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Glacis point, the termination of the gentle slope from a hill 560 feef high.
The sand hills on the inteiTening shore are very conspicuous from seaward.

I ' — — — — ^— — ^— — — ^— ^-^— — ^^—

* The Rev. Alexander "Williamson, who visited Fu-chu in 1868, places the city on
the great road, in lat. 39° 50' N., long. 121° 38' E., which is about 14 miles N.E. by N.
of the town above described.

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At th<* hnrk is a double topped hill, 1,020 feet high, the sonthern sammit
of wliiih, Pro>Mwcis peak, is curiously shaped.

•OBOons 1MM9X Mid OOAMVm — From Glacis point the land has a
moiT rft«Ht<Tly trend, sweeping round a large open bay. The shores are
rallKT low, hilt broken by hill ranges, off the points of which are reefs.
St»h«K»iur nxk is a most conspicuous object on this part of the coast. It
lii»H oir a wimll hill 7i milea from Glacis point, and resembles a fore-and-
aft Hcbooner with piir-topsaib set. In the first bay east of Glacis point is
a reef a mile in extent parallel to the shore, from which it is distant 6
cable*. The soundin|]^ in the southern part of this bay at 4 or 5 miles
from the cowit are irregular, the depths being 6 to 8 fathoms, with
shallower ground of 4 ^thorns 1 to 2 miles N.N.E. of Glacis point

At 5 miles north-east of Schooner rock are the low M<^wan cliffs,
and the sam(> distance farther on is Maxwell point, the western extreme of
a hilly promontory 4 miles in extent, rising from the extensive plains of
this part of the coast in varying heights to 970 feet, whilst 12 to 13 miles
inland a precipitous mountain chain of 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation extends
parallel to the coast for 30 miles. At 6 miles north-east of Maxwell x>oint
is Sandy Injud, a hill 440 feet high, the slopes of which are covered with
sand, its colour making it very conspicuous from the outside of Bittern

▼AVSiTTAmT SABS&a, 21 miles north-east of Schooner rock and 13
from Maxwell point, is a group of hills on a projecting angle of a great
plain. The two southern hills on it, 160 feet high, make like a saddle, and
in the distance like an island. A large square tower stands a mile to the
eastward of them.*

Shallow rocky ground extends a mile off the Saddle ; and there are two
rocky bunks, one at 1^ miles N.W. by W., and the other 3 J miles N* J W.
of the Saddle. The former bank, half a mile in extent, has only 3 fee^on
its shoalest part ; the latter, of the same extent, has 10 feet.

SirraBW bkaJi&ows are a collection of banks of coarse sand, 22
miles in extent, fronting the coast, and marked by heavy breakers hi
north-west and west winds. Their most projecting point is 9 miles
N.W. J W. of Sandy head, where the most dangerous cluster lies. These
outer banks carry 12 to 16 feet water, several of the inner from 1 to 10
feet, and others 15 feet. There are for the most part channels between
them, having irregular depths, varying from 5 to 10 fiathoms in the outer
channels and 3 to 6 fathoms in the inner, with muddy bottom.

The lead will be the best guide to avoid these banks. Their most
projecting point with 2 fathoms on it has 13 and 14 fathoms close to, whilst
the sea outside has an uniform depth of 12 fathoms, mud; in other parts

* From the westward Yansittart Saddle makes like an island with three saddles.
Bemark Book of Mr. John Palmer, Master, R.N., H,M.S. Barrosa,

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the banks are safe to approach to 10 fathoms, mud. A very conspicuous
mountain 2,880 feet high in line with the small cliffs east of Vansittart
Saddle, S.E., will lead over the north tails of the banks in 4J to 5 fathoms.

9J miles N.E. by N. from Vansittart Saddle, has on its
summit, 420 feet high, a conspicuous tower, and a higher hill rises at its
back. There is an islet off this point, and N.E. 2 miles from it some
rocky gi'ound extending from the shore, where may be seen some large
reefs. The tail of this ground in 3 fathoms is North of the. islet.

i-CBV POZITT is lower with a ruined tower on it, but the hills in
its rear rise 700 feet and upwards over the plain which Ues at the head of
Kae-chu bay. One of these hills is a sharp cone 850 feet high. Off
Kae-chu point is a bank 5 miles in length N.E. and S.W., and on its outer
point are patches of 10 and 12 feet. Tower hill S. byE. leads to the west-
ward of these patches, and Kae-chu point East, leads to the northward. A
sandy bottom also indicates their proximity, there being soft mud in the

XAS-CBU pw, said to be in lat. 40° 30' N., long. 122° 25' E., and
] miles inland, is surrounded by a high wall, but its houses are low and
ill-built. It is thickly inhabited, and has an extensive trade. Many junks
are usually seen at anchor northward of Kae-chu point at about 3 miles off
shore, the approach to Kae-chu fu being very shallow, and by a small
stream, the entrance of which, at low water, is 3 miles N.N.E. of Kae-chu
point. This city, which is t)n the great road, has a considerable trade,

Tbe Xae-chu Banks are described on page 545.

Tides are 'described at page 559.

BIBBCTZOMTS for XiZAV-TUBG GiTZiF. — Chinese junkmen state that
islands and shoal water exist in the upper and central parts of the gulf of
Liau-tung, and that the large trading junks bound from Newchwang and
neighbouring ports to the Pei ho keep the eastern shore of the gulf down
to Hulu-shan bay, or even farther south, before they steer across to the

H.M.S. Bittern^ when proceeding down the golf from her anchorage
off the Liau ho, kept a greater offing than recommended and carried
regular soundings down south as far'as Fu-chau bay. The pilots stated
there were other shoals to the westward of the Bittern Shallows.*

Westward of Fu-chau and Hulu-shan bays there are some indications

* The central part of the gulf is very imperfectly sounded, but such soundings as have
been taken show no indication of any banks westward of Bittern Shallows. Neither the
ActCBoUf Dove J nor Leven, which crossed the gulf from Vansittart Saddle towards H»lu-tau
head, Tau-wha island, and the Great Wall respectively, fell in with any of these central

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656 THE LIATT HO. [chap.x.

of ahoAlf OTer *a extent of 25 miles. There is a patch of 9 fathoms 10
miles W.N.W. of Fa-chaa bay, and a second patch of 9 fathoms 16 miles
W. ^ N. of the same ; also at 15 miles W. bj S. of Hulu-shan baj is a
ahoal of 6 to 7 fathoms, 2 miles in extent. Around all these shoals are
toondings of 12 to 17 fathoms. Until further examined it would be
prudent to avoid the yicinitj of them at night or in bad weather, and lake
the following route :— Round Iron Island (page 546), off the north-western
part of the Liau-ti-shan promontory, at about 4 miles, and thence steer
N.N.E. so as to pass 4 miles westward of North point of Qulu-shan bay,
from which position a N.£. } N. course will lead 3 miles outside the Bittern
Shallows, and direct for the light vessel off the entrance of the Liau ho.
It should be borne in mind that when passing the Shallows the bottom
should be mud (for these banks are of sand), and the depth never less than
12 fathoms. In general the junks will be seen sailing in the fairway in
large numbers when approaching the Uau ho.

In steering up the gulf at the necessary distance of 12 or 13 miles from
the shore, in order to clear the Bittern Shallows, some have found difficulty
in making out the coast. In clear weather the high mountain ranges of
2,090 to 3,000 feet elevation, which lie eastward of the Shallows and which
may be readily recognized, will be found good landmarks, and should it be
suspected by the bearing of these, together with the depth of water, that
the vessel is too far to the westward, it would be well when the mountain
bore W.8.W. to steer in somewhat towards the land so as to make Tower
hill and Sharp cone, the two best marks for ascertaining the position, by
the bearings of which the light vessel could be made with certainty being
N.W. f W. of the latter. But in thick weather if the position, when near
the head of the gulf be not known, it will be prudent to 'anchor imme-
diately the soundings decrease to 6 or 5 fathoms, bearing in mind that
the difference between high and low water springs is 2 fathoms, and
that a correction should therefore be applied according to the state of the


The & XO— The river Liau, at the mouth of which lies the treaty
port of Newchwang (Yingtze), now open to foreign commerce, drains
an enormous area of country consisting of the western half of the pro-
vince of Shing-king or Liau-tung. It flows through a'plain 70 miles in
breadth and elevated only a few feet above the sea, and about its entrance
the lowland, covered with trees, is not visible at the distance of 7 or 8
miles from a ship's deck, although it may be seen from the masthead.
Vessels of 18 feet draught can cross the bar during the summer months,
but after the 1st October, in consequence of the prevalence of northerly

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winds "which lower the water level of the gulf, it is recommended that
vessels abstain from loading over 16 feet.*

The Aver is frozen up during four months and a half, or from the
middle of November to the end of March, and the only means of com-
munication is then overland, by couriers via Peking at irregular periods.
In 1865 an endeavour was made to run the mails to Point Arthur which

The Liau ho rises in Mongolia, and after pursuing an easterly course of
about 400 miles, turns southward towards the sea for a further distance
of 250 miles. The tide affects the stream for many miles. Small junks
ascend to Tie-ling 205 miles from the sea, and good sized junks to Tien-
chwang-tai 30 miles from the bar. It is 150 years since large junks nrent
up to JSTewchwang.

NBWCBiiriuro uoxt is exhibited from a light vessel moored off the
entrance of the river in 5^ fathoms at 10 miles from the entrance points,
and 3^ miles outside the bar. It is a ^xed white light, elevated 40 feet
above the sea, and in clear weather should be seen from a distance of
1 1 miles. The illuminating apparatus is catoptric. The light vessel is
painted red, with Newchwang in large letters on each side, has three masts,
and one ball on her mainmast only.

A gun will be fired when vessels are observed running into danger, and
the course that should be steered signalled by the Commercial Code.
In thick weather blasts from a steam fog horn are sounded at intervals
of 10 seconds, which can be heard 8 miles in a calm. When necessaiy
to lower the light at night for trimming, a small, bright light will be
hoisted, and a blue light burned at the half interval of time between
lowering and re-hoisting, that is to say, at 7 minutes after lowering and
7 minutes before re-hoisting. This light vessel is only in position from
about the 1st April to the 1st November on account of the ice, and
her position ordinarily is. Tower hill S. by E. ^ E. 16 miles. Ruined tower
on Kae-chu point S.E. \ E., direction into the river about N.E. by E. As
soon as the last vessel leaves the port, the light vessel is taken into
hai'bour for the winter, and is re-moored in her station on the breaking up
of the ice.

BUOTS and BSACOiTS. — ^There are two buoysf to mark the channel
over the bar, also five beacons to maik the passage into the river.t Both

* A new survey of the bar was made in 1868 by the officers of the U.S. corvette
Wachusett, in which year the river was only navigable by vessels drawing 15 feet. The
present directions are compiled from various sources.

f On the approach of winter, before the ice forms, spar buoys are substituted for the
iron buoys, but the latter are replaced in the spring.

J The following descriptions are taken from the Chinese Official List of March 1874,
corrected by information supplied in 1873 by J. Alexander Man, Commissioner of
Customs at Newchwang.

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553 THE lilAU HO. [cHAF.x.

the iMjDjrt cAn l>e been from the light Tessel, the Entrance buoy with the
naked eye, the Inner buoy with a telescope.

SBtraae* •» OwitmWmmT is tax iron nun buoy painted in black and white
rrrtital siripfs^ and aannonnted by a black rod and ball, Tisible 4 miles ;
it is in 3 fatliom^s ooze, on the western edge of the fairway channel of
the bar. Fr<»m it the light vessel bears S.W. by W. | W. 2^ or 3 miles,
and Inner buoy N.E. by E. { £. 2} miles. Good anchorage will be found a-
couple of c»bU*0 from it with the buoy bearing between S.S.E. and N. by E.

tmmtT mmmt i> ^ "P^ mounted with a bamboo pole, painted black and
white in horizontal bands, yisible 3 miles ; it is in 10 feet, hard sand, on
the inner e«!*re of the bar, close to the S.E. edge of west bank, and about
2] nifles N.K. by £. \ £. from Outer bnoy. It must be left to the
westward on {musing.

Anotlier email etpar buoy enrmoonted by a basket is moored about a mile
S.S.W. of beacon No. V., and marks the east bank, and the position of
Dei*p Hole.

riahtev Stakaa at Baep ■«!•<-— Daring the winter months the Liau
river ii* closed by ice. While the navigation is open the fishermen have
three h.'\» of stakes off Deep Hole ; one set on the western side, and two
on the eastern, all situated below beacon Na V. As these have proved
good marks for the fairway channel, it has become customary, on their
removal previous to the setting of the ice, to leave the outer stake of each
set standing.

■ast Sptt or Vo. ▼. Beaeoa is a pole 38 feet high, surmounted with two
black ball**, with the figure " V " painted in white on the lower balL It
is N.E. ^ E. 3 miles from Inner buoy, and stands on the East spit, a shoal
that project** to the southward from the bank of the river at its east point
of entrance, and is left dry at three-quarters ebb. This beacon marks the
edge of the bank, and with the Inner buoy forms one of the leading marks
in going out or coming in.

VoddlBC Tommy or iTo. ZV. Seaoon is a white pole 28 feet high,
mounted with a red joss-pole box, on which its number " IV " is painted
in black figures. It is on the east bank of the river, at low water mark,
on the south side of a small creek, and about 2 miles from beacon No. V.
It marks the Whale's Back, a dangerous shoal on the opposite bank from
which it bears East.

Xiddlo Bank or Vo. XZZ. Beacon is a red pole 28 feet higli, mounted
with a black joss-pole box, on which is the figure **in" inSvhite. It
is on the east bank of the river, at low water mark, about 2\ miles from
No. IV. beacon ; and it marks the centre of the Middle-ground shoal, of
9 feet water, from which it bears East, and also points out the channel line.

naystaff or iTo. zz. Boaoon, mounting two trellised frames or i)asket

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balls, one above the other, is 50 feet high ; pole and frames black, lower
part white with its number " II " in black figures. It is on the east bank
of the river, planted on dry ground, 1^ miles from No. III. beacon.

"VTest Bank or uro. z. Beacon, also called Fish-house beacon, is a black
pole mounted with a red joss-pole box, with the figure '* I " on it in black.
It is on the west bank of the river, near some fishing houses, a short dis-
tance from the bend that leads to the harbour, and is used as a leading
mark to No. II. beacon on the east bank, from which it is three-quarters
of a mile distant.

pz&OTS. — ^Pilot vessels, having competent licensed pilots for the
Liau ho, will be met on nearing the bar. They cany the pilot flag, yellow
over green, horizontal, and the words *^ Licensed Pilot " with number, on
the head of the mainsail.' There are twelve pilots, who are under the control
of the harbour master, under whose direction also vessels are berthed,
and are not allowed to shift without his permission. The pilot boats cruise
within a radius of 5 miles from the light vessel, except in bad weather,
when they take shelter in Deep Hole.

After the buoys are removed oi> the approach of winter, and again
before they are replaced on the breaking up of the ice, great risk would
be incurred by venturing to cross the bar, without a pilot, for in 1863j
before the establishment of buoys and of qualified pilots, no less than
three vessels were lost, and 40 others suffered damage by getting ashore
either, on or inside the bar. Since 1867 no accidents have occurred.
The rate of pilotage is 4 taels per British foot.

;. — It is high water, full and change, at the Liau ho bar, at
4 h. m.; springs rise 11 or 12 feet, neaps 7 or 8 feet. At Yin-koa, at
5h., and springs rise X2 feet. The rise, especially at neaps, is much
influenced by the wind, a southerly breeze causing a rise above the normal
height, while northerly winds cause a fall below the same.

It is said that in the summer months the tides are highest after noon,
owing to the strong southerly winds during the day. Also that in
October and November the winds then prevailing from the north during
the day blow the waters out of the gulf and river, hence the highest
tides are in the morning, for the nights being calm give the water time to
return to its usual height. But although such winds may in some degree
affect the levels, these results are due to the ordinary tidal phenomenon of
the day tides being the higher in summer and the lught tides in winter.

The highest tides occur about two days after full and change ; the
ordinary, spring rise is about 1 1 feet, but occasionally the rise at neaps
is only 5 feet. At times, 4 fathoms can be carried over th^ bar. The
morning tides (summer season) are least to be depended on, as the rise is
then comparatively smalL There is usually a fall of from 1 to 2 feet

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660 THE LIATJ HO. [chai*. x.

before the ebb stream sets ont on the surface ; and a corresponding^ riae
before the flood stream makes in. Amid sach apparently* irregalar tidal
variations^ it is judicious to have recourse to a pilot, some being alvraya
found cruising off the bar, frequently as far to the southward as the
Bittern vhoaL

Outside the bar the flood stream sets N.N.W., finishing at N.N.E. bj
way of north* For tides inside the bar, see Directions below.

«b« miUk — ^The channel into the Liau ho flows through the mud flat
which extends from 4 to 6 miles off the coast The eastern point of
entrance to the river is 3 or 4 miles south of the western. The bar
begins at 7 miles south-west of the eastern point, and carries for 2 miles
depths of 7 to 9 feet, but in its centre is a bank one mile in lengthy of
only 4 feet. Thence the channel takes a north-easterly direction towards
the east point of entrance, gradually deepening to 5 and 6 fathoms, but
shoaling again to 18 feet, which depth may be carried up to Yln-koa.
The bar baa somewhat altered since the survey of 1860.

The bar is difficult of approach, especially in cloudy weather or when
no ships or junks are lying outside, owing to the low land and the extent
of the flats. A vessel should not stand nearer in than 4 &thoms. When
in 6 fathoms, soft bottom, Tower hill bearing S.S.E., she is in andiorage
outside the bar, when she must wait for a pilot ; or if drawing 10 to 12
feet, and it being 3 hours flood, she may follow, on a course about N.E. by £.,
the large five-masted junks going in, which keep strictly i]\ mid-
channel. But as soon as the vessel has passed the first fishing stakes^
and having 4^ fiftthoms, soft bottom good holding ground (the bar is hard
sand), she is inside the bar, and ought to anchor.^

AMcmon ft »■,— Vessels arriving off the port, if requiring to anchor,
should bring to near and to the eastward of the light vessel; or, if pre-
ferred, they may proceed up to Inner buoy, and anchor with the buoy
bearing between S.S.E. andN.byE., at 2 cables' distance.

]»xmaonovs4*'-'^'<»tlon.— Vessels that have been kept too far off
shore, in order to give the Bittern shallows a wide berth, have been run
amongst the dangerous shoals, at the head of the gulf, westward of the
Liau ho. This may be easily avoided by following the directions given
on page 555.

Crossiaff tlio Bar, — ^When entering, at slack water of the last of the flood,
steer from the light vessel N.E. by E. jE. and pass half a cable to the north-

♦ The tides really foUow the ordinary laws. The irregularities occur at neaps,
t Com. John Ward, R.N., H.M. Surveying vessel Actoton^ 1860.
X Derived from a*' Notice to Mariners," issued by the U.S. Hydrographic Depart-
ment, October 1867. The bearings do not quite agree with the Admiralty chart.

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westward of Entrance buoj. From this steer N.E. by E. f E., which
will lead 1^ cables eastward of Inner buoy, and stand-on, on the same
course, until you have brought th6 latter buoy to bear W. by S. ^ S. about
1^ miles distant. Thence a N.E. course for about one mile will bring you
to Deep Hole (between the fishing stakes), where there is good and secure
anchorage in 6^ fathoms.

The tides set obliquely across the bar, the flood about N. by E., the
ebb about S. by W., at the rate of 2 to 4 knots. With this knowledge
the mariner will be able to steer so as to make good the courses above
given. When on the bar, to avoid the middle ground, do not bring Inner
buoy to bear to the northward of N.E. J N. ; and to avoid the dangerous
spit on the western bank, do not bring it to bear to the eastward of E.N.E.
When above Inner buoy, in order to avoid another projection from the
western bank, do not bring the same buoy to bear to the southward of
S.W. by W. ^ W. until your distance from it exceeds 1 J miles. The western
bank is steep-to ; the eastern bank shelves gradually.

Up the Blver. — From Deep Hole, the Admiralty chart, and a careful
use of the lead, will enable you to reach the Yin-koa anchorage. Feel ^
your way along the eastern bank, passing within a cable of Nodding Tonjimy
and Middle bank beacons, on which side the deepest water is to be found,
until Flag-staff beacon is reached, then strike across for Fish-house
beacon, on the western shore, in order to clear the shoal water off Ever-
lasting point. Then (still guided by the lead) follow the north shore
around the bend, until you are well above Everlasting point below Yingtze,
when steer for the anchorage off the town.

XIAIUTXB and TZir-iXOiL. — The seaport of Newchwang is situate
13 miles above the bar. The name of the town is Yingtze, that of the
anchorage off it Yin-koa. It is an excellent harbour, quite landlocked,
with a depth of 4 fathoms over an extent of half a mile. The foreign
settlement is above the native town, and occupies about 1,000 yards of the
river bank, which is steep with soundings of 7 fathoms close in. The high
road to Newchwang and Moukden passes the back of the settlement. The
British Consulate here is at a building formerly a temple ; the number of
foreign merchants is small, and there is a resident physician.

The native town, the official name of which is Mu-kow-ying, has a main
street fully 2 miles in length, the only noteworthy features of which are
the large enclosures in which the native dealers carry on the business of
storing and manufacturing the bean cake which is the staple trade of
Yingtze. It is a dreary place. The muddy river winds through a
plain of mud without a single natural elevation to break the dismal
monotony of the scene, and indeed, except for a few weeks during the
summer the region in which the port is situated is little more cheerful
than an arctic swamp.

30251. N N

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662 THE LIATJ HO. [chap.x.

The tmde is verj lAi^ge, junks from all qnartera visit it» and the foreign
•hipping is considerable. The trade which formerly centered at New-
ch wang was, owing to the silting up of the higher parts of the riyer, removed
about 20 years since, to Tien-chwang-tai, 17 miles above Yin-koa, and
later was transferred to the latter place, which in addition to its proicimity
to the tM*ay has the advantage of a good depth of water.

•MPMiSi 4^« — ^Provisions are abundant, oonsisting of beef, mutton,
fish, fowls, eggs, and pheasants and wild geese in season. There are
large stores of grain. Coal of good quality can be obtained, also fire-
wood. White hemp rope from 1 to 6-inch, can be purchased at from 5 to
6 cents per pound. With the exception of wages Yingtze is perhaps

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