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W. byS. ^S. IJ miles, and the point of fort Barra N.W. about 4 cables.
The north-east point of Montanha in line with east point of Macarira
leads westward of the Fedra Ar^ca, and a vessel wiU not be too near it if
she does not go eastward of a line drawn from the west point of Typa*
island to fort Barra point. This point should be rounded pretty dose in
entering and the eastern shore kept aboard to the anchorage abreast the
town, where a disabled ship may be hove down and repaired.

Entering from the outer roads, fort Barra point in line with the south,
extreme of Anang village, W. by N., will lead between San Francisco



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64 APPROACHES TO HONG KONG AND CANTON, [chap.ii.

bank and Pedra Ar^ca in 9 feet least water, deepening as the harbour is
approached.

OAV-OBAV, or Nine islands, are a group of islets about 4 miles north-
east of Macao. They lie close together, and the depth is 3 fathoms at
about half a mile eastward of the outermost islet, which bears N.E.byE.
from Senhora de Penhos church at Macao ; S.W. about three-quarters of
a mile from this islet, is a rock always above water.

cirM<4U]ro-iiinr HAXBomt.* — From Macao the eastern shore of
Macao island trends N.N.E. about 11 miles to Bluff head, where it
turns abruptly westward and forms a deep bight called Cum-sing-mun
harbour. This harbour is safe for small vessels, and would be a desirable
haven for vessels of large draught to run for from the anchorage off
Lintin, at the approach of a typhoon, were it not for the extensive shoal
flat they would have to cross, the depths being only 2 to 3 fathoms-
2 miles outside the entrance ; but they increase quickly to 7 and 8 fathoms
when within half a mile of Bluff head, which is the proper side to steer
for in coming from the south-east, and also to keep nearest to when
running into the harbour.

The entrance, about half a mile wide, is between the south part of
Kee-ow island and Bluff head. Between this head and the small islet
and sunken rocks, near the island shore, the depths are irregular, from 14
to 6 fathoms ; but inside, about half a mile West, or W. by S. from the
small islet, the bottom is soft, affording safe anchorage in 6, 5, or 4
&thoms, taking care to avoid the shoal patches shown on the chart.

CMUULT XhAAROiTB, (Mau-sau of the Chinese,) being the outermost
island directly fronting the estuary of Canton river, is generally used as
a landfall by vessels bound there from the southward during the S.W.
monsoon ; and with the Little Ladrone adjoining to the westward, and
Potoe to the north-westward, bounds the east side of the Great West
channel, leading to the river.

This steep bold island may be easily known by its north-west part
forming a round mount or dome, 1,465 feet high, which, being more
elevated than the other parts, can be seen, in clear weather, about 27 miles
from a vessel's deck, and 40 miles from the masthead ; none of the
other islands have a similar appearance, although most of them are high.
The island, about 2 miles in diameter, has a rocky aspect close to tho
sea, but is safe to approach, the depths near it being 14 or 15 fathoms ;
at its south-west end is Pumice Stone bay, a small inlet, where fishing
boats take shelter in the N.E. monsoon.

* See Admiralty Flan of Cum-siDg-mon harbour, No. 1,253 ; scale, fn=3 inches.



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CHAP.II.] CUM-SING-MTJN HABB0X7B — ^LADEONE ISLANDS. 66



fton, (Focking-han of the Chinese,) lying to the west-
ward of, and not so mnch elevated as the Great Ladrone, is of a convex
sloping form, and separated bj a narrow channel of 9 to 18 fathoms watefi
but too confined for a vessel except in a case of necessity. Near the west .
dde of the island the depth is about 10 fathoms, decreasing gradually to
7 fathoms, about half a mile southward of Potoe; there are 12 fathoms
near its south point, and 14 and 15 fathoms near the touth and south-east
sides of the Great Ladrone.

A small rocky islet lies close to the north-east point of the Little
Ladrone ; and North nearly three-quarters of a mile from this islet ii
Black rock covered at high tide, with 10 fathoms close around : it will
be prudent, therefore, in passing this locality at high water when the rock
is covered, to keep about mid-channel between the Little Ladrone and
Tong-ho island, which lies 2| miles to the northward. This is the only
danger near the Little Ladrone, excepting a high rock close to its north-
west side, having a depth near it of 9 and 10 fathoms.

POTOS, or Passage island, bearing N.N.W.^W. 5^ miles from the
south-west end of the Little Ladrone, is a sloping rock, visible about
9 miles. There are 5 to 6 fathoms near it on all sides, but it ought not
to be approached too dose in light winds, as the eddies occasioned by
the freshes out of the river may render a vessel unmanageable, and pro-
bably drift her towards it, or Wong-mou, the adjacent island. The
channel between it and the south-east point of Montanha is about 5 miles
wide, and safe.

wovG-MOV and xxuiTOirzB xszjLVBS. — ^Wong-mou^ lying 1^ miles
E.N.E. of Potoe, is 1^ miles long, north and south, and has a peaked hill
on its northern part ; nearly half a mile from its west side are some
rocks above water. Liungnib, lying a mile eastward of Wong-mou, has a
round islet off its south end.

About three-quarters of a mile N. W. from the north end of Liungnib
lie two rocks, which cover at springs, and break in blowing weather ;
therefore, in passing the north end of this island, keep at least a mile
&om it.

Tovo-ao is&Ain>9 about 2| miles N. by E. ^^S.from the Little Ladrone,
is If miles long, east and west, and of moderate and unequal height. On
its north-east side is a small cove into which the ship Boddam, drawing
21^ feet water, was taken by her pilot and remained in safety during a
typhoon. The cove is IJ cable wide, with 24 feet water at entrance^
17 and 18 feet well inside, at low water springs, and the bottom all soft
mud. Here a vessel may lie at anchor, or if she has none, be run into
the mud without risk. On either side the land is steep from the water's
edge, terminating in a valley at the head of the cove, where there is a
30251. ^-



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66 APFBOACHES TO HOVCh KOKCh AND CAinX>N. [chap. n.

saadj beaoh and plantain trees : it is the chief rendezrons of the fishing
boats in bad weather. The rocks along the north-west side of ihe core,
oneHhird to half a cable off shore, have 12 feet, mad, within 8 or 4 yards
of thenu

BowMer mo«ka are two rocks close together, lying N.E.byN., two«
thirds of a cable flrom the sonth-east entrance point of the core ; the outer
nek is awash at low water.*

•wpues. — Grood water may be obtained at Boddam cove, also beef, fish,
poultry, and some fruit

PAX-&aAJt is&AirD, called also Putoy, lies N.£.by N. nearly 1^ miles
firom the Great Ladrone, and on its north-east part is a remarkable
cone hill, 855 feet high, visible from Macao. The island is of irregular
shape, and the hills on its southern side are much covered by black rocks.
On its eastern side and fronting Hoa-ock islet is a cove where fishing
boats find shelter ; on its northern side are some small bays in which
fresh water may be procured; and near its north-east point is House
islet, formed of rock, on which the fishermen have a hut and fishing stage.
A rock, awash, lies dose ofi* its south extreme.

Olio Book* on which H.M.S. Clio struck, 12th December 1841, lies
about 2 cables from the west side of Pak-leak, with the north-west
extreme of the island bearing N. by W. distant 4 cables.

BaaaoTZom. — This cove will not be readily distinguished until the
vessel is within about 2 miles of the north-east part of Tong-ho. Steering
for the entrance, take care to give a berth to North rock lying 2 cables off
the north-east point of the island, and to a rock, awash at low water^
lying about 1^ cable north-eastward of Fort point ; when the head of
the cove bears S.W.by W., the vessel will be south-east of the rock.

Having brought the cove fairly open on the above bearing, steer for
the point on the south-east side of entrance, being careful to keep the
apex of Round hill at the head of the cove just open of two high-water
points on the south-east shore, to avoid Bouncer rocks, and pass it the
distance of half a cable ; for the north-west point, where stands a ruined
fort, and the point next westward, are bordered by rocks. Three cables
south-east of entrance there is also a reef of rocks, extending three-
quarters of a cable from the south-east part of the island ; these are mostly
all in sight at high water, and easily avoided in rounding by giving a
wide berth. The fiood sets N.W. outside the entrance, and the ebb S.E.
They both run pretty strong, but there is scarcely a dram in the cove.

osvx-WAV is&Airas^— These two islands lie about E.by N. 1^ miles
from Pak-leak, and the larger island, the eastern one, has Sharp islet, a

* See Adminaty Plan of Boddam oove, No. 1,023 ; scale, iii» 12 *0 inclies.



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<mi'.n.] . ISUlNDS OFT CANTON BIVEB ESTUABY. 67

high rocky islet, lying oi£ its south-^eaat point, and a flouiU bay on itsnorth
eide» There are 14 fathoms between Hoa-ock and the western iaha4,
and 11 and 12 fivthoms northward of the group.

BAtoigb Bock, on which H.M.S. Baleigh stnxck^ 14th April 1857t ^ ft
small pinnacle^ which breaks, when there is a moderate sea, at low water,
springs, with 9 or 10 fathoms close to. Its position is hit. 22^ 2' K,
long. 113^ 47' E., nearly in mid-channel between Pak-leak and Soath
White rock, distant 2^ miles fipom ^e latter. When on the rock the
gap in the centre of South White Bock is in line with the right extreme
of a small wedge-shaped island off the eastern side of TAfaAyn^ ialand
.bearing N.E.byN.; the highest part of Ai-chau island £*^N.; and
the peak of the great Ladrone^ seen over the western slope of Pak-leak,

as.w.iw.



vosTB and sovTB WMiTA mocKS are two high white rocks half
a mile apart, lying North 3 J miles from the western or small Chuk-wan
island. From the southern rock the north-east point of the eastern
Chuk-wan bears S.S. W. J W., distant 4J miles ; the peak or highest part
of Ty-lo W. by N. J N., 5| miles ; the north point of Liungnib W. by S. | S.,
6 miles; the southern part of eastern Chi-chau N.E. by E. | E., 5 J miles ;
and the western Ai-chau island S.E. by E. ^ E., distant 6 miles. About
a mile south-east of the southern rock, is a small black rock, visible
only at low springs, having 9 fathoms water close around. Between
the' White rocks, but a little more westerly, is a smaller rock above
water.

CAVTZOV. — The White rocks may be seen in fine weather in time to
avoid them, and the depth is about 9 fathoms near their eastern side,
8 fathoms on the western and northern sides, and 9 fathoms in the channel,
between them and Chuk-wan ; bui since the loss of the Raleigh by striking
on the Baleigh rock, it will be pirudent not to use this channel until it has
been more accurately examined.

AXp-GSJLir xs&Ain>8 lie N.E. byE.^E., 4^ miles from the eastern
Chuk-wan, and the eastern or larger island is separated from the smaller
one^ on its west side, by a very narrow channel with 4 and 5 fathoms
in it at low water. The depth on their southern side is 14 fathoms, on
the north and east sides 12 and 13 fathoms, and on the west side 8 or 9
&thoms.

moA zsxAT, lying N.E. 1^ miles from the northern part of the eastern
Ai-chau, has 11 and 12 fathoms water at a short distance from the rocks
around it.

TIM aaMComr, or Three- gates, form a group of three small islands,
2^ miles eastward of Ai-chau, extending about 3^ miles in a N.W. and S.E.

s 2



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68 APPEOACHES TO HONG KONG AND CANTON, [chap.h.

direction, with narrow passages between them. Near the north-west part of
Hak-chau, the north-west island, are two peaked islets ; and on the northern
side of the group, between the eastern and middle islands, is Gauze,
another high rocky islet, with a bed of rocks Ijing southward of it ; the south
end of the eastern island is the highest part of the group and forms a round
mount. A small harbour on the south-west side of the largest or middle
island affords shelter to two or three vessels during a N.E. gale, with
anchorage in 6 to 10 fathoms, muddj bottom.

uoroTnra xs&Aira, bearing W.|N. distant 15 miles from the
N.E. head of the Lema islands, is of rugged appearance, about If miles
long, east and west, and rises to a peak near its centre. Two rocks,
one awash and the other above water, bearing N.byE. and S.by "V^. of
each other, lie eastward of the north point of the island ; the outer one,
^wash, is distant nearly a mile E.N.E. from the north point, and the other
S. by W. about half a mile from the outer one, with depths near them of
13 fathoms, but foul ground between.

areeOle Books, on which H.M.S. Doris struck in 1813, are two
heads lying within a few yards of each other, about 1^ <^bles south-west
of the low rocky north-east extreme of Lingting^ and they are so sharp
that it is difficult to keep the lead fixed on their points ; at low springs *
they have about 6 feet water on them, at which time, with a swell, they
may probably show either breakers or a rippling. From the outer rock
the south-west extreme of the Lema islands is just set in with the south-
west point of Lingting, and the highest part of Lamma island is a little
way over the low north-west point. A vessel will avoid them when
passing round the north-west end of Lingting by not approaching it
within half a mile, or by keeping the south-west extreme of the Lema
islands a little open south-west of Lingting.

The depths close to the north point of Lingting are 18 or 19 fathoms,
decreasing to 14 and 15 about a mile distant ; to the southward aad
westward of the island, there are 10, 11, and 12 fathoms over soft
bottom.

CAVTZOV. — When passing northward of Lingting at night, give its
north side a berth of 1 J miles to avoid the two rocks off its north-east
side.



TT-&0 zsiaAsrB is the southern of the range of small islands bound-
ing the east side of Macao road. It is high near the western part, sloping
a little to the eastward, and lies N. ^ E. from the north end of Liung-
nib, from which it is separated by a good channel 2^ miles wide, but in
using it take care to avoid the rocks off the northern point of the laiteor..



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OTAF.ii.] ISLANDS OFF CANTON EIVEB BSTUAET. 69

Ty-lock, about half a mile northward of Ty-lo, is a small rocky islet,
with a large rock on its summit.

SABK-cocx xs&AJTD, the largest of the above range, and lying
H miles N.N.E. from Ty-lock, is of moderate height, rugged in
appearance, and in the form of a pyramid. Between it and Ty-lock
is the small islet Sy-lock, and two rocks above water ; but the channels
between these are so narrow, that they should not be attempted on
account of the strong eddies, which frequently render vessels unman-
ageable. In passing between Sam-cock and Chnng-chau-si, the next
island to the northward, keep in mid-channel or nearest to the latter,
in 6 or 7 fathoms, as there are only 3^ fathoms at a quarter of a mile
from the north point of Sam-cock, 3^ fathoms about a quarter of a
mile off the west point, and 3 fathoms the same distance off its eastern
point.

muter^ — On the northern part of Sam-cock there is a small bay or
cove for boats, and the island affords fresh water.

CBinro-CKAir-ax, or West Water island, the northernmost of this
range, L'es N.N.E. about 1^ miles from Sam-cock, with 7 fathoms near
it to the eastward, and 5 and 6 fathoms to the northward and westwards
The depths are 5 or 5^ fathoms about half a mile off the western side
of this range, from Ty-lo to Chung-chau-si, and 7 fathoms off the eastern
side ; the ebb stream runs strong from the northward along the western
side, and the flood in eddies from the south-eastward.

V01TS.-PBBT ROCK. — ^This small dangerous needle rock, with only
4 feet on it and 10 fathoms close around, lies E.S.E. 3 miles from
Chung-chau-si, and from it the summit of Ty-lo bears S.W. byW.,
the centre of S^-m-cock W. ^ S., and the small islet lying off the north-
west end of Chung-chau N.N.E. J.E. When Chuck-tu-aan island (3 mile*
S.E. by S. from Chung-chau-si) and the small islet off the north-west end
of Chung-chau are on the same bearing, about N.N.E. ^ E. and S.S.W.^W.,
the rock will be between the two, but nearest the former ; therefore if a
Tessel has occasion to enter Macao road by this channel, and keeps about
three-quarters o£ a mile off Lafsami and the south side of Chung-chau,
she will pass in mid-channel, and have 10 or 12 fathoms water decreasing
to 7 fathoms as she nears Chung-chau-si.

CBmrG^CKikir, or Water island, which with the islands southward of
it bound the south-west side of Lantao channel, lies about S.W. by W.
2^ miles from the south-west point of Lantao, is high, with a peaked hill
near its north point. It is 1^ miles long, N.W. and S.E., and there tiro
no hidden dangers near its northern side. The soundings in the channel
between it and the south point of Lantao are irregular and strong eddies
generally prevail, the depths being 7 fathoms near the point of Lantao,



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70 APPEOAOHES TO HOKa KOKG AND CANTOK. [chap.il

18 or 20 iktiioinB in mid-cbaiuiely and 28 or 30 fathoms close to Chuag-
ebaa. There is a core for boats on the north side of the island, and a
short distance westward of its northern point is a round and high islet
with a large rock on its summit ; near the north and west sides of this
islet the depth is 15 fathoms.

VAV-TAV^mnr, or Bullock-head Gate, the next island to the south-
east, is small but high, and separated from Chung-chau bj a narrow
channel, through which H.M.S. Doris ran, and found shoal water near
Chung-chau. The depths near the north side of Nau-tau-mun are 15, 16,
and 17 fathoms, rather irregular ; but to the southward, in the bay which
it forms with Lafsami, there are only 3 to 5 fathoms.

luunukxx aB&AVB, separated from Nau-tau-mun by a narrow chan-
nel, is larger than either Chung-chau or Nau-tau-mun. It is inhabited
on the south-western side, where fresh water is to be had in a small
l>ay. The depths on its north side in Lantao channel are very irregular,
from 17 to 25 fathoms in overfalls, about a quarter of a mile off, and
on its south side 10 and 11 fathoms. This island from some views forms
a peak ; and a short distance eastward of its south point is a rocky
islet, on which the fishermen have huts, and a winch for heaving up
their nets.

CBX-CBAV ZB&AVBS. — Chi-chau, the largest of two islands lying
2^ miles E.S.E. of Lafsami, forms the south side of the east entrance
of Lantao channel. The island is high, of round appearance, inhabited
on the west side, and separated by a narrow channel from the smaller
and lower island, on its western side ; a sunken rock lies off its north-
east point, and a patch of 4 fathoms about a quarter of a mile off its
north point. Between the west point of the smaller island and the
rocky islet lying off the eastern side of Lafsami is a safe channel,
1 J miles wide, of 9 and 10 fathoms, which may be taken by a vessel
bound up the river when she enters the islands from the south-east
between Chuk-wan and Ai-chau.

SOKO isiLikirBS. — A-chaa, the southern of the two Soke islands, ia
distant nearly 4 miles S.E. | E. from the south point of Lantao, aud
forms the north side of the eastern entrance of Lantao chauneL The
Bouth point of A-chau is high, and rises very steep, having a depth of
7 fathoms close to; the soundings between it and Chi-chau are 11 or
£2 fathoms in mid-channel, 13 fathoms nearly over to Chi-chau^ deepening
suddenly to 25 or 30 fathoms in a hole or swatch close to Chi-chau.

The other island, lying a short distance northward of A-chau, is
abbut a mile long, east and west, and very narrow in the middle. A
saiid spit extends nearly West upwards of 1^ miles from its west side, and



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OHAP.ii.] OUTEB CHAIN OP ISLANDS. 71

.ofi the west extreme of the apit are 2f fittfioms at low water, decreasing
qnicklj to 2 and 1^ £Ekthoms towards the island.

A rocky islet and two rocks above water lie between the two Soke
43lanidSy nearest to the soath-west point of the northern one ; there is also
three-quarters of a mile south-eastward of A-chau^ a high rockj islet
which maj be passed at half a mile to the southward in 7 fathoms, but
the ground is foul between it and A-chau.

ivuter. — ^Fresh water maj be procured at a little sandj beach on the
northern side of A-chau.

The south coast of Lantao island is described on page 82, and the
neighbouring islands, Ai-chau, Lingting, and the Samoon group at page 67.

SOUTHERN APPROACHES TO HONG KONG.

KTVOvo iBikAms are the southernmost group of the archipelago
fronting the estuary of Canton river, extending N.£. and S.W. about
10 miles.

sm»'» aars.-— Pak-tsim, the largest and north-eastern island, £.byS.
16 miles from the Great Ladrone, has near its western extreme, the Asa's
Ears, two high remarkable peaks, which make it easily known, as they
rise from the same base almost perpendicularly from the sea to the height
of 980 feet, and sloping suddenly down on the north-east side, are united
to moderately elevated land, which terminates that part of the island.

Ttf-miHwan, the next island to the south-west, is of considerable size,
and separated from the south-west point of Pak-tsim by a channel about
half a mile ?dde.

Ckip, »eakedt and Runred Bocks. — ^A range of islets extends 4^ miles
in a south-westerly direction from Tsi-mi-wan; the south-westernmost
islet, 90 feet high, called Gap rock, but Man-mi-chau by the Chinese,
has a small gap in it. Between the south end of Tsi-mi-wan and Peaked
rock, 180 feet high, the easternmost islet of the range, is a passage H
miles wide, with 18 fathoms least water in it. Rugged rock, 60 feet high,
lies about 1^ miles N.W.^W. from the south end of Tsi-mi-wan. The
passage^ about half a mile wide, between Nut island and the islet nearest
to it to the southward, has 10 to 26 fathoms water. There is also^ between
Gap rock and the other islets to the eastward, an opening a mile wide^
with 16 to 18 &thoms water, and safe to pass through with a stea^
wind.

xwel«tan, or Tortoise head, a white rocky ickt, lies about three-quarters
of a mUe from the east point of Pak-tsim, having other, rocks between it
and the point, neither of which ought to be approached.
. Qay-nne is another islet^ rather more than a mile northward of the
north end of Fak*tsim: the passage between it and the laUer, however^



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72 APPBOACHES TO HOKG KONG AND CANTON, [ohaf. ii.

ought not to be attempted unless from necessity ; for there is said to exist
some straggling rocks on which the sea breaks at times.

OAMBmrpaa bocx, on which a vessel of this name struck, August
30, 1820, requires the greatest care to avoid when passing through the
Tai-ta-mi channel between the westernmost of the Lema islands and the
above rocks. The rock is of a spiral form with only 17 feet water on it,
and sometimes breaks. It lies N.by W.JW. 2 J miles from Kwei-tau,
N.N.E.^E. 1} miles from the north point of Pak-tsim, and from it the
highest part of Chi-chau island is in line with Hill islet N.W., and the
south-east side of Gay-une islet is on with north-west extreme of Bugged
rocky S.W. ^ W. There are 4 and 5 fathoms on the rocks which surround
the spiral rock ; and thence the depths increase to 23 fathoms in Tai-ta-mi
channel, which is 2J miles wide, and safe by borrowing towards the Lema
islands when passing through.

lAMA aB&AVBS consist of three large and one small island, extending
in an E.N.E. and W.S.W. direction 12^ miles.

TMnkAB, the easternmost and largest island, is 6 miles long and a mile .
broad, of moderate height and undulating, and separated from Ye-chau,
the middle island, by the naiTow Yat-moun channel.

The Yat-moun channel by Capt. Bate's survey of 1850, is free of danger
and carries a depth of 12 to 19 fathoms, but by the following extract*
from the log of the ship Cordeliay it would appear there is a sunken rock
in mid-channel and that this passage should not be attempted unless from
necessity : —

** November 14th, 1834: the current and swell setting the Cordelia
bodily on the land, and having the Yat-moUn channel open, steered for it,
keeping near the south-west end of Tam-kan to prevent the vessel from



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