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the cheapest port in China, as provisions are so abundant and the demand
is not large. European stores and clothing are usually imported from
Shanghai, but there are ship chandleries established for the convenience
of the foreign shipping.

Loss is experienced in the exchange of the Mexican dollar, the value
of which varies from 960 cash during the summer, when large dealings
necessitate a supply of coin, to 700 cash during the cold season.

V)rsd«,->-The bulk of the trade of Yingtze consists in the export of
bean (or pulse) and bean cake to the southern ports, and whilst affording
employment to about 300 foreign vessels, chiefly British and German,
is almost exclusively conducted by native Chinese, principally from the
southern provinces, who have gained complete control of the local markets,
for not more than one-seventh of the whole are consigned to, or loaded by
foreigners. The exports also include grain of various kinds, oil, cotton,
drugs and furs. The imports consist of cotton and wooUen goods, opium,
sugar, manufactured iron, glass, &c., and there has arisen a direct trade
with Europe in imports, which is improving.

The productions of the neighbouring provinces are wheat and other
grain, cotton, silk, indigo, tobacco, and they are rich in mineral resources,
consisting of coal, gold, silver, copper and lead.

lirz«B8Mid^7aATKa&. — ^Mr. Polack remarks* that the winds in the
north-east part of the gulf of Liau-tung are very variable. When between
S.S.E. and S.S.W., either light with rain squalls, or blowing fresh, or a
gale with or without rain from this quarter, there may be expected, without
warning, a sudden shift to the North or N.W., blowing furiously for about
12 hours. The pilots state that these shifts are common during the

♦ September 1868. " Mr. Polack put his ship before the wind, not apprehending a
shift of "this kind, and suffered the loss of topsails, although lowered, and other sails.
The squall gave no warning. The barometer scarcely fell. In 14 days three similar
shifts occurred." — Nautical Magazine for March 1 864, p. 1 65. In October 1 860 the same
kind of squall was experienced on the east coast by Lieut. Bullock, B.N., of "ELM.
Surveying vessel Diwe,

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summer, especially after August. Strangers, therefore, ought to be cau-
tious, especially when in the vicinity of the Bittern shallows, where a
vessel would have no room to keep before the wind.

During the summer months the winds are from south-east, south and
south-west, but the prevailing winds are from south-south-west. From
November to March, north arid north-east winds prevail.

Climate.* — The coldest months are December, January and February.
The greatest cold of a winter, 10° below zero, generally occurs in January,
and the first half of February.

The number of days in any winter that the thermometer stands at day-
break below zero, does not exceed ten, and rarely for more than two
mornings in succession, and it is never below zero in the afternoons.

The winter is usually ushered in by a snow storm, after which the
weather clears up, and hard dry frost sets in, which continues with
occasional falls of snow, until the spring. The river becomes closed by
ice in the middle of November, and so continues till the end of March.

The hottest months are June, July, and August, and the greatest degree
of heat generally occurs in July and the first half of August. In the
shade the temperature does not rise above 80°, except for a few hours
during some thirty afternoons in each summer, and these comparatively
hot days are distributed, with cool intervals, in groups of three to five
throughout those three months. During five years the highest temp-
erature attained was 87°.

The climate is extremely healthy and serious sickness is very rare
amongst the foreign residents, although no spot could be less pleasantly
situated than Yingtze. On the eastern side of the gulf, the high mountain
ranges cause there a greater rainfall and a moister climate.

M'B'wcsrwAirG, or Nieu-chwang, the city which gives its name to this
treaty port, is situated in the interior, on the road to Moukden, 27 miles
from Yingtze and 70 from Moukden. It is devoid of any commercial
importance and almost of population at the present time. It is famous for
its excellent water which is used in the manufacture of spirits, and is also
noted for the production of saltpetre. It is usually spoken of as lying on
the Liau ho, but, according to the latest and most authenticf information, it
is 15 miles to the eastward, and is on a small tributary of the Hung ho or
Moukden river, which latter falls into the Liau ho 73 miles above the sea,
making the distance by water from Yingtze about 90 miles. There has
been no trade there for 20 years, when it was removed to Tien-chwang-tai,

♦ Report of T. T. Meadows, Esq., H.B.M. Constd, 1862.

t Notes on Manchuria^ with map, by Rev. Alexander "Williamson, B.A., published
in "Journal of the Royal Geographical Society," 1869.

NN 2

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664 THE LIAU HO. [cftAje. x.

17 mfles above Tingtse, and large janks have not ascended to N^wchwang
for 150 jeani ; and it is believed either that the riyer has become shallower
bjr silting up or bj the upheaval of the country. .The Liaa ho is still
navigable by small jnnks as Csur as Tie-ling,* 205 mUes irom the sea.
Mookdcn, the capital of the province of Liau-tung, is 70 miles &om
Newchwang by road, and nearly 100 from Yingtze, whilst by water from
the latter place it Is 140 miles.

There is a great highway road from Peking along the west side of the
gnlf of Liao-tong, through King-chu-fn and Yingtze, to Newchwang and
Moukden. Another great highway runs down the eastern side of the
gulf, passing through Kae-chu fu, Fu-chu, Kin-chau, the head of port
Adams, and then along the coast of the YeUow sea, through Ta-ku-san,
to Korea.

* For farther informatioii concerning this country northwards, see Palladiums Expe-
dition ikramyk MamchMria, with map, in ** Journal of the Boyal Geographical Society "
for IS7«.-

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EASTERN PASSAGES; Winds and Currbnt».

In connexion with the navigation of the eastern passages to China
which have been introduced into the first chapter of this volume, it has
been deemed desirable to describe the meteorology of localities geographi-
caUj without the limits which are properly comprehended in. this section
of the China Sea Directory ; and it is on this account it has been placed
in the Appendix.

The descriptions which follow are, pf the winds, weather, tides, and
currents of that part of the Indian archipelago to the eastward of Java
and Borneo through which ^the routes designated '' the Eastern passages
to China" lie. This information has been derived from Directions by
Captain A. B. Beecher, R.N., late of the Hydrographic Department,
Admiralty, and other reliable sources.*

nrBZASr OCEAIT and EASTERir STRAJETS. — ^wiin>s. — On the
southern coasts of the islands of Java, Sumbawa, Flores, and Timor,
between which are the straits by which the Eastern passages to China
are entered, two monsoons prevail, the N.W, monsoon corresponding with
the N.E. monsoon of the China sea^ and the S.E. with the S.W. The
N.W. is also known as the West, and the S.E. as the East monsoon. The
influence of the former extends about 200 miles from ^the coast, the latter
is an extension of the S.E. trade wind.

On the south coast of Java the N.W. monsoon ceases in March. In
April the wind is unsettled ; in May it is steady from East with fine
weather; from June to August it is strongest. In October the S.E
monsoon becomes weaker, and until the return of the N.W. monsoon the

♦ See also Wind and Current Charts of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans,
published by the Admiralty, 1872.

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wind if ▼•liable. From May to November is the rainy season on this

In Febroary and daring the first half of March, as well as in Octob^,
that is, at the change of the monsoon, land and sea breezes preyail on the
coast ; but they are not so strong in October as in Febroaiy or March.
In these last two months, and even in April, the land breeze begins with,
a sqiaJl, or sometimes a heavy storm, and as soon as this is over is.foimd
blowing moderately, and continuing till the retorn of the sea . breeze. In
April and May, on this coast, the sea breeze also begins wii& a heavy
squall or storm of short duration.

In the strait of Baly the wind often blows from North with much
violence. In the strait of Sapie, land and sea breezes are found ; they
come from South in the morning and from North at about two hours afler
noon, and arc frequently separated by an interval of calm. In the other
stnuts east of Java a similar condition of the wind is found, and that also
veiy variable.

9m:wm mm€ VftOBBi nuui. — ^The same monsoons prevail in' these
two seas from Java to Timor. The East monsoon commences In M^,
the winds varying from East to S.S.E., and attaining their greatest force
in June and July. This monsoon is finer than the West monsoon which
generally b^ns in October, and attains its height in January, and brings
bad weather, especially in November and December. The rains fall from
December to the middle of February, a period of squalls, storms, and sevei^
weather generally. In April the winds become variable, and the weather
pretty fine.

On the north coast of Java from May to July the wind is from S.E.,
with a return of opposite winds varying to N.E. ; in October these winds
become weak and variable. The N.W. monsoon begins in October, some-
times nearly a month before or after, and ends in March, and is the season
of the great rains. In December Westerly winds prevail Towards ^e
middle of February are storms and rain.

On the south coast of Borneo, the S.E. monsoon prevails .from May till
September. Fiom Septembec to April the West wind blowa an ^tm
coast, bringing constant rain a^d dirty weather. -During the S.E. monsoon
the weather, which is still wet, is less rainy than during the N.W.
monsoon ; but it may be broadly stated that a great amount of rain &lls
upon this coast all the year round.

isXiAVB of TZBioaa. — On the north-west coast of Timor, from Septem-
ber to March, the N.W. monsoon is found varying to N.N.W. In April
or May it is succeeded by that from S.E. varying to S.S.E., which terffii-
nates in October. The N.W. monsoon is the bad weather season, and
in December the winds are violent. This monsoon is only well esta-

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blished here about the end of November or December; when str<mg
-winds between West and North, accompanied by rain, continue tiff
February. The strongest winds vary between W. by S. and N.N.E.
About the end of April or beginning of May the wind returns to East,
varying to South, and blowing fresh on the north coast of this island,
where it is then the fine season.

On the southern coasts of Timor there is a great difierence in the
winds. The S.E. monsoon is light on the south coast, while it is strong'
on the north. During the first part of October it is stormy on the south
coast, but not until December on the north coast. On both coasts, during
the fine season, the land and sea breezes are fresh. On the south coast
the land breeze varies from N.E. to North, and the sea breeze from S.S.E.
to S.S.W.

STRAIT Of BCACASSAB. — In the northern part of the strait from May
to October the southerly monsoon is found on the east coast of Borneo.
The same also takes place between Celebes and Gillolo ; it is succeeded by
the northerly monsoon, which continues from November to April. *

In the southern part of the strait the wind is from the southward be-
tween April and September. During October, November, and December,
as well as in the following months, fresh* breezes prevail from W.S.W. to

Near the west coast of Celebes from May to October land and sea
breezes are found, while on the opposite coast of Borneo the wind is steady
from South. From November to April the wind varies from W.S.W. to
W.N.W. ; in April, May, and June it is from N.E. but light in the month
of August.

It has been observed that when the S.W. wind prevails on the coast
of Celebes, about 6 leagues off the coast it becomes W.N.W. and N.W. on
the coast of Borneo. During the S.E. monsoon a vessel cannot work up
against it on the low coast of Borneo for light winds are found in this
season, while on the corresponding coast of Celebes, which is elevated, a
fresh land wind blows tit night followed by a sea breeze during the day.
In December the land and sea breezes are generally met near Celebes.
In August and September the wind is light, but sometimes off this coast
storms from S.W. occur, also long calins.

SEAS of CBXiEBES and smbtj. — ^In the Celebes sea and Sulu archi-
pelago easterly winds with fine weather prevail in October, but are not
regularly established till November. In May the westerly winds replace
them and in a month become established, to terminate in October, bringing
with them a season made up of rain, squalls, and tempests, which take
place principally in July and August. In September a heavy mist hangs
about the coast of Mindanao.

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At Ihe boginniDg of the westerly monsoon the winds are light for some
time with hesTj rain, during which the wind blows from an opposite
dinKTlion, lasting from the eastward sometimes for above a week. Ooca-
nonalljy heavy storms happen until the westerly winds become established^
During the whole of this monsoon the weather is cloudy, rainy, and some-
ttm(*s stormy, and in this season, between Celebes and Mindanao, suddea
and violent storms take place from N.W. The westerly winds sometimes
last till November.

In the Sulu sea the East or N.E. monsoon is not a steady fresh breeze,.
but often variable. Near Mindanao the northerly winds never blow fresh,
and light cluingeable winds often displace them for several days. The
same occurs at the end of January, and it is considered that the same
winds prevail from the Sulu archipelago to Manila. The S.W. monsoon.
is not observed here UU some time in May, and does not become regular
till June. During this monsoon the weather is gloomy, cloudy, and very
wet About the end of July or middle of August, and sometimes aba
in October, bad weather occurs, and severe storms called " coUas tem-
pestados," which are generally accompanied by thunder and lightning, the
wind changing about and blowing from all points of the compass with
equal force ; they are not unlike the typhoons. In September the wind
loses strength, the rain is less, and the sky is fine, but in the mornings
there is a thick fog which lasts till noon. At the change of the monsoons
bad weather is sometimes felt, as in the China sea. The above is also a
description of the weather prevailing amongst the Philipine islands.

tS&AVB of cauuas. — ^The island of Celebes like that of Borneo is
divided by the equator. On its south coast the S.E. monsoon is established
from May to Octobei*, and the S.W. monsoon prevails at the same time
on that part of the island which is north of the equator. The S.E. monsoon,^
lasting from May to October on the coast south of the equator, brings the
driest season. The N.W. monsoon replaces the S.E. towards October, and
lasts till April, rain is then almost perpetual and the wind strong.

During the two months when the sun is nearly vertical over the island,,
and near the syzygies, northerly winds and rain always occur. On that
part of the island, north of the equator, the N.E. monsoon in October
replaces the S.W., making the fine seAson. At the north-eastern part of
the island the driest season is August, when cloudless skies and southerly
winds prevaU.

VXWOB, BAinoA, and ASJunota saas.— In the Timor sea, and also in
the Arafura sea, the S.E. monsoon blows with much regularity, and
towards the middle of it, from May to August, it varies from S.S.E. to
S,E., and is then strong, with a high sea. The Malays call this the
white season In the beginning and towards the end of this monsoon the

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wind is East, sometimes veering to E.N.E, The wind is generally fresh
and steady when the moon quarters, and unsettled with calms at the time
of the syzygies, a fact also observed in the trade wind of the east coast of
Australia. The S.E. monsoon terminates in the beginning of October,
when, after a few weeks of variable winds, the westerly monsoon sets in,
and continues without intermission until the beginning of March. In the
southern part of the Eastern archipelago the East monsoon is attended
with fine weather, but on the south-west coast of New Guinea, and among
the islands to the westward as far as the east coast of Celebes, frequent
squalls with heavy rain are experienced at this season, often accompanied
with considerable swell from the southward, while, during the remainder
of the year the weather is fine. This rule, however, does not extend farther
to the westward, for westward of Celebes the West is the rainy monsoon.
The monsoons here, when at their height, usually blow in an E.S.E. and
W.N.W. direction, but towards the changes they draw round more to the
southward, sometimes continuing several days at S.W.

MOXiirccA CBAznrEXiS. — Jn these seas also two monsoons are distin-
guished which seamen call the N.W. and S.E. monsoons, some saying that
the winds hang more to the northward than westward, and more to the
southward than eastward. The first corresponds to theN.E. monsoon north
of the equator, the second to the S.W. monsoon. It is known, indeed, that
the monsoons which prevail in these channels are much less regular than in
the open seas ; and that according to the time of year North and West
winds prevail in turn, as well as those from South and East during the
other monsoon. It may be noticed generally in these seas that south of
the equator, as far as 10° or 12° S. lat., the direction of the wind varies 10
or 12 points from that of the prevailing wind north of the equator at the
same time ; that is, if a ship north of the equator have the wind from
North, another ship south of it will have it from W,N.W., and if tTie first
ship have the wind South the latter will have it E.S.E. or East, But to
avoid confusion arising from this, the old names of the N.W. and S.E. are
here preserved according to the case in question.

The general law observed in these two seas is, that the N.W. monsoon
commences in the first part of November and does not attain its height till
December. It continues till the end of March, a time when calms, light
winds, squalls, and rain occur. The S.E. monsoon commences in April,
gradually increasing till May ; it ends jn October, when the winds becoma
variable. This monsoon is subject to calms, and the wind is not so strong
as that of the N.W. Besides this, the changes of the monsoons do not
take place at regular periods.

North of Boero and Ceram the S.E. monsoon varies from S.S.E. to
S.S.W. ; at Amboma from East to S.E. At these islands the N.W. mon-

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•ooQ TViM from W.S.W. to N.W. This last, hare called the West monsoon,
10 ibe seMon of storms in these islands, and ends in April. The S.E.
begins in March and lasts till November, bringing the rainj
In the Moluccas, daring the S.E. monsoon, violent storms are met
with, and rain falls abundantly over the larger islands of the archipelago.
In November this monsoon ceases, but the N.W. monsoon does not become
ostabluhed for some time after, for daring two months the winds are
Tariable, as thej always are in close seas towards the end of the monsoons.
From October to April the weather is tolerably fine.

In the Moluccas, situated between 5° S. and 1° N. lat., the winds are
much less regular than in the contiguous seas, the result probably of the '
great difference in direction of the monsoons in the two hemispheres.*

WW gwlOTa 1>n the west coast of New Guinea are also two mon-
soons, the S.E. lasiiDg from April to October, and the N.W. beginning
with the cud of October and terminating towards April. In January,
near this island, the wind sometimes vfiries from N.N.W. to N.E. In the
spring the weather is often changeable, and in March, April, and May
it is squally. From June to September a great deal of rain falls ; ^m
October to May the weather is fine and calm, without either cloud or fogs.

mwmmauLL bbkabxs. — majolt juujhifb&aoo. — From the fore-
going the following general remarks on the winds and weather of the
Malay Archipelago have been deduced.

ir«rtti of the Bqnater. — North-easterly winds prevail from December
to ^farch inclusive. This is the fine season, the winds blowing strong
and steadily, except in the Sulu sea, where variables prevail.

Southerly winds prevail from May to September inclusive. This is the
wet season, and the winds are variable in force and direction with bad
weather. Sudden and violent squalls from the north-west occur in the
Celebes and Sulu seas.

October and November are unsettled months ; the N.E. monsoon not
being fairly established before the middle of December.

•outh of the Bquator. — West and north-west winds veering to north-
east prevail off the coasts of New Guinea from November to March.
On coasts having a northern aspect, land and sea breezes, with unsettled
weather, and rain will be found.

South-east and east winds prevail from May to September, generally
fresh and steady, with fine weather, on coasts with a northern aspect^ but
bringing rain and bad weather to coasts open to the southward.

* It has been remarked that after the monsoons are established, particularly daring
the S J), and S.W. monsoons, that in passing from one to the other, both in Caspar
strait and in the Molucca passage, the wind draws round gradually by the south.

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madnj Seasons^ — ^In this archipelago, situated as it i& in the vicinity
of the equator, and within the regions of cahns and doldrums caused by
the meeting of the northern and southern wind systems, the wet and dry
seasons are not strongly contrasted, as a great amount of rain falls more-
or less all the year round. The same monsoon is often stormy at sea, but
fine near the land ; as a rule, bad weather with rain is felt on coasts and
islands that He to windward, whilst leeward coasts enjoy fine weather.

cusiUBirTS of the n&STEur PASSAoas.— The currents in the
passages east of Java are very various, and have not yet been reduced to
any fixed laws. The great irregularities they appear to be subject to is
doubtless due to their geographical relations, lying as they do between the
wind systems of the northern and southern hemispheres, which produce
currents, more or less regular, which are very apparent at neaps, but are
accelerated or opposed during spring tides. But as their action is fre-
quently of importance in endeavouring to make a passage against adverse
winds, they require much attention. The imperfect notes which follow
are given as a guide to their general character.*

On the South Coast of Java, where the monsoons are liable to great
deviations, there are some remarkable reverse currents experienced within
a degree or two of the coast. Lieutenants Rietveld, Eschauzier, and others
of the Netherlands navy, say that during the easterly monsoon, April to
November, a constant easterly current is encountered running against the
monsoon, at times so strong as to ripple, but on an average 10 to 12 miles
a day. The drift is frequently to S.E. two-thirds of a mile an hour.
Captain M. H. Jansen has stated that in the east monsoon the current sets
to the westward from full to change of the moon, and either to the eastward
from the change, or that there was no current. It is also certain that
there is a considerable set to the westward in this monsoon, especially near
the shore. In the west monsoon the current Is sometimes to the S.S.E.
and South, decreasing in force between 11° and 16°, and then ceases,