; east coast. [cHi^.x.

At thrtv <juartcrs of a mile North of the north point of Everest is a reef
wicli an i.-lct on it, named Sjkes rock, and a dij rock on its north extreme.
At a cable to the southward of this is a flat reef which uncovers at half
tide, with a 3 fathoms passage between it and Everest.

0«flB laiMi4t lying 2 ibiles north of the east point of Everest, is small,
flut-t(i|>i>ed, and 100 feet high, with a reef extending 2 cables &om its
went side ; otherwise it is bold of approach.

<KUd» »— Itt 20 feet high, lies 8 cables north-east of Everest ; a reef ex-
lends 2 or 3 cables from its south side.

nat xal«tt 6 miles N.E.bjN. of the west head of Ripon, is quite low
with a cleft in the middle as seen from the westward. Its ree& do not
aeom to extend bejond a cable from the points.

Awttsb Wt—L — About 1^ miles North of Flat island, and 2 miles West
of Frazer island is a reef of flat rocks half a mile in extent E.N.E. and
W.S.W., many parts of which are awash at half tide.

Trmmw lalAad« N.E. 2 miles of Flat islet, is 100 feet high, and rather
flat and rockj, with a small pagoda on it. It lies at the extremity of the
drj banks which stretch off from the shore at the north entrance of port
Adams and is connected with the shore bj an elevated ridge of sand
which covers at high water.

Xionff Baa^ of fine sand, is a continuation, in a southerly direction for
12 miles, of the banks on the north side of port Adams. It has depths of
7 to 9 feet off the port and 12 to 13 feet at other parts, except north-west
of Fishboume island, where there is a break in it a mile wide carrying
about 16 feet.

At 3 miles N.N.W. of Frazer island is Cone head, 600 feet high, and
westward of the head is a deep inlet which is connected with another farther
westward called Tung-tzia-kau and also with Hulu Shan bay to the north-
west. This inlet is nearly all dry, and the approach to it very shallow, bat
junks cross its flats at high water. A double topped islet 120 feet high lies
off its entrance, and another islet of triangular outline 180 feet high is seen
south-east of Cone head. Hoh peak, the summit of the large island which
separates these inlets, has an elevation of about 900 feet. The south shore
of this island is 5 miles in length and is generally bold except off Round
and Ridge points, its south and south-west extremes, where the rocks
extend 2^ cables.

PORT ABAM8 is an inlet or arm of the sea, 18 miles in depth, navigable
by a channel from 2 to 8 cables broad kept open by the scour of the tides
which fiU its basin, there being only two or three insignificant streams
falling into it at its head. It can be entered at high water springs by
vessels drawing 20 to 21* feet (September), and at low water by vessels

♦ Unless, as has been asserted on doubtful authority, the level of the gulf is much
reduced by certain winds at a later period of the year.



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CHAP.xJ PORT ADAiaS. — ^DIRECTIONS. 649

drawing 12 or 13 feet. Strong winds influence the level, the rajige
observed being about 2 feet.

Supplies. — There is neither town nor trade in this inlet, a few small junks
with firewood only being seen. Villages, though small are numerous, the
largest of which is near the upper part of the inlet on the south side. This
side is very fertile and well cultivated, but the north side is barren along
the steep- slopes of a range of limestone hills. Lime can be procured.
Fowls, eggs, geese, black grapes, and brinjals were brought readily for sale,
also shrimps and prawns. Sheep were procured at 3 dollars a head, and
numerous herds of cattle were seen from the hills. No streams accessible
for water were discovered although the country is well watered. The great
highway road from Newchwang to Korea passes near the head of port
Adams.

TZBB8. — It is high water, full and change, at Sulivan bay (Society bay)
at Oh. 15m., and springs rise 8 feet; at Mary island (Fort Adams) at
2h. Om., and springs rise 10 feet; neaps about 7 feet. At the head of
the port, the tide is half an hour later than at Mary island.

BXSBCTZOMTS. — ^To approach port Adams by the deepest channel, 16
feet at low water springs, if from the southward, pass a mile south of Ripon
island, a good mark to dear the rocks off which being Osborn peak in line
with or open soutlf of the cliffs of Fishbourne island E. ^ N. With this
mark on, when Coffin island opens east of Everest island bearing North,
steer N.E. by E. ^ E., or keep the highest part of the ra;Qge, 700 feet high ,
in line with the western sunmiit of Drury island (the island in the bay
northwai-d of Osborn peak), which will cross the Long bank, in 16 to 18
feet at low water, at 6 cables N. W. of Fishbourne.

When the summit of Fishbourne bears South, steer for Entry island,
passing with advantage close westward of it in 30 to 16 feet, but a greater
depth than 16 feet cannot be relied on, for a patch of rock with that depth
on appears to extend half a mile westward of Entry ; this, however, is
uncertain. If wishing to pass outside this patch, when a mile southward
of Entiy bring Osborn peak on with the nearest western point of Drury
island about S.E. by S., and when the north point of Entry bears E. by S.
this spit or patch will be passed, and a N.E. | E. course may be steered up
the channel for the Passage ' islands, then appearing as one small rounded
islet in the middle of the channel ; but if the tide be ebb, care must be
taken when rounding Entry that the vessel is not saddled northward on
to the Long bank (page 548).

If approaching the port from the westward, and wishing to enter by the
deepest channel, pass northward and eastward of Coffin, because the ground
between Coffin, Guide, and Sykes rocks has not been sounded over, and
then steer to -pass 5 or 6 cables east of Guide rock, hauling in E.S.E. for



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550 GULF OP LIATJ-TimO; EAST COAST. [chaf. x,

K«»y peak nben Sjkes rock opens southward of Guide, then proceed as
lieforc ; but if a greater depth of water than 12 feet is not of consequence,
i»(4tT dinnrtlj on a course about £ast, for Entry island.

Whon steering up the inlet, pass 3 or 4 cables north-weet of Upright
rcK-k, which marks the edge of a shoaU rocky bank on the South sbore,
extending nearly from Entry island to 3 cables south of the outer Passage
ifihind, at which latter part it terminates in a small sand-bank which dries
at low water*

Should a snug anchorage only be sought, it can be found between the
l*U'*.Hngo ihlandM and Long ishind in a blind channel, to gain which pass 2
niMi'H south of the Passage islands, or with Kwan-tung peak, 1,580 feet
hl;:h, in line with the outer extremity of the rocks off the north point of
I>)ng inland E. \ S., anchoring in 5 to 7 £Eithoms.

If proccKMling up the inlet, when approaching the Passage islands, take
care whon a mile bolow them to open the north-eastern island just clear to
the northward of the western, which will lead up in the best water, 13 feet
at low water springs. The ground below these islands is rather rocky
and uneven. Passing at 2 cables north-westward of the Passage islands
steer for Channel bluff, 460 feet high, the north-west part of Mary island,
keeping it on with whatever part of White house peak it may be then in
line with, about N.E. | E. After a run of a mile the depth will decrease
3 feet, and the cdurse will touch upon the edge of the western bank of the
channel, when steer about a point more to the eastward (or E.N.E. on the
flood tide) hauling up again with the peak a very little open of the bluff,
and steering to pass mid-way between Harold island on the east^ and the
island off Direction head on the west, above which the channel becomes
only a quarter of a mile wide ; from this the depths increase to 6 and 8
fathoms and the channel sweeps by a curve round the north and east sides
of Mary island.

This channel can be kept very well by the lead; or, after passing the
island off Direction head on a N.N.E. course, take care not to shut the
Pasj^e islands in behind it, but keep them just open till the northern
point (a cliff) of Mary island bears E.S.E. ; then steer for White House
peak, bearing gradually away to the south-eastward on a mid-channel
course. The banks extending 3 cables west and north of Mary island are
very shoal and studded with rocks near the shore. The Tide Pole rock, of
two square boulders placed vertically and 15 feet in height, marks the
southern steep edge of the channel half a mile above Mary island.

Anchorage may now be obtained in 7 to 9 fathoms, or one mile higher up
in 6 to 7 fathoms. The channel up to the head. of the inlet is from 2 to 3
..ables in breadth, carrying 5 fathoms for 1^ miles above the northern point
of Maiy island, 2^ fathoms at 6 miles above, and thence decreasing to one



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CHAP. X.] PETEBMANN POINT. — HIJLU SHAN BAY. ' 561

fathom at 8 miles above. The inlet north-west of Mary island is filled
with a shallow mud flat having only a narrow channel for small junks.

PBTBXUtCiurir pozitt, the north-western, point of Society bay, is the
western extreme of the hilly ranges of an island which forms the west side
of entrance of Tung-tzia-kau. The southern point of the island has high
bold cliffs, and may be passed close to. On the west side of the island, at
•4 cables north of Petermann point, a line of rocks extends 4 cables off the
shore in the south part of Sandhill bay, the sand hills of which covering,
the lower part of the hill slopes all along the bay, form a conspicuous
landmark for identifying the locality of Hulu Shan bay from a considerable
distance in the offing. South point, the northern extreme of Sandhill
bay and the south point of Hulu shan, will be recognized by its smooth
round hill.

Tunff-txia-kau, the entrance to which is between Bidge and Petermann
points at the north-west part of Society bay, is very shoal, and open to south
and S. W. Small craft enter it, also lorchas from Siam, with which country
there is a small trade. The mud flats dry out as far as the two reefs north-
ward of Eidge point, the eastern and higher reef marking the east side
of entrance of a small channel which for one mile carries 12 feet water.
There are 6 feet on the bar at its entrance at low tide. The junks cross
the flats at half tide.

BVOT SBAir BiLT, first visited by H.M. ships Discovery and AlcestCy
August 16th, 1793, affords anchorage in depths under 9 fathoms, good
holding ground of sand and clay, inside its entrance points, which are 5 J
miles apart, with excellent shelter from all except westerly winds, to which
the bay is entirely exposed. Small vessels can find shelter from N.W. on
the north side of the bay, or from S.S.W. on the south side.*

This bay is formed between the two islands which separate it on the
south and east from Tung-tzia-kau, and the larger island of Ching-hang
which separates it on the north from Fu-chu bay, to both which places
there are shallow water <;ommunications from the head of the bay, by passing
south of Calabash, a low, projecting head, the south extreme of Ching-
hang,' close to which and outside it is a bar with only 6 feet on it at low
water springs. The channel for 5 miles above Calabash point carries from
9 to 24 feet water.

The laud on the northern part of the bay is high and may be seen at the
distance of 24 to 27 miles. North point, the south-west extreme of Ching-
hang, and part of the western face of that island, have an abrupt cliff not

♦ See Plan of Hulu Shan bay ; scale m=l inch, on Admiralty Plan of port Adams,
No. 2,833.



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652 GULF OP LIAU-TUNG; BAST CX)A8T. [ctap.x.

Tuible till Approached within 10 or 12 milesy after which if seea on a N J^.E.
bearing, a low point. Reef point, will be observed showing to the left and
bejond iL The land rises irregularly from the sea to an elevation of 1,030
fei»t Uhind North peak, which deiicends steeply on the east to a plain, these
hilU when fitht MH*n having the appearance of an island.

BappUtg — ^Thcre is a village on the plain under the red hill north of
Calabash point, bat the villagers are very poor and can afford no supplies.
On the opposite shore, east of Middle head, a troop of ponies was seen
grasing in the valley. The Discovery obtained water easily from the second
■tony beach to the eastward of North point, but the Alceste filled water
farther to the eastward where there was a better stream (close to Observa-
tion spot on the chart), but not so easily reached except at high water,
bccaoflo of a reef 50 yards broad and steep-to which skirts the shore.
When visited by H.M. gunboat Slaneyy 17th June 1860, after a very dry
season, there was no water at the lower part of the bed of the stream, bat
the water percolated through the beach and cliffs for 2 or 3 cables.

TTPMa — It is high water, full and change, in Hulu Shan bay at
2h. 30m. ; springs rise about 8 feet, neaps 6 feet.

mmmw 90iwx Is the low termination of a small hill 240 feet high 1^
miles north of North point. The rocks off it are steep-to. From thence the
coast falk back a mile and then continues for 4^ miles to the N.E. to Slaney
bead, the south point of Fu-chu, another large bay. At half a mile from
Reef point and the same distance from the shore is the commencement of a
rocky bank a mile in length lying parallel to the coast, and carrying from
7 to 12 feet with 5 to 7 £ftthoms inside it.

s&AVvr XHABt 420 feet high, is a round headland with abrupt cliffs,
forming the south point of entrance to Fu-chu bay. A reef runs from it
half a mUe to the N.E. From this the shore is bordered by shoal, rocky
ground with some patches of dry rock up to Table point, 7 miles E.N.E. of
the head, the south point of inner entrance up to Fu-chu. Irregular ground
of 9 to 11 fathoms stretches 8 miles N. by W. of Slaney head.

muummUL moox« 20 feet high, lies nearly in the fairway of the bay
after rounding Slaney head, from which it bears N.E.byE.^E. 3 miles.
It may be passed to the northward in 9 fathoms at 3 cables ; at the same
distance E.S.E. of it there are 4 fathoms.

roax B&AA. — The land to the north- ward of Fu-chu bay is of singular
formation and bears such a resemblance to extensive fortifications that at
first sight there is a difficulty in believing they are not so. The western-
most hill, 530 feet high, having this appearance is the largest^ and has a
small conical projection above its regular surface ; two others with' flat



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CHAPX.] rORT HEAD. — ^FTJ-CHU BAY. 553

summits are near this to the south-east, and thej all have a remarkable
appearance from north or south.

The hilly tract on which rise these remarkable elevations, has the
appearance of a long peninsula, the western point of which is Fort head, of
low table land separated from the foot of the hills by a plain. The Cocked
Eb,t, an islet 60 feet high, lies 4 cables off it.

rv-CBirpozarT, the north point of Fu-chu bay, is 4 miles S. by W. of
Fort head, and between them is a shallow bay which has not been sounded.
This is also low table land, 100 feet high, and extending from it one mile
to the westward is a reef, the outer part of which, named Bagged rocks,,
dries ; there are 5 fathoms at 2 caoies outside them.

Fir-CBV BiLT is 11 miles across between Slaney head and Fu-chu point.
The approach has from 15 fathoms at 12 miles, to 5 fathoms at 3 to 5 miles
from the head of the bay, the soundings generally regular with mud bottom,
except off Slaney head as above described.

The passage up to Fu-chu, at the head of the bay, is between Square
islandi a flat top isle 110 feet in height, on the north, and Table pointy a
projecting rocky head, on the south. These are 2^ miles apart, and there
are 2^ and 3 fathoms between, the deeper water being nearer the point
than the islet. At one mile farther in and east of Table point, is a bar
of 6 to 7 feet water half a mile in extent.

A tongue of shallower water extends about 4 miles seaward from the
bar into the centre of the bay, with depths 3 to 6 feet less than on either
side it. The best anchorage in 5 fathoms is south of this, with the west
extreme of Table point bearing South, and the point next east of it
E. by S. to^ E.S.E. ; or in shoaler water by standing in East from this
position.

To proceed up to Fu-chu, pass Table point at half a mile, steering
I^ J S., which course for 2J miles will lead up to abreast an islet ; after
rounding the north point of this islet at 2 cables' distance, steer S.S.E. | E.
about 2 miles, keeping 2 to 3 cables from the western shore, but closing
that shore as the town is approached.

The small town of Fu-chu* commands but little trade. It produces coal,
a sample of. which, as also one of a manufactured article of combustion,
were procured by H.M.S. Bittern^ August 1855, and both found to be of
little worth.

0&ACZ8 POZiTT. — From Fort head the coast trends N.E. 5 miles to



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