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full pay of their appointments. The total expenditure on education in
1905-6 was 1-05 lakhs, compared with only Rs. 45,000 in 1 900-1.

An Arts college was opened at Srinagar in 1905 by the trustees
of the Central Hindu College, Benares, in connexion with the Hindu
high school, and the Maharaja has sanctioned a grant-in-aid of
Rs. 15,600 per annum for the college and school from the year 1906.

The State maintains at Srinagar two hospitals, two dispensaries

with accommodation for in-patients, and a leper asylum, and at Jammu

„ .. , two hospitals for the civil population, besides mili-

Medical. , . . , ij.oj.~-

tary hospitals at Jammu and at Satwan cantonment.

In 1904-5, besides these, 43 dispensaries were maintained in the
State. Two chief medical officers are in charge of the Jammu and
Kashmir provinces, and the Agency Surgeon supervises work in Gilgit.
The Medical department of the State is under the control of a Super-
intending Surgeon. In 1904-5 the total number of patients treated
was 401,120, of whom 4,338 were in-patients, and 11,830 operations
were performed. The expenditure was 1-5 lakhs. In addition to the
State institutions, valuable work is being done by the Medical Mission,
which has a large hospital at Srinagar and a hospital at Anantnag.
The leper asylum referred to above is also managed by them for the
Darbar.

The staff for vaccination consists of eighteen men, who work in the
province of Jammu in winter, and in that of Kashmir in summer.
Vaccination is not compulsory, but a good deal of work is done by
the exercise of tact and moral persuasion. In 1904-5 the number
of persons successfully vaccinated in both provinces was 33,784, while
4,200 vaccinations were also carried out in Gilgit. The people of
Ghizar, Yasln, Ashkuman, and Chilas districts formerly refused vaccina-



MEDICAL 143

tion, but are now accepting it. The total expenditure in 1905-6 was
Rs. 5,685. Inoculation is practised by the people in the frontier
districts, but not elsewhere.

[F. Bernier : Voyages (1699). — G. T. Vigne : Travels in Kashmir,
Ladak, Iskardo (1842). — A. Cunningham : An Essay on the Arian
Order of Architecture as exhibited in the Temples of Kashmir ( 1848). —
J. Biddulph : Tribes of the Hindu Koosh (1880). — Drew : Jammu and
Kashmir Territories (1875).— E. F. Knight: Where Three Empires
meet (1893).— W. R. Lawrence : The Valley of Kashmir (1895V —
Kalhana's Rajatarangini, a Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir, trans-
lated by M. A. Stein, 2 vols. (1000).]



144



KASHMIR AND JAMMU



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[48 KASHMOR

Kashmor. — Taluka of the Upper Sind Frontier District, Sind,
Bombay, lying between 28 4' and 28 29' N. and 69° 15' and 69
47' E. In 1 90 1 the area was 500 square miles. The population in
1901 was 38,179, compared with 35,763 in 1891. The density, 77
persons per square mile, is much below the District average. The
taluka contained 65 villages, of which Kashmor is the head-quarters.
The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to i>2 lakhs. Owing
to the vagaries of the Indus, the present area of the taluka is 508
square miles, of which about 37 square miles are covered by forests.
A large area of land is still unoccupied and available for cultivation.
Irrigation depends upon floods and upon the Desert and Dingro Wah
Canals and canals from the Kashmor Band.

Kasia. — Subdivision of Gorakhpur District, United Provinces,
comprising the Padrauna Tahsil. The subdivision takes its name
from the village of Kasia, at which the headquarters of the sub-
divisional officer are situated. Population of the village (1901), 1,688.
The village is situated at the junction of the Deoria-Padrauna and
Gorakhpur-Pipraghat roads, near the bank of the Rama Bhar lake,
and contains a dispensary and a town school with 114 pupils. A short
distance away, in the village of Bishanpura, is situated the important
group of ruins which was long supposed to mark the site of Kusa-
nagara, where Gautama Buddha died. The ruins include a large stupa
and many small ones, the remains of a monastery, and a temple which
enshrines a colossal statue of the dying Buddha, 20 feet in length.
It has now been recognized that the buildings on this site do
not agree with the description of Kusanagara given by the Chinese
pilgrims.

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vols, xviii and xxii ;
V. A. Smith, The Remains near Kasia (1896), and in Journal, Royal
Asiatic Society, 1902, p. 139 ; W. Hoey, Journal, Asiatic Society of
Bengal, 1900, p. 83.]

Kasimbazar. — Decayed town in Murshidabad District, ' Bengal.
See Cossimbazar.

Kasipur-Chitpur. — Town in the District of the Twenty-four Par-
ganas, Bengal. See Cossipore-Chitpur.

Kasia Pagina Muvada. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay.

Kasumpti.— Suburb of Simla station, Punjab. It lies within the
territory of the Raja of Keonthal, but being practically part of Simla
was leased from the Raja in 1884, and constituted a separate munici-
pality, whose functions are performed by the Deputy-Commissioner
of Simla. The municipal income and expenditure during the ten
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,600. In t 903-4 the income was
Rs. 6,200, chiefly from taxes on houses and lands ; and the expenditure
was Rs. 6,300. Population (March, 1901), 170.



KASUR TOWN r 49

Kasur Subdivision. -Subdivision of Lahore District, Punjab,
consisting of the Kasur and C hum ax taksils.

Kasur Tahsil. — South-eastern talisl! of Lahore District, Punjab,
lying between 30 54/ and 31 27' N. and 74° 13' and 74 58' E., on
the north bank of the Sutlej, with an area of 816 square miles, of which
two-thirds belong to the tract known as the M'ANJHA and the remainder
to the lowlands beneath the old bank of the Beas. The Manjha
portion is irrigated by the Bari Doab Canal, and the southern low-
lands by the Katora Inundation Canal. The population in 1901 was
311,690, compared with 280,647 in 1891. The head-quarters are at
the town of Kasur (22,022) ; and it also contains the towns of Khem
Karan (6,083) and PattI (8,187), and 345 villages. The land
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,71,000. The battle-
field of Sobraon lies in this tahsil.

Kasur Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsil of the
same name in Lahore District, Punjab, situated in 31 8' N. and
74 28' E., upon the north bank of the old bed of the Beas, on the
North-Western Railway and on the Ferozepore road, 34 miles south-
east of Lahore city ; distant by rail from Calcutta 1,209 miles, from
Bombay 1,237, and from Karachi 778. Population (1901), 22,022, of
whom 5,327 are Hindus and 16,257 Muhammadans. Tradition refers
its origin to Kusa, son of Rama, and brother of Loh or Lava, the
founder of Lahore. It is certainly a place of great antiquity, and
General Cunningham identified it with one of the places visited by
Hiuen Tsiang in the seventh century a.d. A Rajput city seems to
have occupied the modern site before the earliest Muhammadan
invasion ; but Kasur does not appear in history until late in the
Muhammadan period, when it was settled by a Pathan colony from
the east of the Indus. These immigrants entered the town either in
the reign of Babar or in that of his grandson Akbar, and founded
a considerable principality, with territory on both sides of the Sutlej.
When the Sikhs rose to power, they experienced great opposition from
the Pathans of Kasur ; and, though the chiefs of the Bhangi con-
federacy stormed the town in 1763, and again in 1770, and succeeded
for a while in holding the entire principality, the Pathan leaders re-
established their independence in 1794, and resisted many subsequent
attacks. In 1807, however, Kutb-ud-dln Khan, the last chieftain, was
forced to give way before Ranjlt Singh, and retired to his property
at Mamdot, beyond the Sutlej. The town of Kasur was then incor-
porated in the kingdom of Lahore. It consists of an aggregation of
fortified hamlets, standing on the upland bank and overlooking the
alluvial valleys of the Beas and the Sutlej. The Pathan element has
now declined. The municipality was created in 1867. The income
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 52,800, and the



i 5 o KASUR TOWN

expenditure Rs. 50,900. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure
were Rs. 60,400 and Rs. 54,500 respectively. The chief source of
income was octroi (Rs. 50,000), while the main items of outlay were
conservancy (Rs. 4,000), education (Rs. 8,500), hospitals and dispensaries
(Rs. 6,300), and administration (Rs. 18,800). Kasur is now, next to
Lahore, the most important town in the District. It is the centre of local
trade, and exports grain and cotton to the annual value of 10 lakhs.
Harness and other leathern goods are manufactured, and there are
4 cotton-ginning and 2 cotton-pressing factories, which in 1904 em-
ployed 436 hands. The chief educational institution is the Anglo-
vernacular high school maintained by the municipality. An industrial
school formerly existed, but is now extinct. The town also contains
a hospital, and since 1899 has been an out-station of the American
Presbyterian Mission.

Katak. — District, subdivision, and town in Bengal. See Cuttack.

Katakhal.— River in Caehar District, Eastern Bengal and Assam.
See Dhaleswari.

Katas.— Sacred pool in the centre of the Salt Range, in Jhelum
District, Punjab, situated in 32 43' N. and 72 59' E., 15 miles north
of Pind Dadan Khan, at an elevation of over 2,000 feet. The pool lies
at the head of the Ganiya nullah, a small ravine between low stony
hills, and is fed by springs. From it issues a small stream which flows
past Choa Saidan Shah into the Gandhala valley. It is visited every
year by thousands of pilgrims who come to bathe in its waters. The
Brahmanical story is that Siva being inconsolable at the death of his
wife Sat!, ' the true one,' tears rained from his eyes and formed the two
pools of Katas or Kataksha, ' raining eyes,' and Pushkar near Ajmer.
The pool is partly artificial, the rock having been cut away to enlarge
the natural basin in the bed of the ravine. Just above it once stretched
a strong masonry wall which dammed up the stream, so as to enclose
a large lake ; but the water now escapes through the broken rocks and
ruins of the embankment. About 800 feet below the pool the Ganiya
nullah passes between two low flat-topped hills, on which the ancient
town is said to have stood. At the foot of Kotera, the west hill, are
the remains of twelve temples clustered in a corner of an old fort.
These are called the Sat-Ghara, or ' seven temples,' and are popularly
attributed to the Pandavas, who are said to have lived at Katas during
a portion of their seven years' wanderings. Their style is that of the
Kashmir architecture which prevailed from the eighth to the thirteenth
century, and they comprise a group of six small temples placed in
pairs at regular distances around one large central temple. Facing
this to the east is the basement of a great structure, which was in
all probability a Buddhist stupa.

South-west of the village of Choa Saidan Shah, which lies 2 miles



KATHA DISTRICT 151

due east of Katas, extends the Gandhala valley, itself 2,000 feet above
the sea, and separated by lofty cliffs from Katas on the north. On the
bank of the Katas stream, which flows through the valley, lies the hill
of Murti, rising on a base of solid sandstone to about 100 feet above
the stream, its level top being 225 feet long by 190 broad. On this
plateau is a small mound, the remains of a stitpa ; and close to it once
stood a small Jain temple, from the debris of which a considerable
quantity of highly ornamented architectural fragments (now in the
Lahore Museum) were recovered by Dr. Stein's excavations in 1890.
The temple has been identified with a famous Jain shrine where
Mahavira was supposed to have obtained his enlightenment. The
locality is also identified with Singha-pura, the Sang-ho-pu-lo of the
Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang, and described by him as the capital
of a dependency of Kashmir about a. d. 630.

[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. ii, pp. 88 and 90 ; A. Cunning-
ham, Ancient Geography of India, pp. 124-8 ; Vienna Oriental Journal,
vol. iv (1890), pp. 80 and 260.]

Katha District. — District in the Mandalay Division of Upper
Burma, lying between 23 30' and 25 7' N. and 95 6' and 96 42' E.,
for the most part along the west bank of the Irrawaddy, with an area
of 6,994 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Upper
Chindwin and Myitkyina Districts ; on the east by the Kaukkwe river
as far as its junction with the Irrawaddy ; thence, by the State of
Mongmit (Momeik) and the Shweli river to its mouth, and southwards
of this point by the Irrawaddy. The southern boundary abuts on the
Ruby Mines and Shwebo Districts, and the western on the Upper
Chindwin.

With the exception of a small tract east of the Irrawaddy, the greater
part of Katha is a mass of hill country. Three main ranges traverse
the District, roughly from north to south, separating
its principal streams, but they are of no very great ^ S1 t &

height. Of these, the easternmost is the Gangaw
range, which runs southwards from the north-east corner of the
District to meet the Irrawaddy at Tigyaing. Its course is, in the
main, parallel to that of the stream, and its highest point is 4,400 feet
above sea-level. The principal pass crossing it is at Petsut, 1 2 miles
west of Katha, over which a small branch line runs from Katha to
Naba on the main line of the railway, at a height of about 500 feet
above the surrounding country. West of the Gangaw Hills is the
Minwun range, starting from the extreme northern limit of Katha, east
of the Taungthonlon hill, and running down the centre of the District
to its southern boundary, where the Irrawaddy flows about 5 or 6 miles
east of the hills. The principal pass over this ridge is the Mawgun-.
daing, crossed east and west by the road from Tigyaing to Wuntho,



i 5 2 KATHA district

about 12 utiles west of Tigvaing, at a height of about 1,500 feet.
There is a gap in the hills near Mawteik, through which the Meza
river has cut from west to east. The Sagaing-Myitkyina railway on its
way north climbs the range by way of a gorge between Bonchaung and
Nankan. The third main range, the Mangin, passes through the
^'untho subdivision to the east of the Mu river. Its most elevated
point is Maingthon, 5,450 feet above sea-level, a little west of the
centre of the District. This is the highest peak actually within the
District, though the Taungthonlon, on the north-western border, is
a little higher. All three hill ranges are covered with dense jungle,
and contain much teak and other valuable timber, besides considerable
quantities of bamboo.

The principal rivers are the Irrawaddy, the Kaukkwe, the Shweli,
the Meza, the Mu, and the Namyin (or Mohnyin). The Irrawaddy
enters Katha about half-way down its eastern side, and as far south as
the mouth of the Shweli separates the greater part of the District from
a small level tract on its eastern bank. South of the Shweli it forms
the eastern boundary for about 25 miles. It runs with a south-westerly
course in what is for the most part a wide channel interspersed with
numerous slands, and is navigable all through the year by all sizes
of river-craft. The Shweli flows into the Irrawaddy on its left bank,
in the south-east of the District, separating Katha from the Ruby
Mines District for about 25 miles. In these lower reaches it is a wide
waterway on which boats can ply. The Kaukkwe stream, winding
southwards into the Irrawaddy from Myitkyina, forms the eastern
boundary from its confluence with the main stream up to the north-
east corner of the District. It can be used by light-draught launches
as far as Thayetta (20 miles), and by small river-craft right up into
Myitkyina. Separated from the Irrawaddy valley by the Gangaw
range is the malarious Meza valley. The Meza rises in the Taung-
thonlon hill on the north-west border of the District, and, with its
numerous affluents, waters nearly all the Banmauk subdivision. Follow-
ing a southerly course, it passes through a gap in the Minwun range,
and enters the Indaw township near Mawteik, and thence flows
southwards between the Gangaw and Minwun ranges, emptying itself
eventually into the Irrawaddy, immediately below Tigyaing. The
valley between the two eastern hill ranges, followed by the railway
for the greater part of its course through the District, is drained in
the far north by the Namyin (Mohnyin), a southern tributary of the
Mogaung river in Myitkyina District. In the south-western quarter
of the District, lying west of the Mangin range, is the Mu, which rises
in the south-west of the Banmauk subdivision and flows in a southerly
direction, through the middle of the Pinlebu township, into Shwebo
District, but is not navigable within the limits of Katha. Its tributary



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 153

on the east, the Daungyu chaung, rises in the Wuntho township, waters
the entire Kawlin township, and from its mouth eastwards for more
than 30 miles forms the southern boundary of the District.

The Indaw Lake is the only considerable sheet of water in Katha.
It lies close to the railway, 5 miles west of Naba junction near the
centre of the District. It is more than 3 miles long and a mile broad,
and is a fishery of some importance. A curious feature of the lake is
the absence of any streams flowing either into or out of it.

The Mangin range of hill consists of trap, with veins of gold-bearing
quartz, while the eastern part of the District is occupied by crystalline
palaeozoic rocks, of which little is known. West of these, a portion of
the country is covered by Tertiary sandstones and clays, in which coal
has been found near Wuntho. West of this again, a large area of
eruptive diorite, associated with volcanic ash, has been laid bare by
the denudation of the Tertiary sandstones. The diorite contains
veins of auriferous pyrites, the same metal being found also dissemi-
nated in the ash-beds. The Minwun range is principally sandstone,
and the Gangaw range consists of mica schist in the south and of
granite in the north. Limestone also occurs in parts.

The most noticeable features of the vegetation are touched upon
under the head of Forests below. The flora is rich and varied, but
has not been studied scientifically.

The wild animals usually found in Upper Burma are plentiful.
Tigers, leopards, elephants, bison, and tsine or hsaing {Bos sondaicus)
roam the jungles in considerable numbers, while bears are common in
the more hilly parts. Thamin (brow-antlered deer) are fairly numerous
in the southern part of the Wuntho subdivision. Wild hog are
plentiful everywhere, and do much damage to the crops. The
Khedda department are at present working in the District, and have
effected considerable catches of elephants, but many of these died of
anthrax.

Katha has a bad reputation for malarial and other fevers. The



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