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UN: Y OF CALIFORNIA J
LOS ANGELES




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THE

IMPERIAL GAZETTEER

OF INDIA



VOL. XV

KARACHI to KOTAYAM



NEW EDITION

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN T COUNCIL



OXFORD

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1908



HENRY FROWDK, M.A.

FUBI.ISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH

NEW YORK AND TORONTO






INTRODUCTORY NOTES

Notes on Transliteration

Vowel- Sounds

a has the sound of a in ' woman.'
a has the sound of a in ' father.'
e lias the vowel-sound in 'grey.'
i has the sound of i in ' pin.'
I has the sound of / in ' police.'
o has the sound of o in ' bone.'
u has the sound of it in ' bull.'
u has the sound of u in ' flute.'
ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.'
au has the vowel-sound in ' house.'

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in 'bet' and 'hot' in
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation
were not likely to be made.

Consonants

Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con-
sonants, such as d, /, r, &c, marked in scientific works by the use
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir-
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has
been represented by k instead of q, which is often used. Secondly,
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and,
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of
th in ' this ' or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as in 'woodhouse'
and ' boathook.'



jv INTRODUCTORY NOTES

Burmese Words

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have
the following special sounds : —

aw has the vowel-sound in 'law.'
6 and ii are pronounced as in German.
gy is pronounced almost like j in 'jewel.'
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.'
th is pronounced in some cases as in 'this,' in some cases as in

'thin.'
w after a consonant has the force of uw. Thus, ywa and pwe
are disyllables, pronounced as if written yuiva and pinue.

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable.

General
The names of some places— e. g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow,
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ;
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been
generally adopted in English books.

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately
equal to 2s., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of
the rupee dropped as low as is. In order to provide a remedy for
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise



INTRODUCTORY NOTES v

the exchange value of the rupee to is. $d., and then introduce a gold
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 1 5
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on-
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of 15-.. 4



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