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to defer her departure till September.

With south-westerly winds, a ship, to pass east of the Philipines, should
steer as southerly a course as possible, in order to enter the Pacific without
tacking, and if the wind admit, the Ballintang channel should be adopted.
In the Pacific at this season S. W. winds will generally be found with north-
westerly currents ; she should therefore steer S.E. to avoid cape Engano,
tacking if necessary, so as to pass neither too far out nor too close ; and
be careful not to round the Pellew islands farther to the eastward than
is necessary.

For making southing, the best route is then east of the isles of St. Andrew
and Pulo Mariere. If the equatorial counter-current be met, it may
not be strong as far as the Pellew islands ; but between the parallels of
7° and 3° N. lat. it sets at the rate of 30 to 60 mUes a day. This part
must therefore be crossed as quickly as possible if the wind be West, as it
frequently is ; for if light winds prevail a ship may be set far to the east-
ward by this current. But from the lat. of 2° N. to the equator a westerly
current will be found, while near Dampier strait it is again found running
to the eastward.

Having rounded to the eastward of St. Andrew, a ship should endeavour
to keep between the meridians of 132° and 133** E., and when in V N. lat.,
if Dampier strait is to be taken, she should make for point Pigot.

Gillolo passage being broader than Dampier strait is often preferred for
that reason, and there are few difficulties in it to be overcome in reach-
ing Pitt passage. When it is adopted, on leaving the parallel of 2® N.,
the Asia isles should be steered for, and rounded on the north if the wind
permit, unless passing between them and Aiou.

Having passed the island of Syang, and north or south of Geby
island, if the weather be not favourable Gillolo strait may be taken
instead of Bougainville, which is south of it. In crossing Gillolo strait keep
near the eastern coast, and enter Pitt channel between Pulo Pisang and
the Boe isles, or else, according to circumstances, between Kekik and Pulo
Gasses.

A vessel entering Dampier strait should round point Pigot at a distance
of 6 to 12 miles, and then steer for King William island, keeping it west
of her ; when about 9 miles from it she should steer for Pigeon island, and
pass 2 or 3 miles south of it ; she may then cross the strait, taking care
to avoid any dangers in her way



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chap; I.] TREATY POBTS OF CHINA. 66

On leaving Dampier strait she Tvould -go dose round eape Mabo, so as
if possible to pass south of Fulo Popa; or 'she may pass north of this
island and enter Pitt channel between the Boe islands and Fulo Fopa. In
Fitt channel she should keep mid-channel, bearing rather on the southern
than on the northern side. Passing between Coram and Bouro, the Indian
ocean may be entered by the strait of Ombay, or one of those westward
of it.

Ombay strait is the nfbst direct route to the tndism ocean in the S.E.
monsoon, and may be gained as above directed. But if intending to take
the strait of Salaiyer, or either Alias or Sapie strait, the north-west part
of Bouro should be made, and thence the most northerly of the Toekan
Besi group should be rounded at 2 to 3 miles, and after rounding Celebes
the course should be directed for the strait of Salayer.



The foregoing is a general account of the tracks most usually followed
in traversing the China and adjacent seas. The more particular instruc-
tions for each locality (excepting the eastern passages) will be found in their
respective places in the following pages.

In such a variety of routes, it has been well remarked,* there is neces-
sarily some diversity of opinion as to which is best, and this has not been
lessened of late years by the improved build and trim of the vessels
employed in Oriental commerce, and the more frequent use of steam power.
The route practicable and advantageous to the swift sailing clipper or the
steamer, cannot be followed by the heavy-laden and slow-sailing ship of
former years. In what is here given, these different routes are each
described, some from older authorities, some from recent experience. Some
few of the best tracks may have been avoided from ignorance of their
nature, or their supposed dangerous character. This is fast disappearing
before increased knowledge, and it may be predicted that some settled
system for the navigation of these seas will be established in the course of
a few years.

TREATY FORTS OF CHINA, &c.

The following ports in China and Japan have been opened by treaty to
the subjects of Great Britain and other foreign nations. Regulations which
every foreigner is required to obey, are suspended in the pubUc office of
every consulate.

sovTB and SA8T CBHTA. — ^Canton, with the port of Whampoa;
Swatow for Chau-chu-fu; Amoy ; Fuchau fu (Foo-chow), with Pagoda
island ; and Ning-po.f

♦ Alex. Geo, Rndlay, Esq., F.R.G.S.

t Kien-chn-fii, on the north side of the island of Hainan, is also incladed in the
treaties, but has not yet been opened ; and Nanking may be opened whenever deemed
desirable by H.M. Government, under the most-favoured-nation clause. Simonoseki is
Iso about to be opened by the Japanese Government.



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66 TBEATY POETS. [chap. i.

Ob tbe TAVCITSa xnrck — Shanghai ; Ching-kiang ; Nanking (not
yet opened) ; Kiukiang ; and Hankow.

vomraaur osnrA. — Chifii (or Yentai) ; Tientsin, with the port of
Taku ; and Newchwang with the port of Yenkoa or Yingtze.

yoBiKOflA.— -Taiwan fa, with the port of Takau ; and Tamsui, with
the additional port of Kelung.

jJkVAV zs&Airas, — ^Yedo, with the port of Yokohama ; Osaka, with
the port of K6be ; Nagasaki; Ntgata; and Hakodate.

The descriptions of the above ports (excepting those of Japan which are
contained in the fourth yolome of the CMna Sea Directory) will be found
in various parts of the body of this work, and, besides the directions for
navigation, embrace their climates, trade, supplies, docking accommodation,
port regulations, and other useful information.



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57



CHAPTER II
AFFJU)ACHES TO HONO EONO AND CANTON.

INCLTJDING MACAO, THE CHU KIANG OR CANTON RIVER, THE

SI KIANG OR WEST RIVER, AND THE WESTERN CHANNELS

OF CANTON RIVER.

Vabiation in 1874.
Hong Kong 0"* SC E.



As vessels bound to Canton river from the southward in the S.W.
monsoon endeavour to make Great Ladrone island* bearing about Norths
and then proceed towards the river by the Great West channel^ a description
will £rst be given of the islands and anchorages on the west side of this
channel, from San-chau island to Cum-sing-mun harbour, including Macao
and its approaches^ also the estuary of the Si kiang or West river, called
the Broadway, and then returning to the Ladrone islands the mariner
will be taken through the different passages eastward of these islands to
the entrance of the river and to Hong Kong, as follows : —

The Ladrones and contiguous groups which form an outer belt of
islands fronting the entrance of the Canton river are described on p. 64 ;
Tylo and other islands forming an inner belt, on p. 68 . Next the Lema
islands and the great chain extending south-westward from them, through
which the western entrance to Hong Kong is approached from the south-
ward, are described at p. 71 ; the islands bounding that approach, called
the Lamma channel, at p. 73 ; and Hong Kong on p. 75.

Next are described the great island of Lantao and the adjacent coast
forming the inner channel between Hong Kong and the Canton river at
p. 81 ; followed by directions to Hong Kong or the Canton river by
various other channels, viz.: through Lema channel, p. 86; through Tai-
tami channel, p. 88 ; to Canton river through Lantao channel, p. 87 ;
through Great West channel, p. 88 ; Lintin to Boca Tigris, p. 91 ; and
through Fansiak channel, p. 93.

The chapter concludes with descriptions of the Canton river, p. 94 ; the
western branches of the same, p. 109 ; and the Si-kiang or West river, p. 116.

* See Admiralty Charts :— East coast of Ghina, Sheet I.,No. 2,212 ; scale, m=0'23
of an inch. Also, General Chart of Canton river, No. 2,662 ; scale, m = 0'46 of aa
inch.



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68 APPBOAOHES TO HONG KONG AND CANTON. [oHiLP.n.

APPROACHES TO MACAO.

SAV-OKAV, which forms the west side of entrance to the Broadway,
is the next large island north-eastward of Tjlou island, and its south-east
point bears W.bjN. 15^ miles from the Little Ladrone. The space
between San-chau and T7I0U is shoal^ with some islets and rocks adjoining
the north-east end of the latter. The depths decrease gradually off San-
chauy but it is not so bold to approach as the islands to the south*-westward,
for soondings of 8 to 4 fathoms extend a considerable distance from it ;
nearly touching its east point is a conical islet and some rocks, with
3 fathoms close to.

xowTAnA, or Wung-cum island, forming the east side of entrance
to the Broadway, is a large high island N.E. of San-chau, and dose to its
north-east side is Ko-ho island. These two islands form the south side of
the Typa anchorage ; and the Great West channel is bounded by them
on the west, and by Potoe and the other islands adjacent on the east.

TiM SROABWAT is the chief and eastern entrance (and the only one
yet surveyed) of the Si kiang, described in page 116. It has sufficient
depth to admit a vessel of moderate draught a considerable way up, and
may be found useful to such as intend to nuike a long stay near Macao, or
to those who have parted from their anchors, and draw too much water
to attempt the lypa anchorage off Macoa. Its entrance is 9 miJes south-
westward of Macao, between the islands of San-chau and Montanha. The
channel, a mile wide, takes a N.N.W. course for 15 miles, with average
depths of 16 to 21 feet (in 1850) between flats carrying 3 to 9 feet. There
is a 12-feet shoal patch in mid-channel, between two rocks awash at low
water, 4 miles within the entrance.

WATB iB&Aims are two small islets lying close off the south end of
Montanha ; and N.W. f N. a mile from them lies Inside islet, having a
small inlet, called Lark bay, between it and Morgan point (608 feet above
the sea), the west extreme of Montanha. These islands are on the east
side of the Broadway entrance; and Coffin island, bearing S.W. by W.^W.
distant 4 miles fivrn the Water islands, is on the western side. At 5 miles
In a S. I E. direction from Montanha peak and 2^ miles from the Water
islands is a shoal patch of 12 feet.

TZBBS. — ^It is high water, full and change, at the entrance of the
Broadway at llh.,and springs rise 7^ feet. The neaps are very irregular,
there being then only one flood and one ebb of any considerable strength
during the 24 hours. The direction of the flood outside is governed
principally by the winds; with strong easterly winds it comes from
E.S.E., and when south-westerly winds prevail from South. The ebb



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CHAP. XL] THE BEOABWAY. 69

nms generallj to the S.W. Inside the riyor the tides take the direction
of the channeL



3. — The best time to enter the Broadway is with the first
of the flood, and if at anchor in Macao road and obliged to run for it
with a N.E. or East wind, about three-quarters ebb will be the best time
to leave the road, that the first of the flood maj be met at the entrance,
where it flows sooner than in the road. Having rounded the east point of
Elo-lio island, about I^ miles distant in 4^ fathoms, steer at any convenient
distance round Apomi point, the high south-east 'extreme of Montanha,
which has 3 fathoms near it, deepening gradually to the eastward towards
^otoe island.

When abreast the point, Water islands will be seen in one with each
other, near the western extreme of a bay with a sandy beach. As there
are not more than 2 fathoms in this bay at low tide, it should be avoided
by steering to pass about half or three-quarters of a mile southward of
these islands, in 2| or 3 fathoms, then haul round the western island,
preserving the same depth and distance. Do not exceed the distance of
one mile westward from this island, for beyond that the water shoals fast
to 2^ &thoms towards the San-chau shore. From abreast the islands
about a N.N.W. J W. course, giving a berth of three-quarters of a mile to
Inside islet, will lead up to abreast Morgan point, the west point of Mon-
tanha, in 3 and 3J fathoms at low water, off which a vessel may anchor
in a gale and be sheltered till its termination.

Prom the above point the water shoals gradually towards Ross island
on the west side of the channel ; there is generally a line of fishing stakes
extending westward from the point, with passages among them for



xovo-CBAVy or Ballast island, bears N.N. W., 2| miles, from Morgan
poin^ and between them are two passages leading to Macao, but both so
' shoal at low water as only to aflbrd a passage for boats.

K.W. JN. about IJ miles from Morgan point, and fronting the first of
the- above passages, is a rock winch shows at low water about the size of a
smali boat The ehannel is about a cable westward of this rock, for W. ^ S.
about a mile from it is another rock, which also shows at low water, and
shoal banks bound the channel on both sides. Fi'om Morgan point to
Ballast island the water is shoal ; a narrow passage eastward of the eastern
rock has 1^ fathoms at low water. Pak-tang, a small island with a sharp
hammock on its north-east end, lies on the western bank, W. JN. distant
3 miles from Ballast island : the bank, composed of mud, has only 6 feet
on it, and extends 1^ miles from Pak-tang towards Ballast island, and
commencing at the western rock, trends to the N.N.W. the whole length



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60 APPROACHES TO HONG KONG AND CANTON, [chap. ii.

of the cbannel, contracting it to about the breadth of half a mile to a miloi
with 2} and 3 fathoms in it.

If intending to proceed farther np than Morgan point steer N.N.W.
towards the rock fronting the first passage to Macao ; the soundings will
be about 3 fathoms at low water, and the rock should be passed within
a cable on the west side, to avoid the 12 feet shoal patch in mid-chanheL
When abreast the rock, steer N.N.W. J W. IJ miles, and the vessel will
then be abreast Ballast island, in 2| fathoms. This is a safe and con-
venient anchorage, about 6 miles S.W. by W. of Macao, and the boats are
kept in sight when passing to or from that place. Fresh water may be
obtained in a small bay to the northward, under Beacon hill, which is 690
feet high, and has a remarkable stone on its summit.

The channel for vessels, between Ballast island and the bluff point to
the northward, becomes narrow. If intending to proceed higher up
a N.N.W.^ W. course will lead about a mile above the bluff point, in 3
and 3^ fathoms, and this point ought to be passed at about three-quarters
of a mile. If drawing more than 14 feet, wait here for the last of the
flood, to pass the Tang rocks, lying a little to the northward, and off which
are only 3^ or 4 fathoms at high water.

From the bluff point, steer N.N.W. |W. to pass a long half mile
westward of the Tang, and when abreast them, steer about N. W. J N.,
or directly for the entrance of the river, keeping about half a mile off
Nam-ye-kok point, which forms the east side of entrance ; it has a
pagoda on it, and is well covered with trees. Here the depths begin to
increase, and, passing Moto fort^ keep within a quarter of a mile of it,
to avoid a rock lying in mid-channel; the soundings will be 4 and 5
fathoms. (For the navigation of the Si kiang see page 1 16.)

If the wind does not admit sailing directly into the entrance of the
Broadway, there is room for short tacks between the Water islands and
the rocky islets off San-chau, taking care of the latter shore, which is
shoal. Farther in, the channel contracts a little, but the tides are of
sufficient strength to back and fill past the rocks that lie at the entrance
of the passage to the Typa, or where the channel may seem rather narrow
for working. The wide opening eastward of Nam-ye-kok point, called
the Flats, has a boat passage through it leading to Macao.

TTFA AVCBO&AOB. — ^The eastern entrance to this anchorage is
between two high islands, that on the south side named Ko-ho or Apomi,
and that on the north side named Typa or Kaikong. Ko-ho is separated
from the north-east point of Montanha by a narrow gut with 24 feet
water in it, decreasing to 9 or 10 feet farther in towards the Typa. The
Anchorage is between the west end of Typa island and the east end of
Macarira island, and affords secure shelter in 3^ to 4 fathoms. H.M. Shipsi



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CHAP. 11.] MACAO HARBOUR. 61

Herald and Modeste refitted here dunng the operations in China in



i. — ^In this anchorage, and in Macao harbour, it is high water,
full and change, at lOh. Cm. The springs rise about 7 feet ; in the Typa
they run 1^ and 2 knots per hour, when not influenced bj the winds.
The ebb runs out of the Typa entrance, but it sets across it when outside
the points.

BZSBCTZoirs. — Vessels entering or leaving the Tjpa should weigh
at half-fiood. In entering steer for the north extreme of Ko-ho, and
pass it prettj close, the deepest water being on this side the entrance.
Thence continue in mid-channel for Juan point, and when Village and
East points of Typa island are in one^ haul to the northward, and anchor
near the west point of Typa, with south point of Tylock open of south
extreme of Typa.

Here the depth is 3^ to 4 fathoms at low tide, and vessels are sheltered
from all winds by the high lands around ; the deepest water is near the
west ^^int of Typa (on which is a fort), the bay abreast, at the east end of
Macarira, being shoal. The watering cove is at the head of this latter bay,
and from the north point a reef of rocks, with the sunken rock Fedra
Mea, projects nearly a quarter of a mile eastward. In the fair channel
leading to the anchorage the depths are only 8 to 10 feet at low tide ; but
no injury can be received by grounding, the bottom being remarkably
soft.

acACAO BAitBOUS. — ^Macao,t a Portuguese settlement in China, stands
on a small peninsula projecting from the south-east end of Hiang-shan island.
The peninsula is nearly 2 miles long, less than a mile wide at its broadest
part, and is connected with the island by a low, narrow, sandy isthmus,
across which extends a barrier wall to exclude foreigners from the interior
of the island. The town is built on the declivities round the harbour 200
to 300 feet in height, the shore beneath being embanked, so as to form a
marine parade, backed by a terrace of white houses.

This settlement, known to the Chinese as Ng^o-mun, was established by
ihe Portuguese in 1557, and long remained the centre of foreign trade with
China, continuing to be the only outlet of commercial importance previous
to the first China war and the establishment of the colony of Hong Kong
in 1842. Macao has never been recognized as a possession of Portugal by
the Chinese government, which, as late as 1862, reftised to ratify a treaty
in which an article to that effect had been embodied j the British govern-
ment, however, has recognized the- jurisdiction of its law courts as
supreme.

♦ See Admiralty Chart, No. 2,661a; scale, »i=l*17 inches.

t See Admiralty Plan of Macao, No. 1,290 j scale, m = 3 inches.



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62 APPEOACKES TO HOKG KONG AND CANTON, [chap, n.



tanw Sarbour is formed between the peninsula and Patera island
*to the westward. Its entrance is narrow, but the depths are 20 feet at low
water close to fort San lago or Barra, which is built on the south-west
point; and from thence the soundings are 19 and 16 feet along the western
shore to the town,* Daily steam communication is maintaiued with Hong
Koagy and there is an excellent landing pier in the inner harbour.
Steamers also ply between Macao and Canton, making the YOjage on
alternate days.

VOBV avxA &ICNBT.^-A revolving white light has been established at
fort Guia, at an elevation of about 380 feet, and in clear weather should
be seen 20 mUes. Its revolution is complete in 64 seconds.

9»dm Ar^oa* a rock lying S J]. 4 cables from the south point of Macao,
is marked by a beacon, having depths of 9 to 12 feet all round.

San vranoUioo aank^ — ^About a mile E.S.E. from the point of that
name is a mud patch with two heaps of ballast, with 4 and 5 feet on them,
and 10 feet close to.

FZ&OT8, Fo#t Hesmiatioiis. — ^The port regulations now in force were
issued in 1855. They require a report of the arrival of all vessels within
24 hours under a penalty of 100 dollars. Ships' papers must be lodged at
the office of the captain of the port. A government school of pilotage is
established for the instruction and examination of pilots, who are not
allowed to serve unless duly qualified. The charge for bringing a vessel
into the inner harbour is 7^ dollars. Canton river pilots are procured at
Macao, and each receives a chop from the residing mandarin, to deliver to
the officer stationed at the Boca Tigris, describing the f<»*ce of tiie ship
and to what nation she belongs.

o&ZMATB. — ^The situation of Macao with ftdl exposure to the S.W.
monsoon, renders it a more agreeable and salubrious residence during the
hot season than Hong Kong, for although the place is by no means exempt
from the diseases prevalent in the adjacent colony, yet sanitary improve-
ments have much iacreafled the healthiness of the town.

Heat sets in about the middle of May, when the N.E. monsoon gives
placb to winds prevailing from S.E. and S.W. June, July, and August are
distinguished by heavy rain-fall, the two latter being the hottest months of
the year. With the latter half of September northerly winds again set in.

The mean -temperatures derived from two sources, the observations
extending over several years, are as follows : — Jan. 51° to 59° ; Feb. 51°
to 60° ; March 64° ; April 73° ; May 77°; June 82° ; July 85° ; Aug. 84° ;
Sept. 82° ; Oct. 75°; Nov. 64° to 70° ; Dec. 57° to 63°. Maximum, 93° ;

* It is stated in the Treaty Ports of China, page 224, that the inner harbonr in 1867,
had become so shallow as only to accommodate vessels of light draught. The Admiralty
plan bears the date of 1804, with some later corrections.



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cHAF.n.] DIEECnOKS POB MACAO. 68

minimum, 43^ The total rain-fall for the year ending April 30th 1864
was 90 inches.

MACAO SOAB is shoaly the depth being generally from 3 fathoms
at low water springs on the west side> to 4^ or 5 fathoms close over to
Samcock and the other islands that bound the east aide. There is, how*
ever, said to be much less water in it of late years, bat as the bottom ia
soft loam or loose mud there is no danger of a vessel striking on her
anchors, for ihey immediately bury in it.

Vessels of large draught usually anchor in deep water near the ^ftt an^^gj,
with Macao bearing between W. by N. and W.N.W., distant 6 or 7 nule%
which renders the communication with that place difficult and dangerous
in blowing weather. With Ko-ho point S. by W. ^ W., and Macao W.N.W.,
distant 4 or 5 miles, a large vessel may anchor in about 4 fathoms at
low water, and be more conveniently situated for procuring a pilot. If
drawing under 18 feet she can anchor with Macao on the same bearing
about 1^ miles off the Typa entrance.

Small vessels may anchor in the S.W* monsoon in the entrance of
the Typa, off the Ko-ho shore, a little outside Ka-o islet, in about
3 fathoms at low water. In the N.E. monsoon they can anchor abreast
a sandy beach, between the Cau-chau or I^ine islands and Macao, in 3 or
3^ fathoms; here they will generdly have smooth water and an easy
communication with the shore.

mMMCTXOwra^ — The route to Macao harbour for small vessels, through
the Typa anchorage, has 7 feet at low tide in the fair track between the
Typa and the harbour, and 8 to 12 feet between Typa island and Macao.
A vessel should steer a direct course from the Typa to the harbour, and
to avoid the sunken rock, Fedra-mea, lying about a quarter of a mile
eastward of the north-east point of Macarira, keep the north-east point of
Montanha open eastward of Macarira; or, in passing it keep rather
towards the Typa island side of mid-channel.

From thence, steer direct for the entrance of the harbour, avoiding
Fedra Ar^ca rock, from which the south point of the outermost of the
two high Ma-lo-chau islets, to the south-west of the entrance, bears