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and 85 36' E., on the Midnapore-Sambalpur road. Population
(1901), 4,532.

Keonthal (Kiimtha/). — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying
between 30 55' and 31 13' N. and 77 10' and 77 25' E. The main
block of territory adjoins Simla station. It has an area of 116 square
miles, divided into 22 villages, and the population in 1901 was 22,499.
The revenue in 1903 was estimated at Rs. 66,000. The principal
products are grain and opium. The present Raja is Bijai Sen, a Rajput
by caste, who succeeded his father Balblr Sen in 1901. The chief
of Keonthal was formerly styled Rana, but was raised by the British
Government to the higher rank of Raja in 1857. After the Gurkha
War a portion of the territory of Keonthal, which had been occupied
by the Gurkhas, was sold to the Maharaja of Patiala. In consideration
of this, no tribute is paid by the Keonthal Raja for the remainder
of his State, which was restored to him by sanad in 181 5, on the
expulsion of the Gurkhas from the country. The Raja holds another
sanad, dated September, 1815, conferring on the Keonthal chief and
his heirs for ever paramount authority over the petty states of Theog,
Koti, Ghund, and Madhan, the chiefs of which, with their descendants,
are bound to regard the chief of Keonthal as their liege, and to pay
him tribute. Ratesh also is a fief of Keonthal. A third sanad was
granted to the Raja, conferring Punnar "on him and his heirs. It is
dated 1823, though the transfer was authorized in 1816. The reasons
given for this measure were the isolated position of Punnar, the
turbulent character of its inhabitants, the indisposition of Government
to extend its territories in the hills, and a desire to benefit Keonthal.

Kerakat. — Tahsll in Jaunpur District, United Provinces. See

KlRAKAT.

Kerala. — Ancient kingdom on the west coast of the Madras
Presidency. See Chera.

Kerowlee. — State and capital thereof in Rajputana. See Karauli.

Keriir. — Village in the Badami taluka of Bijapur District, Bombay,
situated in 16 i' N. and 75 ^ E., 11 miles north-west of Badami.
Population (1901), 5,353. This is a fortified place on the Sholapur-
Hubli road. The fort stands on a gentle slope about 300 yards south-

vol xv. o



204 KERUR

west of the village. As the village increased, a new market was built
to the east of the fort, and a colony of weavers established themselves
in a market to the south, where they formerly carried on a flourishing
trade. The village and fort contain several temples and a large
reservoir.

Kesabpur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Jessore
District, Bengal, situated in 22 55' N. and 89 13' E., on the Harihar
river, about 18 miles south of Jessore town. It is a large centre of the
sugar trade. An import trade in rice is carried on, and large quantities
of earthen pots and vessels arc manufactured in connexion with the
sugar industry. Another local manufacture is brass-work.

Kesariya. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Champaran
District, Bengal, situated in 26 21' N. and 84° 53' E. Population
(1901), 4,466. Kesariya contains a lofty brick mound, 1,400 feet in
circumference, supporting a solid tower or stupa of the same material,
62 feet high and 68 feet in diameter, which was supposed by General
Cunningham to have been erected to commemorate one of the acts
of Buddha. The brick tower is said to date from a.d. 200-700; but
the mound is of an earlier period, being associated with the name
of Raja Ben Chakrabartti, a traditional emperor of India.

Keshorai Patan. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name
in the State of Bundi, Rajputana, situated in 25 17' N. and 75 57' E.,
on the northern bank of the Chambal, about 12 miles below Kotah
town and 22 miles south-east of Bundi town. Population (1901), 3,773.
The place claims a very remote antiquity, local historians affecting to
trace its traditions back to the mythological period of the Mahabharata.
In old days it was a wild jungle, known as Jambu Karan from the
number of jdmun-trees (in Sanskrit jambu) and of jackals (in Sanskrit
jambuk) found there. The original name of the town was Rantideo
Patan, after Raja Rantideo, chief of Maheshwar and cousin of Raja
Hasti, the founder of Hastinapur. The oldest inscriptions found are
in a couple of satl temples on the banks of the river, which are
supposed to bear dates a.d. 35 and 93 ; it is also stated that, long
before this period, one Parasram built the Jambu Margeshwar or
Keshwar temple sacred to Mahadeo. The building gradually fell into
decay and was reconstructed in the time of Rao Raja Chhatarsal
(1631-58), to whom also is due the erection of the larger temple of
Keshorai, for which the town is now famous, though the foundations
were actually laid in the time of his predecessor. This temple contains
an image of Keshorai, a name for Vishnu, and attracts yearly a large
crowd of worshippers. It possesses no marked architectural beauties,
and has been so incessantly covered with fresh coats of whitewash that
it looks not unlike a huge piece of fretwork in wax or sugar which the
heat or moisture has partially melted. The tahsil of Patan, one of



KHACHROD 205

the most fertile in the State, was ceded to the Peshwa in the eighteenth
century for assistance rendered in expelling a usurper, and was by him
transferred, two-thirds to Sindhia and one-third to Holkar. Under the
treaty of 18 18 the portion held by Holkar was restored to Bundi, while
under the treaty of i860 with Sindhia the sovereignty of the remainder
of the tract was transferred to the British Government, who made it
over in perpetuity to Bundi on payment of Rs. 80,000 a year.

Kesria. — Betty State in Kathlwvar, Bombay.

Keti (or Keti Bandar). — Port, town, and municipality in the Ghora-
bari taluka of Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 24 8' N.
and 6 7 30'' E., close to the sea, on the Hajamro branch of the Indus.
Population (1901), 2,127. Keti ^ t' 1(J chief port in the Indus delta
for river and sea-going boats, and has taken the place of Ghorabari,
a little farther inland on the same branch, which was formerly the
principal commercial town of the surrounding tract. In 1848 the
Hajamro capriciously receded, and Ghorabari immediately dwindled
into comparative insignificance. The trade of the deserted port then
betook itself to the first Keti, nearer the sea ; but about 1853 the place
was swept away by a flood, and a new site was chosen in the neigh-
bourhood. This second Keti, the existing town and harbour, now
about fifty years old, soon attracted the river trade, and at present
ranks next to Karachi among the ports of Sind. Exports to the
Bombay and Madras Presidencies, to Sonmiani, and Makran, comprise
grain, pulses, oilseeds, wool, cotton, drugs, dyes, saltpetre, and firewood.
Imports, from the same places and the Persian Gulf, include coco-nuts,
cotton piece-goods, metals, sugar, spices, coir, and shells. The value
of the sea-borne trade of Keti in 1903-4 amounted to 6-8 lakhs:
exports, 5-3 lakhs; imports, 1-5 lakhs. During the prevalence of the
south-west monsoon trade remains at a standstill, vessels being unable
to make the harbour from seaward. In the brisk season, from 70 to
90 boats of various sizes may be seen lining the bandar. Sea-borne
goods for transit up the Indus must here be transferred to river boats.
The town has several times been in danger of floods, but, owing to
its slightly elevated position, has hitherto escaped the fate of its pre-
decessor. It communicates by road with Tatta, 60 miles south-west ;
with Mirpur Sakro, 36 miles south-west; and with Ghorabari, 13 miles.
The municipality was established in 1854, and had an average income
during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 6,400. In 1903-4 the income
was Rs. 6,100. The town contains a dispensary, and one school for
boys, with an average daily attendance of 88 pupils.

Keunjhar. — Native State and town in Orissa, Bengal. See Keon-
jhar.

Khachrod (Khachraud). — Town in the Ujjain district of Gwalior
State, Central India, situated in 23 26' N. and 75 20' E., on the

o 2



2 o6 KHACHROD

Ratlam-Godhra branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India
Railway, 1,700 feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 9,186. The
town is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbarl as the head-quarters of a mahal
in the Ujjain sarkar of the Subah of Malvva. It is a place of increasing
commercial importance owing to the opening of the railway, and will
be still further benefited by the extension of the line to Muttra, now
under construction. It is famous for its painted woodwork and
tobacco. A school, a post office, and an inspection bungalow are
situated in the town.

Khadal. — Petty State in MahI Kantha, Bombay.

Khadki. — Town in the Haveli taluka of Poona District, Bombay.
See Kirk.ee.

Khaga. — Eastern tahsll of Fatehpur District, United Provinces,
comprising the parganas of Dhata, Ekdala, Hathgaon, and Kutila, and
lying between 25 26' and 26 1' N. and 81" o' and 8i° 20' E., with an
area of 481 square miles. Population fell slightly from 224,605 in 1891
to 224,348 in 1901. There are 493 villages and one town, Kishanpur
(population, 2,354). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was
Rs. 3,80,000, and for cesses Rs. 61,000. The density of population,
466 persons per square mile, is above the District average. North and
south the tahsll is bounded by the Ganges and Jumna, while the centre
is drained by a shallow channel called the Sasur Khaderl. Near the
Ganges the soil is sandy, while towards the Jumna ravines and poor
soil retard cultivation. The central portions are, however, fertile. In
1903-4 the area under cultivation was 269 square miles, of which 112
were irrigated. Wells supply more than half, and tanks or jhlls are
the next most important source. The Fatehpur branch of the Lower
Ganges Canal, which was opened in 1898, is extending its operations.

Khagan. — Mountain valley in Hazara District, North-'West Frontier
Province. See Kagan.

Khagaria. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Monghyr
District, Bengal, situated in 25 30' N. and 86° 29' E., on the Gandak.
Population (190 1 ), 11,492. Khagaria is a station on the Bengal and
North-Western Railway and possesses- a large trade.

Khagaul. — Town in the Dinapore subdivision of Patna District,
Bengal, situated in 25 35' N. and 85 3' E., a short distance to the
south of Dinapore. Population (1901), 8, 126. The Dinapore railway
station is just outside the town, which has only grown into importance
since the opening of the railway. It is the head-quarters of a company
of East Indian Railway volunteers.

Khaibar. -Historic pass leading from Peshawar District in the
North-West Frontier Province into Afghanistan. See Khybek.

Khair. — North-western tahsll of Ahgarh District, United Provinces,
comprising the parganas of Khair, Chandaus, and Tappal, and lying



KHAIRAGARH STATE 207

between 27 51' and 28 11' N. and 77° 29' and 7S i' E., with an area
of 407 square miles. The population rose from 150,656 in 1891 to
178,867 in 1901. There are 272 villages and three towns, none of
which has as many as 5,000 inhabitants ; Khair, the tahsll head-
quarters, has a population of 4,537. The density, 439 persons per
square mile, is much below the 1 )istrict average. The demand for
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,11,000, and for cesses Rs. 66,000.
The tahsll is bounded on the west by the Jumna, and has a con-
siderable area of khadar land in which nothing grows but coarse grass
and tamarisk, the haunt of innumerable wild hog. Large herds of
cattle are grazed by the Gujar inhabitants of this tract, who are
inveterate cattle-thieves. The Mat branch of the Upper Ganges Canal
provides irrigation. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 292
square miles, of which 1 1 9 were irrigated.

Khairabad. — Town in the District and tahsll of Sitapur, United
Provinces, situated in 27 32' N. and 8o° 46' E., on the Lucknow-
Bareilly State Railway. Population (1901), 13,774. It was formerly
a place of importance, and is said to have been founded by one
Khaira, a Pasi, in the eleventh century. It is, however, more probable
that the name was given by Muhammadans to an older town on the
same site ; and it has been identified with Masachhatra, an ancient holy
place. A governor was stationed here by the early kings of Delhi, and
under Akbar it was the capital of a sarkar. During the first half of
the nineteenth century Khairabad was the head-quarters of an Oudh
nizdmat; and after annexation a Division took its name from the town,
though the head-quarters of the Commissioner were at Sitapur. A
number of temples and mosques are situated here, some of them dating
from the reign of Akbar, but none is of much interest. Khairabad
contains a branch of the American Methodist Mission. It has been
a municipality since 1869. During the ten years ending 1901 the
income and expenditure averaged Rs. 7,500. In 1903-4 the income
was Rs. 9, too, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 5,300) ; and the expenditure
was Rs. 12,300. Trade has suffered owing to the rise in importance
of Sitapur ; but there is a daily market, and a small industry in
cotton-printing survives. A large fair is held in January. There
are five schools, including two for girls, with about 300 pupils ; and two
dispensaries.

Khaira Gali. — Small cantonment in Hazara District, North-West
Frontier Province, situated in 33 55' N. and 73 20' E., on the road
between Abbottabad and Murree. During the summer months it is
occupied by one of the British mountain batteries which are stationed
at Rawalpindi in the winter.

Khairagarh State. — Feudatory State in the Central Provinces*
lying between 21 4' and 21 34' N. and 8o° 27' and 8i° 12' E., with



208 KHAIRAGARH STATE

an area of 931 square miles. The State consists of three separate
sections, and is situated on the western border of Drug District, with
which, and with the States of Chhuikhadan, Kawardha, and Nandgaon,
its boundariVs interlace. Of these three sections, the small pargana of
Khulwa to the north-west was the original domain of the chiefs of
Khairagarh; Khamaria on the north-east was seized from the Kawardha
State at the end of the eighteenth century in lieu of a small loan ; while
of the main area of the estate in the south, the Khairagarh tract was
received at an early date from the Mandla Rajas, and that of Don-
gargarh represents half the estate of a zamlndar who rebelled against
the Marathas, and whose territory, when the rebellion was crushed by
the chiefs of Khairagarh and Nandgaon, was divided between them.
The head-quarters are at Khairagarh, a village of 4,656 inhabitants,
situated 23 miles from both the Dongargarh and Raj-Nandgaon stations
on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The western tracts of the State are
hilly, but those to the east lie in a level black-soil plain of great
fertility. The ruling family are considered to be Nagvansi Rajputs,
and to be connected with the house of Chota Nagpur. Their pedigree
dates back to a.d. 740. The present chief, Kamal Narayan Singh,
was installed in 1890 at the age of twenty-three years, and the here-
ditary title of Raja was conferred on him in 1898. He conducts the
administration of the State with the advice of a Dlwan appointed by
Government, under the supervision of the Political Agent for the
Chhattlsgarh Feudatory States. The population in 1901 was 137,554,
showing a decrease of 24 per cent, in the previous decade, during which
the State was severely affected by famine. There are 497 inhabited
villages, and one town, Dongargarh (population, 5,856). The density
of population is 147 persons per square mile. Gonds, Lodhls, Chamars,
and Ahirs are the most important castes numerically ; the people
belong almost entirely to Chhattlsgarh, and the local dialect of Eastern
Hindi named after that tract is universally spoken.

I he eastern part of the State is a fertile expanse of black soil, while
in the west the land is light and sandy. In 1904 nearly 543 square
miles, or 58 per cent, of the total area, were occupied for cultivation,
and nearly 486 square miles were under crop. Kodon covers 41 per
cent, of the cropped area, rice 21 per cent., and wheat 22 per cent.
The cultivated area has decreased by about 70 square miles since 1894.
There are 224 irrigation tanks, by which about 3,000 acres are pro-
tected. About 165 square miles are covered with forest, the principal
species being teak, bijasal {Ptcrocarpus Marsiipitim), and bamboos.
Brass vessels and wooden furniture are made at Khairagarh town, and
carpets of a good quality are produced in the jail. The rolling of
native cigarettes gives employment to a considerable number of per-
sons. The Bengal Xagpur Railway passes through the south of the



KHAIRAGARH TAHSll 209

State, with the stations of Bortalao, Dongargarh, and Musra within its
limits. About 63 miles of embanked and 57 miles of unembanked
roads have been constructed, the most important being those from
Dongargarh through Khairagarh to Kawardha, and from Khairagarh
to Raj-Nandgaon. Exports of produce are taken to Raj-Nandgaon
and Dongargarh railway stations.

The total revenue of the State in 1904 was Rs. 3,03,000, Rs. 1,84,000
being realized from land revenue, Rs. 29,000 from forests, and Rs.
21,000 from excise. The incidence of land revenue is R. 0-10-5 P er
occupied acre. A regular cadastral survey has been carried out, and
the method of assessment is that prescribed for British Districts. The
revenue is settled with the headmen of villages, who are allowed
a commission of 20 or 30 per cent, of the 'assets,' but have no pro-
prietary rights. The rents of the cultivators are also fixed at settle-
ment. The expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 3,18,000, the principal items
being Government tribute, (Rs. 70,000), private expenses of the ruling
family (Rs. 90,000), general administration (Rs. 21,000), public works
(Rs. 20,000), education (Rs. 9,000), and medical relief (Rs. 4,000).
Some arrears of tribute and Government loans were also repaid in that
year. In respect of tribute Khairagarh was treated by the Marathas as
an ordinary estate, and the revenue was periodically raised on a scrutiny
of the 'assets.' It is now fixed by Government for a term of years.
During the twelve years ending 1905 nearly 3-84 lakhs has been
expended on the improvement of communications and the erection
of public buildings. The State maintains 26 schools, including a high
school at Khairagarh, middle schools at Khairagarh, Dongargarh, and
Khamaria, and a girls' school at Dongargarh, with a total of 1,931
pupils. At the Census of 1901 the number of persons returned as able
to read and write was 2,064, tne proportion of male literates being 2-9
per cent, of the population. Dispensaries are maintained at Khairagarh
town and Dongargarh, in which 12,000 persons were treated in 1904.

Khairagarh Tahsil. — South-western tahsil of Agra District, United
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, lying
between 26 45' and 27 4' N. and 77 26" and 78 7' E., with an area
of 309 square miles. Population increased from 123,893 in 1891 to
127,692 in 1901. There are 155 villages and one town, Jagnair
(population, 4,051). Khairagarh, the tahsil head-quarters, is a small
village. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,85,000,
and for cesses Rs. 35,000. The density of population, 413 persons
per square mile, is much below the District average. The fahs'il is
divided into two portions by the Utangan. The tract south-west of
that river is a spur of British territory almost surrounded by the Native
States of Bharatpur and Dholpur, with a range of the Vindhyas along
the northern boundary and isolated hills scattered farther south.



210 KHAIRAGARH 7AHS1L

These hills are of red sandstone, which is valuable for building
purposes. Near the hills the soil is sandy, but after passing a tract
of infertile clay a richer soil is reached. East of the Utangan the
ordinary loam is found, stretching up to the Kharl Nad!, which forms
the eastern boundary of the tahsil and is bordered by deep and
precipitous ravines. There is no canal-irrigation, and in 1903-4 the
irrigated area was only 34 square miles out of 206 under cultivation.
Wells are the sole source of supply, but owing to the faulty substrata
they cannot be made in many places.

Khairi-Murat. — Mountain range in the Fatahjang tahsil of Attock
District, Punjab, midway between the Sohan river and the Kala-Chitta
range. It rises about 30 miles from the Indus, and runs eastward for
about 24 miles, a barren ridge of limestone and sandstone rock,
extending from 72 37' to 72 56' E. and from 33 25' to 33 30' N.
North of the range lies a plateau intersected by ravines ; while south-
ward a waste of gorges and hillocks extends in a belt for a distance of
5 miles, till it dips into the fertile valley of the Sohan, one of the
richest tracts in Rawalpindi District. The Khairi-Murat was formerly
covered with jungle ; but it is now completely destitute of vegetation,
except where the hill has been formed into a 'reserved' forest and
closed to grazing. In these parts the trees are rapidly springing up
again. The hills run nearly parallel to the Kala-Chitta, about 10 miles
to the south. The formation is chiefly limestone, edged with sandstone
and earthy rocks whose vertical and contorted strata indicate intense
disturbance. The southern portion of the range is extremely dreary,
being formed of rocky ravines and stony hillocks, gradually sinking
into the fertile valley of the Sohan.

Khairpur State.— State in Sind, Bombay, lying between 2 6° 10'
and 27 46' N. and between 68° 20' and 70 14" E., with an area of
6,050 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Sukkur District; on
the east by Jaisalmer State in Rajputana ; on the south by Hyderabad
and Thar and Parkar Districts ; and on the west by the river Indus.
Its greatest length from east to west is about 1 20 miles, and its breadth
from north to south about 70 miles.

Like other parts of Sind, Khairpur consists of a great alluvial plain,
the part bordering directly upon the Indus being very rich and fertile,
. though much of it is used as moharis or hunting-

aspects, grounds. With the exception of the fertile strip

watered by the Indus and its canals, and of a
narrow strip irrigated by the Eastern Nara, the remainder or three-
fourths of the whole area is a continuous series of sandhill ridges
covered with a stunted brushwood, where cultivation is altogether
impossible. The country generally is exceedingly arid, sterile, and
desolate in aspect. In the northern portion of the State is a small



KHAIRPUR STATE 21 1

ridge of limestone hills, being a continuation of the low range known
as the Char, which runs southward from Rohri for a distance of
about 40 miles. On a western outlying spur of this ridge is situated
the fort of Diji.

The State of Khairpur is mostly occupied by Indus alluvium and
desert formations. The Kirthar limestone (middle eocene) forms a
range of hills in the north-eastern portion, between the Mir Wah and
the Nara river. On the top of the range are found oyster, cockle,
and numerous other kinds of marine shells.

The trees and shrubs are identical with those found in Sukkur
District, and good timber is to be met with in different game preserves
bordering on the Indus. The katidi-txee grows luxuriantly in the
valleys, and the tali is largely grown by cultivators.

The wild animals found in Khairpur include the hyena, wolf, jackal,
fox, wild hog, deer, gazelle, and antelope. The birds and water-fowl
are those common to Sind generally, such as bustard, wild geese, snipe,
partridges (both black and grey), and various kinds of wild duck (which
arrive in the cold season). Snakes abound, as in other parts of Sind.

The climate of Khairpur is agreeable during four months of the year,
when the minimum temperature falls to 40 , but is fiercely hot during
the remaining eight, when the maximum rises to 113 . The rainfall is
slight, but dust-storms are frequent and have the effect of cooling the
atmosphere to some extent.

The present chief of Khairpur belongs to a Baloch family called
Talpur ; and, previous to the accession of this family, on the fall of the
Kalhora dynasty of Sind in 1783, the history of
Khairpur belongs to the general history of Sind.
In that year Mir Fateh All Khan Talpur established himself as Rais
or ruler of Sind ; and subsequently his nephew, Mir Sohrab Khan
Talpur, founded the Khairpur branch of the Talpur family. The
dominions of Mir Sohrab Khan were at first confined to the town
of Khairpur and a small adjacent tract of country ; but by conquest



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