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1903-4 it reached an aggregate of 50 square miles, paying Rs. 39,300
land revenue.

Kawkareik Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same
name in Amherst District, Lower Burma, situated in 16 35' N. and
98 14' E. The town lies in the north-east of the District, nearly
50 miles due east of Moulmein, stretching along both banks of the
Kawkareik, a stream which flows from the western slopes of the Dawna
range into the Haungtharaw river, and is navigable up to Kawkareik
during the rains by boats of fairly heavy burden. The town is an
important trade centre on the main caravan route between Moulmein
and Siam. Population (1901), 3,919. In 1884-5 Kawkareik was
placed in charge of a town committee, which was reconstituted in 1903.



KAYANKULAM 195

The income administered by the town authorities was Rs. 8,700 in
1903-4, and the expenditure was Rs. 9,000, devoted chiefly to public
works. The town possesses a civil hospital, with eight beds, which is
supported by the town fund.

Kawlin. — Southernmost township of Katha District, Upper Burma,
lying between 23 30' and 23 54' N. and 95 20' and 96 E., on cither
side of the Sagaing-Myitkyina railway, with an area of 536 square miles.
It was annexed in 1891 with the rest of the former Wuntho State.
The population in 1901 was 28,114 (practically all Burmans), dis-
tributed in 239 villages. The head-quarters are at Kawlin (population,
813) on the railway, the scene of some of the most exciting episodes
in the Wuntho rebellion. The surveyed area under cultivation in
1903-4 was 70 square miles, and the land revenue and tliathamcJa
amounted to Rs. 1,05,400.

Kayal. — Village in the Srtvaikuntam taluk of Tinnevelly District,
Madras, situated in 8° 40' N. and 78 5' E., near the sea, on the
northern bank of the Tambraparni river. It was once a famous port,
and was visited in 1292 by Marco Polo, who calls it 'a great and noble
city,' and notices it at length (Col. Yule's translation, vol. ii, p. 305).
A similar glowing account of the place is given by two Persian
historians quoted by Colonel Yule. Kayal sprang into existence after
Kolkai, but the silt of the Tambraparni ruined both places as ports
and has now turned them into inland villages. Relics of the ancient
greatness of Kayal are, however, still discoverable in the shape of
broken tiles and remnants of pottery. There are also two old temples
with inscriptions. An interesting and detailed account of the place
will be found in Bishop Caldwell's History of Tinnevelly.

Kayalpatnam. — A small port in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Tin-
nevelly District, Madras, situated in 8° 34' N. and 78° 8' E., a few
miles to the south of the Tambraparni river and 18 miles south of
Tuticorin ; not to be confounded with Kayal. It is a Union, with
a population (1901) of 11,746. Its sea-borne trade, which is chiefly
in rice and coco-nuts with Ceylon and in timber and areca-nuts with
Travancore, is carried on by the Musalman tribe of Labbais. There
is also some trade in palmyra-leaf boxes and jaggery (coarse sugar),
and a large salt factory is at work.

Kayankulam. — Town on the backwater of the same name in the
Kartikapalli taluk of Travancore State, Madras, situated in 9 11' N-
and 76° 30' E. Population (1901), 5,745. Formerly capital of an
independent principality known as Onad, it held an equal position with
Yenad, or Travancore. In the sixteenth century it was an important
harbour where the Portuguese had a factory. The Onad Raja was the
earliest Malabar ally of the Dutch. After a protracted war, he sub-
mitted to Travancore in 1746. In a.d. 829 one of the earliest Syrian



196 KAYANKULAM

Churches was founded here. The place has a well-attended market
and a magistrate's court.

Kedarnath. — Famous temple and place of pilgrimage in Garhwal
District, United Provinces, situated in 30 44' N. and 79 E., imme-
diately below the snow peak of Mahapanth, at an elevation of
11,753 f eet above sea-level. It marks the spot where Sadasiva, a form
of Siva, in his flight from the Pandavas, assumed the form of a buffalo
and attempted to dive into the earth to escape his pursuers, but left
his hind quarters on the surface. A rock is still worshipped as part
of the deity, and the remaining portions of his body are reverenced
elsewhere : at Tungnath, Rudranath, Madhyamaheshwar, and Kalpesh-
war. Four miles from the temple on the way to the Mahapanth peak
is a precipice known as the Bhairab Jhamp, where devotees formerly
committed suicide by flinging themselves from the summit ; but the
British Government suppressed this practice shortly after annexation.
The Kawal or chief priest of Kedarnath is always a Jangama from
Mysore or some other part of Southern India. Large numbers of
pilgrims annually visit Kedarnath.

Kedgeree {Khejri). — Village in the Contai subdivision of Midnapore
District, Bengal, situated in 21 52' N. and 87° 59' E., on the right
bank of the Hooghly river. Population (1901), 1,457. This was
formerly an important anchorage, and close by is an old English
burial-ground containing numerous graves of Europeans who died
on shipboard off the coast.

Kehsi Mansam (Burmese, Kyithi Bansati). — State in the eastern
division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 21 48' and
22 15' N. and 97 40' and 98 22' E., with an area of 632 square miles.
It is bounded on the north by the Northern Shan States of Hslpaw and
South Hsenwi ; on the east by Kenglon, Manglon, and Monghsu ; on
the south by Mongnawng and Mbngkiing ; and on the west by Mong-
kiing. In early days Kehsi Mansam formed part of North Hsenwi, but
was made a Myozaship in i860. The State consists chiefly of open
rolling country, nowhere rising to any great height. Around the capital
and to the east of it are almost treeless downs. Between the Nam
Pang and the border of Manglon are two circles, undulating like the
rest, but covered with scrub jungle. To the north and west the downs
become low hills, as yet untouched by the taungya cultivator; in the
valleys between these hills most of the 'wet' rice of the State is grown.
The chief river is the Nam Heng, which separates the State from
HsTpaw and joins the Nam Pang. Rice is grown in both irrigated
fields and taungyas, the other crops being cotton, tobacco, and sesa-
mum. Kehsi Mansam is, however, a commercial rather than an agri-
cultural State. A good deal of business is done with Tawngpeng in
tea ; and there is a considerable trade in agricultural implements and



KELOJ) 197

bamboo hats (the Burmese kamauk), which arc made in the northern
part of the State. The population in 1901 was 22,062 (distributed in

378 villages), of whom about 19,500 were Shans, and about 2,500 Yins
(Yanglam). Kehsi Mansam (population, CiS), in the western part of
the State, on the Nam Heng, is a trading centre of some importance,
and was once a large town. The revenue in 1903-4 amounted to
Rs. 15,000 (mainly from thatliamcda) ; the chief items of expenditure
were Rs. 8,000 tribute to the British Government, Rs. 4,000 general
administration charges, Rs. 2,000 privy purse, and Rs. 1,000 public
works.

Kekri. — Town in Ajmer-Merwara, Rajputana, and the head-quarters
of an Extra- Assistant Commissioner, situated in 25 25' N. and 75
13' E. Population (1901), 7,053, including 5.472 Hindus, 1,193
Muhammadans, and 364 Jains. Kekri was formerly a thriving com-
mercial town, but has of late years declined in importance. The
municipal income in 1902-3 was about Rs. 14,000. The water-supply
is scarce and bad. Kekri possesses three hydraulic cotton-presses
and a ginning factory.

Keladi.— Village in the Sagar taluk of Shimoga District, Mysore,
situated in 14° 13' N. and 75 1/ E., 4 miles north of Sagar town.
Population (1901), 1,595. It was the place of origin, at the close of
the fifteenth century, of the chiefs who became kings of the whole of
the north-west of Mysore, and of the Kanarese districts below the
Ghats, and continued in power till overthrown by Haidar All in 1763.
They were at first tributary to Vijayanagar, but assumed independence
after the fall of that empire. The capital was first removed to Ikkeri,
and eventually to Bednur.

Kelapur Taluk. — Taluk of Yeotmal District (formerly known as
Wun), Berar, lying between 19° 50' and 20 29' N. and 78° 2' and 78
51' E., with an area of 1,080 square miles. The population fell from
105,926 in 1891 to 103,657 in 1901, the density being 96 persons
per square mile. The taluk contains 310 villages, but no town. The
head-quarters are at Pandharkawada (population, 1,992), near the small
village of Kelapur, from which the taluk takes its name. The taluk
contains a larger proportion of Gonds than any other in Berar. It
marched with, and probably at times formed part of, the Gond kingdom
of Chanda. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,35,000,
and for cesses Rs. 8,000. The taluk lies in the Balaghat or southern
plateau of Berar, but possesses fertile tracts in the valleys of the Wardha
and Penganga rivers, which bound it on the north and south.

Kelat-i-Ghilzai. — Fort in Kandahar province, Afghanistan. See
Kalat-i-Ghilzai.

Kelod. — Town in the Katol iahsil of Nagpur District, Central
Provinces, situated in 21° 27' N. and 78 53' E., 28 miles from Nagpur



198 KELOD

city on the Chhindwara road. The name is probably an abbrevia-
tion from keljhar, 'a plantain-tree,' as plantain groves were formerly
numerous here. Population (1901), 5,141. The town contains an old
fort. It is not a municipality, but a town fund is raised for sanitary
purposes. A cotton-ginning factory has recently been opened. The
chief local industry is the manufacture of large brass water-vessels.
There is a vernacular middle school.

Kelve-Mahim. — Head-quarters of the Mahim taluka of Thana Dis-
trict, Bombay, situated in i9°36' N. and 72°44 / E., about $\ miles west
of the Palghar station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway,
and 56 miles north of Bombay. Population (1901), 5,699. The village
' of Kelve, whose name is thus joined with Mahim, lies on the opposite
side of a creek about 2\ miles to the south. The coast is very rocky
near the harbour, and a reef stretches for 2 miles from the shore. A
small island fort lies opposite the village of Kelve. Near the two
creeks which form the harbours of Mahlm and Kelve are two small
forts, forming links in the chain built by the Portuguese along the coast
of the taluka. The town is to a large extent occupied by gardens, and
has a fair trade in plantains, sugar-cane, ginger, and betel-leaf. Delhi
Musalmans had possession of Mahim in 1350; Gujarat governors suc-
ceeded; in 1532 the Portuguese occupied it; and in 1612 it was
bravely held against the Mughals. The tomb of a Portuguese noble-
man has been unearthed and its slab placed in the Collector's garden
at Thana. Kelve-Mahim has been a municipal town since 1861.
During the decade ending 1901 the income averaged Rs. 8,000. In
1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,700. Kelve village was included in the
Mahim municipality in 1890. The town contains a dispensary, and
6 schools for boys with 356 pupils and one for girls with 51 pupils.

Kelwara. — Head-quarters of the Kumbhalgarh pargana in the
State of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 25 7' N. and 73 36' E., in
the heart of the Aravalli Hills, about 2\ miles south of the Kumbhal-
garh fort and 38 miles north of Udaipur city. Population (1901), 1,204.
It was in Kelwara that Rana Ajai Singh found refuge when his father,
Rana Lakshman Singh, and his seven brothers had been killed defending
Chitor against Ala-ud-din at the beginning of the fourteenth century.

Ken (or Kayan ; Skt. KarnavaH ; the Kaiuas of Arrian). — River of
Bundelkhand. It rises in the north-western slopes of the Kaimur
Hills (23 54' N., 8o° io' E.), and flowing north-east through Damoh
and Panna enters Banda District in the United Provinces near Bilharka.
After a course of more than roo miles along the border of and through
Banda, it joins the Jumna near Chilla, on the road from Banda to
Eatehpur, 230 miles from its source. The river flows in a deep, well-
defined bed, and is navigable for small boats as far as Banda town ; but
there is not much traffic. At Banda the bed is sandy, but pebbles and



KENGHKAM 199

fragments of quartz and other rocks are found in it, which arc polished
and made into ornaments. Above Banda the bed becomes more rocky,
and the scenery near Kharauni is singularly beautiful. A canal taking
off from the river near Bariarpur in the Ajaigarh State has recently been
completed. At present it is designed to irrigate only a part of Banda
District : namely, the area between the Ken and Baghain, of which it
will command about half, or 374,000 acres. The reservoir formed
in connexion with this project will impound about 182 million cubic
feet of water in the valley of the river.

Kendrapara Subdivision. — North-eastern subdivision of Cuttack
District, Bengal, lying between 20 18' and 20 48'' N. and 86° 15' and
8 7 i' E., with an area of 977 square miles. The population in 1901
was 467,081, compared with 429,770 in 1891. The subdivision is a
deltaic alluvial tract, bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal and
intersected by numerous rivers and streams. The strip along the coast
is very sparsely populated, but the density rises towards the west, and
the average for the whole subdivision is 478 persons per square mile.
It contains one town, Kendrapara (population, 15,245), its head-
quarters; and 1,338 villages.

Kendrapara Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same
name in Cuttack District, Bengal, situated in 20 30' N. and 86° 25' E.
Population (1901), 15,245. Its position on the Kendrapara Canal in
the heart of a rich rice-producing country gives it a considerable trade ;
and it, is connected by road with Cuttack, Jajpur, and Chandbali. It
was constituted a municipality in 1869. The income and expenditure
during the decade ending 1 901-2 averaged Rs. 8,000. In 1903-4 the
income was Rs. 11,200, of which Rs. 6,700 was derived from a tax
on persons (or property tax); and the expenditure was Rs. 11,100.
Besides the usual public buildings, Kendrapara possesses a good school
and dispensary, and a public library has lately been opened for the
circulation of English and vernacular literature. The sub-jail has
accommodation for twelve prisoners.

Kenduli. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Blrbhum Dis-
trict, Bengal, situated in 23 38' N. and 87 26' E., on the north bank
of the Ajay river. Population (1901), 774. It was the birthplace of
Jayadeva, the author of the celebrated Glta Gobinda, a Sanskrit poem
in praise of Krishna Chaitanya, who was a disciple of the Vaishnav
reformer. An annual fair in honour of Jayadeva is held in the village
on the last day of Pus (the middle of January), which is attended by
50,000 persons.

Kenery. — Island near the entrance of Bombay harbour, off the
mainland of Kolaba District, Bombay. See Khanderi.

Kenghkam (Burmese, Kyaingkan). — Small State in the eastern
division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 20 50' and



2oo KENGHKAM

2i° 7' N. and 98 20' and 98 37' E., with an area of 167 square miles.
It lies on both sides of the Nam Pang, and is bounded on the north by
Mongnawng and a detached portion of Mongnai ; on the east by a
detached portion of Mongnawng and by the Salween river ; and on the
south and west by Mongnai. Rice is cultivated in the plain lying along
the western bank of the river and on the hills to the west, but owing to
the loss of population a large number of paddy-fields are fallow. The
population of the State in 1901 was 5,458, practically all Shans, distri-
buted in 52 villages. The residence of the Myoza is at Kenghkam
(population, 1,203), a picturesquely situated village on the Nam Pang,
a few miles north of the point where that stream flows into the Salween.
The revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,000 (mostly from thatha-
medd), and the tribute to the British Government is Rs. 2,000.

Kenglbn (Burmese, Kyainglori). — Small State in the eastern division
of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying geographically within the
borders of Kehsi Mansam, but abutting in the south-east on Monghsu,
It is situated between 21 51' and 22 2' N. and 98 2' and 9S 13' E.,
with an area of 43 square miles. Kenglon used at one time to form
part of North Hsenwi. The country is undulating on the whole, and
the land is fertile. The main crop is lowland rice ; and the people,
who in 1 90 1 numbered 4,259 (practically all Shans), export a good
deal of rice. The population was distributed in 69 villages, of which
the largest is Kenglon, the residence of the Myoza (population, 341),
west of a chain of low hills towards the north of the State. The
revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,000, and the tribute to the British
Government is Rs. 1,500.

Kengtung (Burmese, Kyaington). — A division of the Southern Shan
States, Burma, and a State under a Sawbwa, residing at the capital,
Kengtung. It is the largest Native State in Burma, having an area
of about 12,000 square miles, and is situated between 20 4' and
22 10' N. and 98 28' and 101 9' E., lying, with the exception of
a small area between the mouth of the Nam Hka river and the Takaw
ferry, entirely east of the Salween. On the north it is bounded by the
newly drawn Chinese frontier ; on the east by China ; on the south by
the French Lao territory and Siam ; and on the west by the Southern
Shan States of Mongpan, Mongnai, and Mongnawng, and the Northern
Shan State of Manglon, from which it is separated by the Nam
Hka river. It includes the dependencies of Hsenyawt, Hsenmawng,
Monghsat, Mongpu, and Western Kengcheng. A good deal of the
early history of Kengtung is purely legendary. It is clear, however,
that the State has suffered much in the past at the hands of the
Siamese and the Chinese, both of whom invaded it several times be-
tween the middle of the eighteenth and the middle of the nineteenth
century. Some of the main features of the history of Kengtung since



KENGTUNG TOWN 20 1

the annexation of Upper Burma are given in the article on the
Southern Shan States. The country is broken and mountainous,
the hill ranges having a general north and south tendency ; about
two-thirds of it lies in the basin of the Mekong, and about one-third
in the basin of the Salween, the watershed being a hill range varying
from 5,000 to 7,000 feet in height. The climate in the valleys is
extremely enervating during the rains ; dense fogs prevail in the cold
season, and the valleys are much hotter than their altitude would lead
one to expect, while the daily range of temperature is large. Rice
is the staple, but fruit of all kinds is cultivated in the gardens, while
on the uplands cotton is the main crop. On the highest hills poppy is
grown in addition to iaungya rice and sesamum, and tea is cultivated
for local consumption. There are rich forests, the revenue from which
amounted in 1904 to Rs. 34,000. The population of the State in 1901
was 190,698, of whom 139,735 were returned as Buddhists and 50,039
as Animists. The people are Shans (Hkiin and Lii), or belong to
a variety of hill tribes, of which the most important are the Kaws or
Akhas, the Muhsos, and the ^^'A.s (Tai Loi, &c.). Divided by
languages, 57,058 persons spoke Shan, 42,160 Hkiin (the language
of the Kengtung valley), 27,652 Akha, 19,380 Lii (the language of the
valley between Kengtung and the Mekong), and 44,448 other ver-
naculars, such as Palaung, Kachin, and Lisaw. The population in
1 90 1 was distributed in 2,338 villages, the only urban area of any
size being the capital, Kengtung (population, 5,695). The revenue,
chiefly from thathameda, amounted in 1903-4 to i-i lakhs. The
expenditure included Rs. 30,000 paid as tribute to the British Govern-
ment, Rs. 24,000 spent on miscellaneous administrative charges, Rs.
33,500 devoted to the salaries of officials, Rs. 18,000 to the privy
purse, and Rs. 4,350 to public works.

Kengtung Town. — Capital of Kengtung State in the Southern
Shan States, Burma, situated in 21 18' N. and 99 45' E., towards
the southern end of the central valley of the State. The town, which
lies on low, undulating ground, was built early in the nineteenth
century, and in 1901 had a population of 5,695. It is a straggling-
area, containing a few brick buildings and the Sawbwa's haw or palace
of timber surrounded by a brick wall. Kengtung has till recently been
the head-quarters of an Assistant Superintendent. It was a post of
importance in the eighteenth century, and was fortified strongly by
Alaungpaya with a thick wall and a moat. It is still an important
trading centre. The present station of Kengtung is a quarter of a
mile away, and contains the quarters of the police. The cantonment
is about 7 miles west of the town. The place is very unhealthy, and
a site for a new station has been found on a spur (Loi Mwe) at an
altitude of 5,500 feet, 12 miles south-east of Kengtung town. There is



20 2 KENGTUNG TOWN

room here for both the civil station and the cantonment, and a good
supply of drinking-water is obtainable. The garrison of Kengtung has
recently been replaced by military police.

Keonjhar State. — One of the Tributary States of Orissa, Bengal,
lying between 21 1' and 22 10' N. and 85 11' and 86° 22' E. It is
the second largest of the Orissa States, having an area of 3,096 square
miles. It is bounded on the north by Singhbhum District ; on the
east by the State of Mayurbhanj and Balasore District ; on the south
by Cuttack District and the State of Dhenkanal ; and on the west by
the States of Pal Lahara and Bonai. Keonjhar is divided into two
widely dissimilar tracts, Lower Keonjhar being a region of valleys and
lowlands, while Upper Keonjhar includes the mountainous highlands.
The latter consist of great clusters of rugged crags, which in troublous
times afforded a safe retreat to its inhabitants. The mountain-tops
appear from the lowlands to be sharply ridged or peaked, but in reality
they have extensive table-lands on their summits, fit both for pasture
and for tillage. The BaitaranI river takes its rise in the hilly north-
western division. The principal peaks are Gandhamadan (3,479 feet),
Thakurani (3,003 feet), Tomak (2,577 feet), and Bolat (1,818 feet).

Keonjhar originally formed part of Mayurbhanj, but about 200
years ago the local tribes threw off their allegiance to that State and
chose a brother of the Raja as their king. Since that time thirty-six
chiefs have ruled. The late chief rendered good service during the
Mutiny of 1857, in recognition of which his tribute was reduced and he
was made a Maharaja. He died in 1861 without legitimate issue; and
on Government nominating his natural son, the present chief, to the
gaddi, a dispute arose as to the succession, culminating in an insur-
rection of the Bhuiya. and Juang tribes, which was suppressed only
with the aid of British troops. The hill tribes again rebelled in 1891
as a protest against the oppressions of the minister, and the aid of
British troops had again to be invoked before the rising could be
put down. The State has an estimated revenue of 3 lakhs, and pays
a tribute of Rs. 1,710 to the British Government. The population
increased from 248,101 in 1891 to 285,758 in 1901, but is still very
sparse, the density in the latter year being only 92 persons per square
mile. There is one town, Keonjhar (4,532), and 1,937 villages, of
which the most important is Anandpur, situated on the BaitaranI river.
Of the total population, 246,585 are Hindus and 38,567 Animists, the
most numerous castes being Pans (31,000), Khandaits (29,000), Gaurs
(28,000), Hos (24,000), Bhuiyas (20,000), Kurmls (17,000), Gonds
(16,000), Bathudis (13,000), and Khonds (12,000). The old Midna-
pore-Sambalpur road runs through Keonjhar town, and a few metalled
roads have been made in the neighbourhood of the head-quarters.
A new and important fair-weather road has lately been completed,



KERUR 203

connecting Keonjhar town with Bhadrakh station in Balasore on the
Bengai-Nagpur Railway (84 miles) on the one side, and on the other
with Jaintgarh on the horders of Singhbhum District (36 miles).
For administrative purposes the State is divided into subdivisions :
namely, the head-quarters, Anandpur or Lower Keonjhar, and Cham-
peswar or Nuagarh. The State maintains 3 charitable dispensaries,
2 middle English, 7 upper primary, and 84 lower primary schools.

Keonjhar Town (or Nijgarh). — Head-quarters of the Orissa
Tributary State of the same name, Bengal, situated in 21 38' N.



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