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and Dhers (116,000). Of the Brahmans, more than half are of the
Audich sub-caste (90,000). Modhs, Nagars, and Srimalis are other
subdivisions of this caste of local importance. The traders are mainly
Lohanas (64,000). Ahirs, an immigrant caste of shepherds who
entered the peninsula at an early date and also spread southward to
Khandesh, number 74,000. Among Musalmans, the most numerous
sections are the Memons (68,000), who are traders ; Khojas (29,000),
also traders ; and Ghanchis, or oil-men (24,000).

Of the total population, 41-6 per cent, depend on agriculture; com-
merce supports 5-6 per cent., industry 27-6 per cent., and various
employments 25-2 per cent.

Kathiawar has the essential features of a prosperous agricultural

country. The climate is, on the whole, temperate, . ,,

1 • c ,, ■> u j i J Agriculture,

the rainfall moderate, streams abound, ponds and

wells are fairly numerous, and there is much variety in the texture,

1 Besides these there are 27 villages, which, being unpopulated at the time of the
Ceusus, were not returned.



1 7 S KATHIA WAR

quality, and depth of soil. On the other hand, the peninsula is thinly
peopled ; cultivators take up more land than they can till, and the style
of farming is slovenly. The soil is of two main classes, black or red,
the red being considered the less valuable. Of the first class is the
deep black soil known as kdmpal, suitable for the growth of cotton,
while the better kinds of red soil favour the production of irrigated
wheat and barley. A saltish earth, impregnated with clay and
impervious to water, is not uncommon.

Some of the richest tracts lie along the course of the Bhadar river,
and at Mahuva and Lilia, where excellent fruits and vegetables are
grown. Sugar-cane is grown with success in the same locality. In
Sorath, Chorwad is noted for its betel-vines. Gondal cotton is famous.
In the northern and eastern districts of Jhalawar much cotton is grown.
Halar in the west yields excellent jozvar, bajra, wheat, and other grains,
and Sorath in the south is rich both in cotton and in grain. In
Limbdi, and on the eastern coast of Kathiawar bordering the Gulf
of Cambay, wheat, cotton, and grain are produced from a rich silt
which requires no manure. Turmeric and mug are common products.

The chief cultivating classes are : among Hindus, Kunbls, Sathvaras,
Rajputs, Ahirs, Mers, and Kolis ; and among Musalmans, Memons,
Ghanchis, Bohras, Sindls, Jats, and Mianas. Of these the most expert
are the Kunbls.

During recent years considerable progress has been made in irriga-
tion, by the construction of storage tanks wherever the natural features
of the country render them possible. At least ten of these tanks with
a systematic control of the water-supply have been constructed during
the last ten years. Prominent among these are the Lalpuri tank at
Rajkot, Alansager at Jasadan, Paneli in Gondal, and Champa and Moldi
tanks in the Chotila Thana circle. The successive bad years have
also been the cause of an increase in the number of wells for irrigation
purposes.

The total cultivated area in 1903-4 was 8,074 square miles, dis-
tributed as follows : cotton (2,446), millet (2,00%), jozvdr (1,866), wheat
(406), gram (178), mug (16), udid (16), and 'others' (1,138).

The numerous petty courts and their people form a large body of
rich resident landholders, spending their rents on their estates ; and
the ministers, officials, and landholders, of various stations and wealth,
contribute to impart a brisk vitality to the progress and general well-
being of the country. A large proportion of the public business of
Kathiawar is conducted by, and at the cost of, native Darbars.
Bhaunagar has taken the lead in the material development of her
resources, and was the first State in the Bombay Presidency to
construct a railway at her own expense and risk.

Horses, formerly of excellent repute, are bred in large quantities.



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 179

The peninsula is suitable for the raising of stock, the central portion
being famous as a breeding-ground. Most of the States maintain stud
farms. In 1903-4 nine of the States maintained 56 stallions, which
covered 791 mares. Milch cows and buffaloes are reared in the Gir,
camels in the Rann, and asses in Hilar and Jhalawar. The buffaloes of
the Gir, as also the cows, are famed as good milkers and are sold to
dairymen in various parts of the Presidency, particularly in Bombay
city. A good buffalo yields about 32 quarts of milk daily, and
a good cow 1 2 quarts. Sheep are plentiful in some parts ; their
wool forming, together with cotton and grain, the chief article of
export.

Besides the Gir with its 1,500 square miles of forest, there are
important wooded tracts in Kathiawar. In Vankaner and the
Panchal lands have been set aside for the growth
of timber, and in Bhaunagar, Morvi, Gondal, and
Manavadar babul plantations have been formed. Palms, mangoes, and
casuarina have been specially planted and cared for in Bhaunagar ;
trunk and feeder roads are being gradually planted with trees along
their entire length ; and several minor estates and villages are paying
attention to forest conservancy.

Kathiawar abounds in minerals and is particularly rich in building

stone. The principal metal is iron, which in former days was

worked in Barda and Khambhaliya districts. Near _,. .

J . . Minerals.

Porbandar a valuable description of building stone

is extracted from the hills and sent to Bombay in large quantities.

Pearls of good quality, but inferior in lustre to those of the Persian

Gulf, are found in the Gulf of Cutch within Navanagar limits. A few

are also found in Junagarh and Bhaunagar near Bherai and Chanch.

White coral of no market value is common. Red coral is sometimes

found in small quantities at Mangrol and Sil. Bloodstone and agate

are common near Tankara in Morvi.

The Kathiawar region is a wealthy one. The land, though not of

extraordinary richness, is generally of fair quality and is amply watered.

The cotton exported supplies one-sixth of the total

r 1 • 1 r t. 1 r • Trade and

amount of cotton shipped from Bombay to foreign commun i ca tions.

countries, and a large import of bullion and grain

is yearly received by Kathiawar as part of the price. Cotton cloth, sugar,

and molasses are largely imported. The total value of the sea-borne

trade in 1903-4 was 378^ lakhs : exports 197 lakhs, and imports

i8ii lakhs. The exports of cotton alone were more than 126 lakhs in

value, and of wool 5§ lakhs. The imports of grain vary according to

the season. Railways have absorbed a great portion of the export

trade from the smaller ports on the coast-line, and concentrated it at

Wadhwan in the north-east and Bhaunagar in the south-east, while



1 80 KA THIA WAR

the import trade on the contrary is drawn towards the minor ports.
Private enterprise has established three cotton-weaving mills and
steam cotton-press factories, and there is a prosperous trade in timber.
The chief handicrafts are gold and silver thread-making, weaving of
silk and brocades, the making of red powders, of fragrant oils, of
perfumed sticks and powder, of rose and other essences, inlaying
ivory, and carving sandal-wood.

In the matter of roads, great progress has been made of late years.
Where there was not a single mile of road in 1865, there are now
more than 600 miles, for the most part bridged and metalled. Two
great lines of trunk roads intersect the peninsula, one proceeding from
Wadhwan to Junagarh and Veraval, and the other from Bhaunagar to
Jodiya, crossing at Rajkot, the head-quarters of the Agency. The
Junagarh line has a branch bifurcating at Jetpur towards Porbandar,
while the Jodiya line has a similar branch going towards Navanagar.
These main lines have various feeders to connect the capitals and
other important towns of the numerous States.

Since 1880 communication has been improved by the introduction
of railways, principally at the cost of Native States. The first entry
of the railway into Kathiawar took place in 1872, under the auspices
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway Company. The
terminus was at Wadhwan, and the length of the line within
Kathiawar limits 39^ miles. A line constructed at a cost of 96 lakhs,
shared by Bhaunagar and Gondal in the proportion of two-thirds and
one-third, was opened in 1880. The total length of this line was
192 miles. In 1886 Junagarh constructed at a cost of 37 lakhs
a line 69 miles long, passing from Jetalsar through the capital to
the port of Veraval. The Wadhwan-Morvi Railway was opened in
1887 an d the extension to Rajkot completed in 1889. The Jetalsar-
Rajkot Railway was opened in 1893.

The total length of railways in Kathiawar in 1904 was 577-09 miles,
of different gauges, namely : —

Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-1'oi bandar Railway . . . 334-19

Jetalsar-Rajkot Railway . 46*21

Jamnagar Railway ......... 54-22

Dhrangadhra Railway ........ 20-83

Rajputana-Malvva Railway ....... 32-00

Morvi (metre-gauge) Railway ....... 73-94

Morvi (2 feet 6 inches) Railway ... ... 15-70

Total 577-09

The conversion to the metre gauge from the standard gauge of the
section between Viramgam to Wadhwan since December, 1902, has
given the Rajputana Malwa Railway access to Wadhwan junction, and
Kathiawar thus possesses through connexion with the whole of Upper



ADMINISTRATION i i

India. The gross earnings of the (i) Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh
Porbandar, (2) Jetalsar-Rajkot, (3) Jamnagar, and (4) Dhran-
gadhra railways in 1904 amounted to 22-3 lakhs, and the working
expenses to 10-5 lakhs. The gross earnings of the Morvi Railway
amounted to nearly 3-5 lakhs, and the working expenses to i-6 lakhs,
representing a return of 7-71 per cent, on the capital cost.

Besides 248 British post offices, private internal postal arrange-
ments are made by the State of Junagarh. People from villages where
there is no British post office or postal box send their letters
through the State post, and are required to affix stamps issued by
the State.

The first famine of which records are available occurred in 1559.
Since then the most notable famines have occurred in 1632, in 17 19,
in 1732, in 1747, and in 1791. The famine of Famine>

1877-9 was severe and widespread. In 1899-1902
the peninsula again suffered severely from famine. Relief measures
were commenced in October, 1899, and closed in October, 1902.
The highest number in receipt of relief exceeded 300,000 in May,
1900. More than 15 lakhs were spent on relief. The States con-
tracted loans, partly from Government (65 lakhs) and partly in the
open market (41 lakhs), amounting to 106 lakhs to meet the cost
of this famine. Of this sum 36 lakhs was borrowed by Bhaunagar,
16 lakhs by Navanagar, and 7^ lakhs by Dhrangadhra. The mortality
was heavy, the Agency losing 15-37 per cent, of its population from this
and other causes.

The year 1 814-5 was called the 'rat year,' from the famine
produced by the ravages of these animals. Captain Le Grand Jacob
remarked of this pest : — ■

'They appear suddenly in dense masses past all counting, as it
springing from the earth, about the harvest season. Nothing can
stop them . . . fires, ditches, have been tried in vain ; they move
along, a mighty host, eating up all that comes in their way. All
at once they vanish as if by magic, and for years not one is to be
seen ; they are about double the size of a common rat, and are of
a reddish sandy colour.'

A similar swarm took place after the recent famine.

Since 1822 political authority in Kathiawar has been vested in the
Political Agent subordinate to the Government of Bombay. In
1903 the designations of the Political Agent and AdministratioIlt
his Assistants were changed to those of Agent to
the Governor and Political Agents of the prants.

Before 1863, except for the criminal court of the Agent to the
Governor, established in 1831, to aid the Darbars of the several
States in the trial of heinous crimes, interference with the judicial



iS 2 KATHIAWAR

administration of the territories was diplomatic, not magisterial ; and
the criminal jurisdiction of the first and second-class chiefs alone
was defined. In 1863, however, the country underwent an important
change. The jurisdiction of all the chiefs was classified and defined :
that of chiefs of the first and second classes was made plenary ; that of
lesser chiefs was graded in a diminishing scale. Four Political Agents
of the prdnts, resident in the four divisions of Kathiawar, now exer-
cise residuary jurisdiction with large civil and criminal powers. Each
Political Agent of a prant has a deputy who resides at the head-
quarters of the prant or division, and exercises subordinate civil and
criminal powers. Serious criminal cases are committed by the deputies
to the court of the Agent to the Governor, to whom also civil and
criminal appeals lie. The Agent to the Governor is aided in this
work by an officer known as the Political Agent and Judicial Assistant,
who is usually a member of the Indian Civil Service. Appeals from
his decisions lie direct to the Governor of Bombay in Council in
his executive capacity. An officer styled the Superintendent of
Managed Estates, who is ex officio an Assistant Political Agent, and
two Deputy-Assistants also help the Agent.

In each division are several subdivisional thanadars, holding petty
magisterial powers over a circle of villages contiguous to their stations
or thanas. These thanadars administer 146 tdlukas out of the 193
territorial divisions of Kathiawar : they possess certain powers of general
administration as well as judicial authority. But as the larger prin-
cipalities occupy more than 15,000 square miles of the total area of
20,882 square miles, the Agency through its Assistants, Deputy-
Assistants, and thanadars cannot be called upon to administer more
than one-fourth of the entire area. There are 1 2 thanas in the penin-
sula. The tdlukdars are poor, ignorant, and in debt, and have only the
semblance of authority, lntex-tdlukddr relations are characterized by
petty squabbles, small jealousies, and endless subdivision of estates.

The law administered by the darbari tribunals of the State is the
customary law : namely, the Hindu and Muhammadan religious law
as modified by local or tribal usage. The larger States have procedure
and penal codes based on those in use in British India. To meet
a particular class of land disputes, however, a special court was estab-
lished in 1873. This was the Rajasthanik Court, constituted with the
assent and at the cost of the chiefs. It decided, under the presidency
of a British officer, all disputes as to girds or hereditary estates, between
the chiefs and the bhdydds and mu/girdsias, who are for the most part
the kinsmen of the chiefs or the descendants of earlier holders who
have been deprived of their estates. It surveyed and mapped out the
girdsids estate, fixed his miscellaneous dues, and defined his relation
to his chief by laying down the extent of his obligations. The court



ADMINISTRATION 183

was originally established for three years; but it was continued for
a succession of short periods, and was eventually abolished on April 1,
1899. Since its establishment the peace of Kathiawar has seldom
been broken by the more unruly members of the chiefs' families ; but
a real or fancied grievance may still produce a body of outlaws ; and as
recently as 1892 a band of these bahdrwattias was not captured until
they had caused the death of the British officer in charge of the pur-
suing troops. At the present time disputes between the first four
classes of chiefs are usually referred to the State courts, and are dealt
with by the Agent to the Governor in appeal. Similar disputes between
the talukdars of other classes are decided by the Judicial Assistant,
subject to the control of the Agent to the Governor, according to rules
published in 1898.

As each tribe of Rajputs invaded the peninsula, its chiefs bestowed
on their relations portions of the land they had won. This share was
named kapdl girds, and passed to the descendants of the original grantees.
The more enterprising girasias continued to acquire fresh lands from
their neighbours, until they found themselves sufficiently strong to set
up as independent rulers. Others, less enterprising, surrendered the
greater portion of the land to a neighbouring chief in return for pro-
tection, and fell into the position of mulgirdsias or ' original sharers.'
When a girds/a succeeded in gaining his independence he became
a tdlukddr, and assumed the title of Thakur, Raval, Rana, or Raja.
As he rose in the social scale, the landed proprietor became anxious
to leave his possessions intact to his eldest son ; at the same time the
custom of the country compelled him to set aside a portion of his
estates for each of his younger sons, and these in turn became girasias
owing submission to the head of the family, but otherwise independent.
Thus in Kathiawar landed property has been minutely subdivided, and
the process still continues, so that some estates not larger than a single
village have upwards of a hundred shareholders. As a rule, the revenue
control of these estates has been left to the shareholders, except during
minority, &c. In addition to the landed estates held by talukdars and
girasias, many villages or portions of villages are held hereditarily as
religious and service grants. Another large class of proprietors are
jivaiddrs, or holders of estates as maintenance or on service tenure.
They have not the position or privileges of girasias, and possess neither
civil nor criminal jurisdiction. Some of them are life tenants. Common
forms of service tenure are lands held by village headmen, watchmen,
or scavengers, or by tribes such as the Mers who pay a hearth-tax and
a plough-tax for cultivation, though in some cases holding rent free.
The talukdars of Kathiawar have absolute power over property in their
private or khalsa land. The landlord's rent or raj bhdg is a fixed share
of the produce. In practice this share is supplemented by numerous



1 84 KATHIAWAR

petty cesses, some of which are taken by the proprietor, while others
are devoted to village expenses.

During the last thirty years considerable improvements have been
introduced into the revenue system. Previously whole subdivisions
were farmed to the highest bidders, who in turn sublet villages or
shares of villages. The farming system has now been almost com-
pletely abandoned, and a scientific revenue survey has been introduced
in nearly all parts of the peninsula.

In Kathiawar the organization of the village community has still
considerable vitality. The prevalence of a system of revenue collection
in kind imposes a special demand on the watchfulness of the headman
and his subordinates. Even the smallest villages have their patel,
havilddr, and pagi, who, like the priest, carpenter, tailor, and scavenger,
are remunerated for their services by payment in kind. Under recent
arrangements, the village police under the Agency thana circles are
paid in cash and not in kind.

The table given on pages 165-9 shows that in 1903-4 the total
revenue of the Agency was estimated at 194 lakhs, while the tribute
amounted to nearly 1 1 lakhs, about 7 lakhs payable to the British,
2-9 lakhs to the Gaikwar, and Rs. 92,400 to Junagarh, compared with
165^ lakhs and 11 lakhs respectively in 1880. Of the 193 States,
12 pay no tribute, 105 are tributary to the British Government, and
79 to the Gaikwar of Baroda, while 134 pay tribute also to the Nawab
of Junagarh. As the financial accounts of the States, except those
temporarily under management, are never submitted to the Agency,
the revenue entered in the table above referred to must be considered
only approximately correct. A large share of the revenue is never
brought to book in the State accounts, being credited to the private
income of the chief or of the members of his family. Villages are
assigned in maintenance or alienated, and taxes are farmed and their
proceeds carried to some private account. The greater part of the
revenue in every State is derived from the land, the general rule being
to take a fixed share of the crops, supplemented by cash cesses, the
total averaging from one-third to one-half of the crops. The States
which possess a seaboard levy an export duty on all field produce
leaving the State limits by any land route, in order to turn trade to
their own ports. The maritime States not only levy import and export
duties, but have also a monopoly of the manufacture of salt, a branch
of revenue of increasing importance. All jurisdictional States also
retain the monopoly of the sale of opium, and are entitled to two-thirds
of the value of all smuggled opium seized within their territories.
Other items of revenue are house taxes levied on artisans and shop-
keepers, and taxes on labourers, shepherds, &c. Stamp duties and
fees are levied on various judicial processes. Under the authority



ADMINISTRA TION 185

of Government, an improvement cess of two annas per acre has been
imposed on subordinate landholders for the last thirty years. There
is no regular classification of land. Assessment is levied chiefly in
kind, but it works out at about Rs. 2 to Rs. 2-8 per acre for 'dry crops'
and Rs. 5 to Rs. 6 for irrigated crops.

The British rupee is current throughout the peninsula. There is
a local mint at Junagarh, of which the coins are current in that State
alone. The silver coins are koris and hdli-koris, the copper coins being
known as dhinglas, dokdas, and trambia. The Bhaunagar mint was
closed in 1840 under an arrangement with the Bombay Government.

Municipal taxes are levied in many of the large towns. Since 1879
a certain amount has been contributed by each State and landed
proprietor in Kathiawar, and credited to a general Local fund adminis-
tered by the Agent to the Governor. All expenses connected with
.the improvements of the Agency are met from this fund, which has an
income of i-8 lakhs, with a balance in 1904 of 5 lakhs.

Imperial service troops are maintained at Bhaunagar, Junagarh, and
Jamnagar, which each equip a small force of cavalry. The British
troops at Rajkot consisted in 1905 of a regiment of Native infantry.

There is no general police force in Kathiawar. The chiefs are bound
by stipulation to preserve order and indemnify losses through crime
committed in their territory. In 1903-4 the Agency police, which
is employed at a cost of 2-4 lakhs in thanas and civil stations,
numbered 998 men ; while, so far as information can be obtained,
the several States maintained a stipendiary police force aggregating
5,378 men, at a cost of 7-7 lakhs. In that year 6,114 offences
were reported and 7,479 persons were arrested, of whom 4,218 were
convicted and 2,820 acquitted. Conviction is generally sought through
the agency of an informer. The daily average of prisoners in the
Rajkot jail was 103. At the present time life and property are as
safe in Kathiawar as in the Districts of British India.

Of the total population, 9-7 per cent. (17-7 males and 1-3 females)
could read and write in 1901. Education has made rapid strides of
late years. In 1858 there were 59 schools and 1,909 pupils, increasing
in 1881 to 599 schools with 33,000 pupils; in 1891 the numbers
further rose to 939 schools and 59,804 pupils. In 1903-4 the number
of institutions, including 224 private schools, was 1,200, attended by
80,041 pupils, of whom 10,108 were girls. These include 2 Arts
colleges, 11 high schools (including the Rajkumar College and the
Gondal Girasia School), 42 middle schools (including the Talukdari
Girasia School), and 2 training schools. At the Rajkumar College
and the Girasia Schools the advantages of a liberal education are
enjoyed by many of the chiefs during their minority. The total
amount spent on education in 1903-4, including the amount spent on



1 86 KATHIAWAR

the Rajkumar College (Rs. 45,000) and Girasia Schools (Rs. 33,000),
was 8-3 lakhs, of which Provincial funds contributed 0-4 per cent.,
the revenue of the States 78-7 per cent., and other sources 2-7 per cent.,
while 1 8-6 per cent, was recovered as fees.

There are 124 hospitals and dispensaries in Kathiawar. The
patients treated at these institutions in 1903-4 numbered 739,000,
of whom 15,813 were in-patients. Nearly 54,000 persons were vac-
cinated in the same year.

Kathor. — Town in the Kamrej tdluka, Navsari J>j-a?if, Baroda State,
situated in 21 17' N. and 72 59' E., on the northern bank of the Tapti
river, about 22 miles from Navsari and 10 miles from Surat. Popu-



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