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lation (1901), 4,407. The town possesses a Munsif's court, a dis-
pensary, vernacular schools, an industrial school, and public offices.
The place is remarkable for the number of Musalmans, of whom there
are no fewer than 2,444. They are chiefly Bohras of the Sunni persua-
sion ; and being people of great enterprise they repair in great numbers
to Mauritius, China, Natal, and other distant places, where they stay for
long periods, and return to Kathor after amassing sufficient wealth to
enable them to settle permanently at home. The principal articles of
trade in the town are grain, printed calicoes, and cotton cloth.

Kathiwara. — Thakurat in the Bhopawar Agency, Central India.

Kathoria. — Bhumiat in the Bhopawar Agency, Central India.

Kathrota. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Kathua. — Overgrown village in the Jasrota district, Jammu pro-
vince, Kashmir, situated in 32 22' N. and 75 32' E., on the right
bank of the Ravi and between it and the Ujh river. Population (1901),
5,801. Kathua possesses no points of interest. The buildings are
mean and dilapidated, and the place has no past and no future. The
climate is unhealthy, and the water-supply scanty and bad.

Kathumar. — Head-quarters of a tahsll of the same name in the
State of Alwar, Rajputana, situated in 27 19'' N. and 77 5' E., about
35 miles south-east of Alwar city, and 9 miles north-east of Kherh
station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. The town is said to be 800
years old ; it possesses a fort, a post office, and a vernacular school.
The population in 1901 was 3,388. The tahsilis situated in the south-
east of the State, and in 1901 contained 78 villages, with a population
of 41,152, of whom 90 per cent, were Hindus. Under Mughal rule it
was attached to the province of Agra, but, from its proximity to Jaipur,
was generally held as a fief by the Jaipur chief. From 1778 to 1784
the Mughals held direct possession, but in the latter year the Marathas
overran and occupied it. Their oppressions aroused the local popu-
lation, who invoked the aid of Maharao Raja Bakhtawar Singh about
1802. The latter sent a strong force, which expelled the Marathas and
occupied the fort of Kathumar; but in 1803 the Maratha troops, in



KATMANDU 187

their retreat before Lord Lake, bombarded the town and fort and
expelled the Alwar garrison. It was this army which was annihilated
three days later at Laswari. Just before the battle the tahsll of
Kathumar had been granted to the Maharaja of Bharatpur ; but as he
broke his engagements with the British, it was resumed in 1805 and
ceded to Alwar.

Katiadi. — Village in the Kishorganj subdivision of Mymensingh
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 15' N. and 90
48' E. Population (1901), 1,472. It is one of the most frequented
bazars in the south of the District.

Katihar. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Purnea District,
Bengal, situated in 25 34' N. and 87 35'' E. Population (1901), 9,761.
Katihar, which was formerly known as Saifganj, is an important railway
junction, at which the Bengal and North- Western Railway meets the
Bihar section of the Eastern Bengal State Railway. The latter is
continued to Manihan Ghat on the Ganges, whence a steamer plies to
Sakrigali, establishing communication also with the East Indian Railway.
There is a large export of rice and mustard seed. The town is the
head-quarters of the sheep-breeding trade, and rough blankets are
manufactured by a colony of Gareris settled there.

Katmandu. — Capital of the kingdom of Nepal, situated towards
the western side of the Nepal Valley, on the east bank of the Vishnu-
mati river, at its junction with the Baghmati ; approximate position,
2 7 42' N., 85 i2 r E. It is the largest city in Nepal, and has a popu-
lation which is roughly estimated at from 70,000 to 80,000. Most of
the inhabitants are Newars, of whom about two-thirds are Buddhists.
Katmandu is said to have been founded by Raja Giinakamadeva about
a. d. 723. The earliest name by which the city was known was Manju
Patan, after the Buddhist saint Manjusri. Tradition asserts that the
plain of Katmandu was covered by a great lake, till the saint cut the
dam with his sword and so released the water.

The general shape of the city is very irregular, and is supposed by
the Hindus to resemble the khara or sword of the goddess Devi, while
the Buddhist Newars declare it to have been built after the shape of the
sword of Manjusri. Its modern name is said to be derived from an
ancient building which stands in the heart of the city near the royal
palace, and which is still known as Katmandu from kat, ' wood ' (of
which material it is chiefly composed), and mandi or mandon, 'an
edifice.' This building was erected by Raja Lachmina Singh Mai, in
1596, as a house of accommodation for religious mendicants. Prior to
the Gurkha conquest of the country in 1769, Katmandu was the seat
of government of Newar kings who, with the princes of the neighbour-
ing towns of Patan and Bhatgaon, reigned over the Valley of Nepal
and adjacent country (see Nepal). Of the high walls, with their

VOL. XV. N



1 88 KATMANDU

numerous gateways, which once surrounded the city, considerable
portions have been demolished or have fallen into disrepair.

The town is a labyrinth of narrow streets, most of which are im-
passable for carriage traffic and indescribably filthy. The buildings
on either side are densely crowded, and are usually from two to four
storeys high. They are made of brick, and tiled, and are built in the
form of hollow squares, opening off the streets by low doorways, the
central courtyards serving as receptacles for rubbish of every sort. In
contrast to this dirt and squalor is the wealth of wood-carving which
ornaments the fagades of the houses. Most of these have projecting
wooden windows or balconies, elaborately carved in beautiful designs.
The streets generally lead to the toh or squares, of which there are
many throughout the city. These are open spaces, paved, like the
streets, with brick and stone, in which the various markets are held.
The largest and most important building is the royal palace or Darbar.
This covers a considerable extent of ground. On the west it faces an
open square which contains many temples and a monolithic pillar.
Opposite the north-west corner of the Darbar stands a large semi-
European building called the Khot, which is famous as having been
the scene of the massacre in 1846 of almost all the leading men of the
country, by which Sir Jang Bahadur established himself in power.
The Darbar is now used only for ceremonial purposes, as a residence
for various relations of the king, and as public offices. The king, the
Minister, and most of the nobles in the country have long since given
up living within the city, and have built themselves imposing palaces
and houses in European style outside it.

Katmandu, though a filthy city, presents an exceedingly picturesque
appearance. This is, in a great measure, due to the Chinese style of
architecture which predominates. Many of the temples are like
pagodas, of several storeys in height, and profusely ornamented with
carvings, paintings, and gilding. The roofs of many of them are
entirely of brass, or copper gilt, and along the eaves of the different
storeys are hung numerous little bells which tinkle in the breeze. At
some of the doorways, which are often copper gilt, are placed a couple
of large stone lions or griffins, with well-curled manes. Immediately
outside the city is a fine parade-ground nearly a mile in length,
surrounded by an avenue of trees and ornamented with modern
equestrian statues of various Ministers.

A good water-supply was introduced in 1892, and lately drainage
works have been started. There are two hospitals — one for women,
the other for men — a school, and a free library.

A British Resident, with a small staff and escort, is stationed at
Katmandu. The Residency is situated about a mile out of the city on
the north side, in what was formerly a barren patch of ground, supposed



KATRA 189

to be haunted by demons, hut now one of the most beautiful and best-
wooded parts of the Valley. Within the grounds is a British post office
under the control of the Resident.

Katnl. — Railway junction in the Murwara tahsil of Jubbulporc
District, Central Provinces, situated in 23 50' N. and 8o° 24/ E., on the
East Indian Railway, 673 miles from Bombay and 727 from Calcutta,
adjoining the town of Murwara. It is connected with Bilaspur on the
main line of the Bengal-Nagpur system by a link of 168 miles, and with
Bina on the Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway
from Itarsi to Agra by one of 163 miles. These two connecting lines
may eventually form part of the through route from Calcutta to
Karachi.

Katodia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Katoi Tahsil. — Western tahsil of Nagpur District, Central Provinces,
lying between 21 2' and 21 31' N. and 7S 15' and 78 59' E., with
an area of 800 square miles. The population in 1901 was 162,588,
compared with 157,100 in 1891. The density is 200 persons per
square mile. The tahsil contains five towns — Katoi, (population,
7,313), the head-quarters, Narkher (7,726), Kelod (5,141), Mohpa
(5,336), and Mowar (4,799)— and 356 inhabited villages. Excluding
56 square miles of Government forest, 77 per cent, of the available
area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated area in 1903-4 was
540 square miles. The demand for land revenue in the same year was
Rs. 2,57,000, and for cesses Rs. 22,000. The tahsil contains tracts of
very fertile land in the valleys of the Wardha and Jam rivers, and some
hilly and stony country to the south. It is one of the great cotton-
growing areas of the Province.

Katol Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name,
Nagpur District, Central Provinces, situated in 2 1° 17' N. and 7 8° 36' E.,
on the Jam river, 36 miles west of Nagpur city by road. Population
(1901), 7,313. The suburb of Budhwara on the opposite side of
the river has recently been included in its limits. Within the town are
the ruins of an old fort, and a curious temple of very early date built
entirely of layers of sandstone with many grotesque carvings. Katol is
not a municipality, but a town fund is raised for sanitary purposes. It
is one of the important cotton markets of the Province, and contains
4 ginning factories with 160 gins and 3 cotton-presses, having a
total capital of about 5 lakhs. The mangoes grown locally have some
reputation. Katol has an English middle school and a dispensary.

Katosan. — Petty State in MahI Kantha, Bombay.

Katra (or Miranpur Katra). — Town in the Tilhar tahsil of Shah-
jahanpur District, United Provinces, situated in 28 2' N. and 79 40' E.,
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 6,209.
The town generally is built of mud, and contains a police station, a

n 2



1 90 KATRA

dispensary, and a branch of the American Methodist Mission. Between
this place and Fatehganj East in Bareilly District was fought the battle
in which the united British and Oudh forces defeated the Rohillas under
Rahmat Khan, and effected the annexation of Rohilkhand to Oudh.
Ratra is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about
Rs. 1,500. There is a considerable export of local produce by railway.
The middle school has 128 pupils.

Katumbar. — Tahsil and head-quarters thereof in Alwar State,
Rajputana. See Kathumar.

Katwa Subdivision. — North-eastern subdivision of Burdwan Dis-
trict, Bengal, lying between 23 26' and 23 50' N. and 87 44' and
88° 17' E., with an area of 404 square miles. The subdivision is a flat
alluvial tract, and in the east, along the banks of the Bhaglrathi, the
soil is waterlogged and swampy. The population in 1901 was 248,806,
compared with 230,227 in 1891, the density being 616 persons per
square mile. It contains two towns, Katwa (population, 7,920), its
head-quarters, and Dainhat (5,618) ; and 465 villages. Large annual
fairs are held at AgradwTp and Dadia. The manufacture of tasar silk
is an important industry.

Katwa Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name
in Burdwan District, Bengal, situated in 23 39' N. and 88° 8" E., at
the junction of the Bhaglrathi and Ajay rivers. Population (1901),
7,220. Katwa was at one time considered the key to Murshidabad
when that town was the capital of Bengal, and an old fort here was
the scene of the defeat of the Marathas by All Vardl Khan. It is
held sacred by the Vaishnavas, as having been the place where their
apostle Chaitanya entered upon the life of an ascetic. Steamers used
to visit it the year round, but owing to the silting up of the Bhaglrathi
and the opening of the East Indian Railway its commercial importance
has greatly declined ; it is now proposed to construct a branch railway
from Hooghly. Katwa was constituted a municipality in 1869. The
income during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 7,800, and
the expenditure Rs. 7,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,200,
half of which was derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and
the expenditure was Rs. 8,300. The town contains the usual public
offices ; the subsidiary jail has accommodation for 24 prisoners.

Kauriala (also called Karnali). — River of Northern India, rising in
Tibet, not far from one of the sources of the Sutlej, in 30 40' N. and
8o° 48' E. After leaving Tibet by the Takla Khar or Yari pass, it
flows through Nepal, generally in a south-easterly direction, till it
emerges from the lower range of the Himalayas through a deep pictur-
esque gorge known as Shlsha Pa.nl ('glass water'). The stream here
is about 300 yards broad and of great depth, with a slow r current, closely
shut in by precipitous cliffs 2,500 feet high. A little below Shlsha



KAVERI 191

Panl the channel widens, with a steeper and rockier descent, causing
magnificent rapids nearly half a mile broad. Lower down the river
divides into two, the western branch retaining the name of Kauriala or
Karnali, the eastern being called the GiRWA. Formerly the latter was
an insignificant stream, but its volume has gradually increased till it is
now considerably larger than that of the Kauriala. They are both rapid
rivers, with pebbly beds and fords which an elephant can generally cross
without difficulty. Eighteen miles from its point of exit from the hills
the Kauriala enters British territory, at the point where it receives the
Mohan, and marks the boundary between the Oudh Districts of Kheri
and Bahraich. It now receives on the east bank its former offshoot,
the Girwa, and on the west the Suheli, Dahawar, and Chauka, all
branches of the Sarda river. From the point of confluence with the
Chauka the united rivers become the Gogra, which ultimately falls
into the Ganges on its left bank, a little above Dinapore. The Kauriala
is navigable by large boats of about 17 tons burden beyond the limits
of British territory. The principal traffic is the export of grain, and of
timber, ginger, pepper, ghi, and catechu from Nepal. Gold-washing is
carried on by a caste called, after their occupation, Sonahis. The river
abounds in fish.

Kavali Taluk. — Taluk of Nellore District, Madras, lying between
14 40' and 15 4' N. and 79 36' and 8o° f E., and bounded on the
east by the Bay of Bengal. Its area is 548 square miles, about one-
third of which is shrotriem and zamlndari. The population in 1901
was 87,015, compared with 83,109 in 1891. It contains 77 villages,
besides the head-quarters, Kavali (population, 8,635). The demand
on account of land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to
Rs. 2,41,000. The taluk is generally flat, but contains a few isolated
hills, while to the west and north-west are extensive low jungles, in parts
very dense. The soil is poor, and large beds of laterite are frequently
met with. The taluk is drained by the Upputeru (an affluent of the
Manneru), the Gundalavagu, Ubbalivagu, and Pillivagu. There are
35 tanks under the charge of the department of Public Works, and
31 minor irrigation works. With a few exceptions these are rain-fed,
and the supply is therefore not very certain. Irrigation from the
Sangam dam across the Penner has been extended to two villages.
' Wet ' cultivation is most common in the eastern portion. The con-
sumption of rice has much increased of late years. Along the sea-coast
large tracts have been planted with palmyra palms and casuarina.

Kavali Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in
Nellore District, Madras, situated in 14 55' N. and 8o° E. Population
(1901), 8,635. ^ contains a District Munsif's court and the usual
offices.

Kaveri. — River of Southern India. See Cauverv.



1 9 2 KAVERIPAK

Kaveripak. — Village in the Walajapet taluk of North Arcot District,
Madras, situated in 12 54' N. and 79' 28' E. Population (1901),
5,566. It is known in history as the scene of the victory gained by
Clive over Raja Sahib and his French allies in 1752. It is a flourishing
place, lying to the south of the embankment of the large tank to which
it gives its name. A small fort formerly stood near, but this has been
destroyed. The tank is the most extensive in the District, its embank-
ment being about 4 miles long. Upon this is built a little bungalow,
with a view over the water towards the Sholinghur hills. Wild duck
and other water-fowl are abundant. The tank, which is fed by a
channel from the Palar, is rarely dry, but has much silted up in the
course of years.

Kaveripatnam. — Village in the Krishnagiri taluk of Salem District,
Madras, situated in 12 26' N. and 78 13' E., on the right bank of
the Ponnaiyar, 7 miles from Krishnagiri. Population (1901), 4,954.
The place was regarded as of some strategical importance in the Mysore
Wars, as it commanded the entrance to Dharmapuri taluk and the
Carnatic, and was strongly fortified. In 1767 the English took it from
Haidar AH; but the latter almost immediately recaptured it, and used it
as a support in the next campaign until his withdrawal above the Ghats.
Colonel Wood then took the place, and in 1790 Colonel Maxwell made
it his head-quarters before advancing against Tipu.

Kavlapur. — Town in the State of Sangli, Bombay, situated in
1 6° 89' N. and 74° 72' E. Population (1901), 5,127. The town,
formerly called Shingnapur and Kavandanyapur, is built on stony
undulating ground, and lies 5 miles north-east of Sangli town, near
a small stream which rises in the Dandoba hills and falls into the
Kistna. This stream supplies the town with drinking-water, the well-
water being brackish and unhealthy. The town contains a substantial
schoolhouse, with accommodation for roo boys, a Jain basti, a Muham-
madan dargah, and fourteen Hindu temples, the most important of
which is that of Siddheshwar.

Kawa. — South-eastern township of Pegu District, Lower Burma,
lying between 16 58' and 17° 26' N. and 96 17' and 96 53' E., with
an area of 514 square miles. It is a flat area producing rice, and lying
for the most part between the Pegu river and the mouth of the Sittang.
In 190T it contained 206 villages, with a population of 79,057, its
inhabitants in 1891 having numbered 60,435. The head-quarters are
at Kawa (population, 1,866), on the left bank of the Pegu river, not far
from Tongyi railway station. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 345
square miles, paying Rs. 6,59,800 land revenue.

Kawahi.— River in Sylhet District, Eastern Bengal and Assam.
See Khowai.

Kawardha. — Feudatory State in the Central Provinces, lying



KAWARDHA 193

between 21 50' and 22 30' N. and 8o° 50' and 8i° 26' E., with an
area of 798 square miles. It lies on the border of the eastern range of
the Satpura. Hills, between the Districts of Balaghat, Drug, Bilaspur,
and Mandla. The western half of the State consists of hill and forest
country, while to the east is an open plain. Kawardha (population,
4,772), the head-quarters, is 54 miles from Tilda station on the
Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The name is believed to be a corruption of
Kabirdham or ' the seat of Kabir,' and Kawardha is the official head-
quarters of the mahants of the KabTrpanthi sect. At the village of
Chhapri, 1 1 miles to the west of Kawardha, is situated the fine old
temple of Bhoram Deo. It is highly decorated, contains several in-
scriptions; and is assigned to the eleventh century. The Kawardha
family are Raj Gonds and are related to the zamindars of Pandaria
in Bilaspur, the Kawardha branch being the junior. In the event of
failure of heirs, a younger son of the Pandaria zamindar succeeds.
The estate was conferred for military services by Raghuji Bhonsla.
The present chief, Jadunath Singh, succeeded in 1891 at the age of
six years. He is being educated at the Rajkumar College, Raipur, and
during his minority the State is administered through the Political
Agent for the Chhattlsgarh Feudatory States. The State contains 346
inhabited villages, and the population in 1901 was 57,474. It decreased
by 37 per cent, in the preceding decade, during which Kawardha was
severely affected by famine in several years. The density is 72 persons
per square mile. Gonds, Chamars, Kurmis, and Telis are the principal
castes, and the Chhattisgarhl dialect of Hindi is universally spoken.

In the open country there is a considerable quantity of good black
soil. Included in Kawardha are the three subordinate zamlnddri
estates of Boria, Bhonda, and Rengakhar, with an estimated total area
of 405 square miles. These have not been surveyed, and no statistics
for them are available. Of the remaining area, which has been
cadastrally surveyed, 242 square miles are occupied for cultivation, of
which 222 are under crop. The cropped area has considerably de-
creased in recent years owing to the unfavourable seasons. The
principal crops are kodon, which covers 100 square miles, wheat t,^,
rice 35, and cotton 54. Only 165 acres are irrigated, from wells. About
452 square miles, or more than half the total area of the State, are
forest. The forests consist mainly of inferior species, and sal (Shorea
robusta) is the principal timber tree. The State contains 36 miles of
gravelled and 74 miles of embanked roads, constructed under the
supervision of the Engineer of the Chhattlsgarh States division. The
principal routes are those from Dongargarh to Pandaria, and from
Kawardha to Simga.

The revenue of the State in 1904 amounted to Rs. 1,10,000, of
which Rs. 70,000 was derived from land, Rs. 13,000 from forests, and



i 9 4 KA WARD HA

Rs. io,ooo from excise. The system of land revenue assessment is the
same as in British territory, but the headmen of villages have no pro-
prietary rights. Excluding the zamindari estates, which pay a revenue
of Rs. 1,630, the incidence of land revenue is 8 annas 9 pies per culti-
vated acre. The usual cesses are realized with the land revenue. The
expenditure in 1904 amounted to Rs. 1,12,000, the principal items
being Government tribute (Rs. 32,000), allowances to the ruling
family (Rs. 13,500), public works (Rs. 9,000), general administration
(Rs. 9,600), and police (Rs. 6,000). The tribute is liable to periodical
revision. Since 1893 the State has allotted Rs. 1,60,000 to public
works, which has been mainly expended in the construction of the
roads already mentioned and of buildings for the State offices. The
expenditure on education in 1904 was Rs. 2,900, from which 12 schools
with about 900 pupils are maintained. Only 879 persons were returned
as literate in 1901, the proportion of the male population able
to read and write being 3 per cent. A dispensary has been estab-
lished at Kawardha, at which 15,000 persons were treated in 1904.
The relations of the State with Government are in charge of a
Political Agent, under the supervision of the Commissioner, Chhattis-
garh Division.

Kawkareik Subdivision. — Subdivision consisting of the eastern
half of Amherst District, Lower Burma, with head-quarters at Kaw-
kareik. It contains two townships, Kawkareik and Kyaikmaraw.

Kawkareik Township. — North-eastern township of Amherst Dis-
trict, Lower Burma (formerly known as the Haungtharaw township),
lying between 15 37' and 17° 2' N. and 97 59' and 98 51' E., with
an area of 1,963 square miles, bounded on the west by Haungtharaw,
and on the east by Thaungyin and by Siamese territory. It is for the
most part very hilly and very sparsely inhabited. The population was
22,512 in 1891, and 35,111 in 1901, distributed in T62 villages and
one town, Kawkareik (population, 3,919), the head-quarters. The
area cultivated has more than doubled during the past ten years. In



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