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and intrigue he managed to enlarge them, until they extended to
Sabzalkot and Kashmor on the north, to the Jaisalmer desert on the
east, and to the borders of Cutch d-anclava on the west. About
the year 1813, during the troubles in Kabul incidental to the estab-
lishment of the Barakzai dynasty, the Mirs were able to withhold the
tribute which up to that date had been somewhat irregularly paid
to the rulers of Afghanistan. Two years earlier, in 181 1, Mir Sohrab
had abdicated in favour of his son Mir Rustam. But he appears to
have endeavoured to modify this arrangement subsequently ; and
ultimately the jealousy between the two brothers, Mir Rustam and
All Murad, was one of the factors in the crisis that caused the inter-
vention of the British power.



212 K HAIR PUR STATE

In 1832 the individuality of the Khairpur State, as separate from the
other Talpur Mlrs in Sind, was recognized by the British Government
in a treaty, under which the use of the river Indus and the roads of
Sind were secured to the British. When the first Kabul expedition
was decided on, the Sind Mlrs were required to assist the passage of
the British through their territories, and allow of the occupation of
Shikarpur. Most of the princes showed great disinclination to comply
with these demands. But in Khairpur, All Murad, who gradually
succeeded in establishing his hold on the raisat, or chiefship, cordially
supported the British policy ; and the result was that, after the battles
of Miani and Daba had put the whole of Sind at the disposal of
the British Government, Khairpur was the only State that was allowed
to retain its political existence under the protection of the paramount
power. In tS66 a sanad was granted to the Mir, under which the
British Government promised to recognize any succession to the chief-
ship that might be in accordance with Muhammadan law. Mir All
Murad died in 1894, and was succeeded by his son Mir Faiz
Muhammad Khan, who is entitled to a personal salute of 17 guns.
The ordinary salute is 15 guns.

The State contains one town and 153 villages. The population
was: (1872) 126,962, (1881) 125,919, (1891) 128,611, and (1901)
I 99>3 1 3- The density is 33 persons per square
mile. Distributed by religion, there are 36,000
Hindus and 163,000 Muhammadans. The Hindus are almost entirely
Lohanas (33,000), traders and clerks. Among the Muhammadans
of foreign extraction, Arabs number 12,000; Baluchls, chiefly of the
Rind. Burdi, Chandia, Dombki, Jatoi, and Marri tribes, 24,000 ;
Jats, 4,000 ; and the fishermen or Mohanos, 5,700. SindTs include
12,000 Siimras, 58,000 Sammas, and 41,000 returned as SindTs un-
specified. Agriculture supports 69 per cent, of the total population.
About 95 per cent, of the Muhammadan males and about one-fourth
of the Hindus follow agricultural pursuits. The rest are engaged in
trade and other callings. Sind!, Persian, Siraiki, and Baluchi are
the languages chiefly spoken.

The soil of Khairpur, especially in the strip adjoining the Indus,

is very productive. The tract lying between the Mir Wah Ganal

. , and the Indus is the richest part of the State ; but

Agriculture. , . , . ,

cultivation even there is by no means so extensive

as it might be, though of late years the area under tillage has

greatly increased. The area of cultivable land in 1903-4 was 1,550

square miles, and fallow lands covered 1,226 square miles. The

principal crops are jowar, bdjra, wheat, gram, various pulses, and

cotton. Indigo is also cultivated, but the area is decreasing. The

fruit trees are the mango, mulberry, apple, pomegranate, date, &c.



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 213

Recently cultivation has hern greatly extended, owing to the con-
struction of new canals and the improvement of old ones. Advances
are made to agriculturists, free of interest.

The domestic animals comprise the camel, horse, buffalo, bullock,
sheep, donkey, and mule. The State maintains both horse and donkey
stallions for breeding purposes.

Cultivation is dependent on irrigation from the Indus river by
canals. The largest and most important of these is the Mir Wah, ex-
cavated by Mir Sohrab, with its feeder the Sathio Wah. The latter,
with the Abdul Wah, was excavated in the time of Mir All Murad.
Under the rule of the present Mir a canal department has been
formed and the following important branch canals excavated : Faiz
Wah, Faiz Bakhsh, Faiz Ganj, Faiz Bahar, and Faiz Manj. The
Sathio has been improved, so as to ensure a supply at all seasons.
Forced labour in the clearance of canals is now entirely abolished.
The Eastern Nara flows through the desert along an abandoned
course of the river, and there is a small area of cultivation along
it. The area irrigated by the State canals in 1903-4 was 246 square
miles. About 20 square miles of land were supplied from wells
and tanks in the same year.

The State possesses 331 square miles of forests, of which 200
square miles are reserved for game by the Mir. They are in charge
of a Forest officer, appointed by the State, and a small staff. The
forest trees are the tali, bahan, babul, and kandi. The bush jungle
consists principally of tamarisk ; reed grasses are abundant. The
game preserves bordering on the Indus supply good timber. The
valleys produce fair kandi wood. In 1903-4 the revenue from
forests amounted to Rs. 26,000.

In the desert portion of Khairpur are pits of natron — an impure
sesquicarbonate of sodium, always containing sulphate and chloride
of sodium. It is generally obtained by means of evaporation. The
natron pits are a source of income to the Mir, yielding about
Rs. 25,000.

The manufactures comprise cotton fabrics, such as woven sheets
and coloured cloth, silk fabrics, silver-ware of different kinds, lacquered
woodwork, boots, shoes, horse-trappings, swords,
matchlocks, and earthen pottery for local use. coJ^niStons.
Gambat is noted for bed-sheets called khais, and
Khairpur for cloth-dyeing. Khairpur town possesses one carpet
factory, attached to an industrial school.

The trade of the State resembles that of the adjoining British towns
and villages — the chief exports being cotton, wool, grain, indigo,
hand-made cloth, hides, tobacco, &x. The only product which is
peculiar to Khairpur and is not common to the surrounding British



2T 4 KHATRPUR STATE

territory— the Thar and Parkar District excepted— is carbonate of
soda, which is chiefly bought by Bombay merchants. The value
of the articles annually exported from Khairpur to British Sind and
the Native State of Jaisalmer has been approximately estimated at
about 6 lakhs, and that of the imported articles at somewhat more
than 6 lakhs. Of the annual fairs, that of Ranipur, 45 miles from
Rohri, is the most important.

The railway from Hyderabad to Rohri runs through the whole length
of the State. In addition to the main trunk road between the same
towns, which passes through Khairpur at a distance of about 20 miles
from the Indus, and another road connecting them by a somewhat
more direct route, there are several roads connecting taluka head-quar-
ters with Khairpur town and Kot Diji. Ten post offices are maintained
in the State. There are six ferries, chiefly on the Indus.

The rule of the Mir is patriarchal, but many changes have been

made introducing greater regularity of procedure into the adminis-

. . . tration. The State is divided into five talukas,
Administration. , , .,,._,_„, TM

each under a mukhtiarkar. I hese are : Khairpur

and Gambat (forming the Khairpur subdivision), Mir Wah, Faiz
Ganj, and Naro (forming the Mir Wah subdivision). Each sub-
division is under a naib-wazlr. The Wazir, an officer lent from British
service, conducts the administration under the Mir. The Collector
of Sukkur is ex-officio Political Agent for the State. The Mir himself
exercises the powers of a High Court, but cannot try British subjects
for capital offences without the Political Agent's permission. The
Wazir is District Magistrate and District and Sessions Judge. The
naib-wazlrs are subdi visional magistrates and first-class sub-judges,
and criminal and civil powers are also exercised by the mukhtiarkars,
as well as by two near relatives of the chief. The Indian Penal
Code and the Criminal Procedure Code have been adopted. There
is also a Court of Elders on the lines of the British Frontier Tribes
Act. Steps have recently been taken to remedy the indebtedness of
the agriculturists by the introduction of a Relief Act. Civil cases
are largely decided by arbitrators, but a more fixed procedure is being
introduced. In t 903-4, 765 offences were reported to the police,
mostly grievous hurt and thefts of cattle and property.

The revenue is collected almost entirely in kind according to the
primitive batai system, the Mir receiving a third of the produce of
the land, which yields on an average Rs. 58 per acre of cultivation.
The gross revenue, which amounted in TS82-3 to 5-7 lakhs, had
increased by 1902-3 to 13 lakhs. In 1903-4 the gross receipts
amounted to only 8-3 lakhs, the decrease being due to large stocks
of grain remaining unsold, untimely rain, and the presence of locusts.
Of the total receipts, which average about 13 lakhs, about Rs. 1,85,000



KHAIRPUR TOWN 215

represents the share of jagirdars and other alienees. The former are
chiefly the Mir's sons and the ladies of his family. The gross receipts,
in 1903-4 included land revenue 6 lakhs, excise about Rs. 90,000,
miscellaneous taxes Rs. 58,000, and forests Rs. 26,000. The land
revenue amounts on the average to 10 lakhs a year; but as it is chiefly
paid in kind, considerable fluctuations occur in accordance with the
character of the harvest. The total expenditure in 1903-4 was 11 -6
lakhs, of which more than 2 lakhs was spent on public works, such
as canals, buildings, roads, bridges, wells, and tanks. Until the end of
1902 coins of local issue were current in the State, but they have now
been replaced by the British silver currency. No tribute is payable
by the Mir.

No salt is manufactured, the British Government supplying it at
a reduced rate. Poppy is cultivated sufficient to meet the demand for
local consumption. Liquor is manufactured, but may not be taken
into British territory.

The military force consists of 377 men, of whom 163 are mounted.
The total strength of the police, including officers, in 1903-4 was 220,
and a preventive service to check opium smuggling from Jaisalmer
State has recently been organized. The Central jail is situated at
Kot Diji, and a sub-jail at Khairpur. The daily jail population in
1903-4 averaged 214.

Though recent years have shown some progress, Khairpur is very
backward in education. In 1881 there were 6 schools in the State,
with an attendance of 2,387 pupils. In 1903-4 the number of schools
was 95, attended by 4,586 pupils, of whom 387 were girls. Of the
total number of pupils, 4,242 were in primary, 83 in secondary schools,
and the remainder in an industrial school. Persian is taught by mullas,
who receive one pice weekly from the parents of each child. At the
industrial school, carpentry, smith-craft, embroidery, turnery, carpet-
making, and tailoring are taught.

The State possesses 3 hospitals and 3 dispensaries. In 1903-4 the
number of cases treated was 160,640, of whom 1,292 were in-patients ;
and the expenditure was Rs. 19,678. About 6,200 persons were vacci-
nated in the same year.

[A. M. Hughes, Si/id Gazetteer (1876); E. A. Langley, Xarrativc
of a Residence at the Court of Mir All Murad, 2 vols, (i860) ;
C. INI. Aitchison, Treaties, Engagements, and Sanads. |

Khairpur Town (1). — Capital of the State of Khairpur, Sind,
Bombay, situated in 27° 31' N. and 68° 48' E., on the Mir VVah canal,
about 15 miles east of the Indus, and 17 miles south of Rohri.
The nearest railway station on the Kotri-Rohri section of the North-
Western Railway is Khairpur Mir, situated about 2 miles to the south-
east of the town. Population (1901), 14,014, mainly Musalmans. The



2 i6 KHAIRPUR TOWN

town, which is irregularly built, consists of a collection of mud hovels,
intermingled with a few houses of a better class. The palace is seldom
used by the ruler, who lives at Kot Diji, but there is a handsome guest-
house. Outside the town stand the tombs of three Muhammadan
saints— Pir Ruhan, Zia-ud-din, and Hajl J afar Shahid. The town
contains two hospitals, one of which is for women.

During the flourishing period of the Talpur dynasty, Khairpur is said
to have possessed not less than 15,000 inhabitants, but the place has
decreased in importance since the conquest of Sind. The manufactures
comprise the weaving and dyeing of cloths of various kinds, goldsmith's
work, and the making of firearms, swords, &c. A carpet factory has
recently been opened, the workers being under instruction by a teacher
brought from the Punjab. The trade is principally in indigo, grain,
and oilseeds, which form the chief articles of export ; the imports are
piece-goods, silk, cotton, wool, metals, &c. On the present site of the
town, which owes its rise to Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, there stood,
prior to the year 1787, the village of Boira and the zamlndari or
estate of the Phulpotras. It was selected as the residence of the chief
Mirs of Northern Sind ; and for some time during Talpur rule a
British Resident was stationed here, in terms of the treaty of April 20,
1838, concluded between the British Government and the Mirs of Sind.

[E. A. Langley, Narrative of a Residence at the Court of Mir All
Mi/rad, 2 vols, (i860).]

Khairpur Tahsil. — Tahsll in the Minchinabad nizdmat, Bahawalpur
State, Punjab, lying on the left bank of the Sutlej, between 28 49/
and 30 N. and 72° 7' and 73 18' E., with an area of 2,300 square
miles. The population in 1901 was 81,871, compared with 74,732 in
1891. It contains the towns of Khairpur (population, 5,013), the
head-quarters, and Hasilpur, which was created a municipality in 1902 ;
and 199 villages. The Hakra depression passes through the southern
portion of the tahsil, the remainder of which is divided between the
central uplands and the riverain tract along the Sutlej. The land
revenue and cesses in 1905-6 amounted to 2-2 lakhs.

Khairpur Town (2). — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name
in Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 29 35' N. and 72 18' E.,
38 miles north-east of Bahawalpur town on the Southern Punjab Rail-
way. Population (1901), 5,013. It is a decaying town, as the sand
from the desert of Cholistan has for years been encroaching on it, but
contains a school and a dispensary. The municipality had an income
in 1903 4 of Rs. 6,200, chiefly from octroi.

Khairpur (3).— Town in the Alipur tahsil of Muzaffargarh District,
Punjab, situated in 29° 20' N. and 70 49' E., 57 miles south of
Muzaffargarh town, close to the junction of the Indus and Chenab.
Population (1901), 2,257. It was founded early in the nineteenth



KHAJRAHO 217

century by Khair Shah, a Bukhari Saiyid, from whom it takes its name.
The town lies low, and is protected from inundation by an embank-
ment built at considerable cost and 5 miles in circumference. The
municipality was created in 1873. ' ne income during the ten years
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,100, and the expenditure Rs. 3,300.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,300, chiefly from octroi ; and the
expenditure was Rs. 2,800. The inhabitants are enterprising traders,
and their trade with Sukkur (Sind), Multan, and other places at a dis-
tance is larger than that of any other town in the District. The exports
consist principally of wool, cotton, and grain ; the imports, of cloth
and sundries.

Khajraho. — Village in Chhatarpur State, Central India, famous
for its magnificent collection of mediaeval temples, and situated in
24 51' N. and 79 56' E., 25 miles from the town of Chhatarpur.
Population (1901), 1,242.

The old name as given in inscriptions was Khajjuravahaka. By the
bard Chand it is called Khajurapuraor Khajjinpura. Tradition ascribes
the origin of the name to two golden khajar-iTQCs (date-palms) with
which the city gates were ornamented, but it was more probably due to
the prevalence of this tree in the neighbourhood. The place was in
early days of some importance, being the capital of the kingdom of
Jijhoti, which practically corresponded with modern Bundelkhand.

The earliest supposed reference to Khajraho is in the account of the
travels of Hiuen Tsiang, who visited the country of Chi-ki-to, which
has been identified with Jijhoti. The Chinese pilgrim does not men-
tion any chief town by name, but notes that there were in the country
a number of sangharamas (monasteries) with but few priests, and also
about ten temples.

There are no Buddhist remains on the spot, except a colossal Buddha
inscribed with the usual creed in characters of the seventh or eighth
century. Abu Rihan, who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his
campaign against Kalinjar in 102 1, notices ' Kajuraha ' as the capital
of Jijhoti. Ibn Batuta, who visited the place about 1335, calls it
' Kajura,' and describes the lake, about a mile long, round which there
were idol temples frequented by a tribe of jogis, with long and matted
hair, to whom even Muhammadans resorted in order to learn magic.
The place must, therefore, at this time have still been in the possession
of the Hindus, and important as a religious centre. It seems probable
that the partial demolition of its temples and consequent loss of impor-
tance dates from 1494-5, when Sikandar LodI, after his expedition into
Panna and Baghelkhand, retreated through this region and sacked the
country as far as Banda.

Its present importance lies solely in its magnificent series of temples,
which, with two exceptions, were all built between 950 and 1050.



318 KHAJRAHO

The epigraphical records contained in them are of great historical
value.

The temples fall into three main groups : the western, northern, and
south-eastern, each group containing a principal shrine or cathedral and
several smaller temples. The western group consists entirely of Brah-
manical temples, both Saiva and Vaishnava. The northern group
contains one large and some small temples, all Vaishnava, and several
heaps of ruins. The south-eastern group consists entirely of Jain
temples. All the temples, with the exception of the Chaunsat Jogini
and Ghantai, are constructed of sandstone, and are in the same style.
Even the Jain temples in the south-eastern group show none of the
peculiarities commonly found in the temples of this religion, and
externally they are similar in appearance to the Hindu edifices. The
spire is here of more importance than the porch, there are no court-
yards with circumambient cells, and no prominent domes.

The oldest temple in the western group is that known as the Chaun-
sat Jogini. All that now remains is a celled courtyard, the cells being
of very simple design. Fergusson was of opinion that there had
originally been a central shrine of wood which has disappeared.
Unlike the other temples, this is built entirely of gneiss. It is
assigned to the end of the eighth or early part of the ninth century.
Of the remaining temples, the Kandarya Mahadeo is by far the finest.
Its construction is curious, as the sanctuary does not occupy the full
breadth of the building, a passage being left round the sanctuary for
the circumambulation of the image, and the outer wall pierced by
three porticoes to admit light to the passage. This gives the temple
the unusual form of a double instead of a single cross. The carving
is exceedingly rich and covers every available inch of space, but many
of the figures are highly indecent, not a usual defect in Saiva temples.
The other large temple in this group is the Ramaehandra or Laksh-
manji, dedicated to Vishnu, which in plan and decoration is similar to
the Kandarya Mahadeo. It contains an inscription of the Chandel
dynasty, dated in 954. Tire Vishvanath temple, also in this group,
contains Chandel inscriptions of 1001 and 1 1 1 7, and one of a
feudatory, dated 1000.

The northern group includes one large temple dedicated to the
Vamana or dwarf incarnation of Vishnu. It is, however, very inferior
in decoration to the best in the western group, and the remaining
temples in this group are small. The heaps of ruins or mounds in this
portion, which General Cunningham considered to be the remains of
the sangharamas mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, are situated near the
large temple.

The south-eastern group contains Jain remains only. The oldest
temple in this group is the Ghantai, now a mere skeleton, consisting of



KHAJUHA TOWN 219

a set of exquisitely delicate pillars still bearing the architraves. The
pillars are of sandstone, but the walls were of gneiss and quite plain.
The remains of this temple, which is assigned to the sixth or seventh
century, are very similar to those at Gyaraspur. The cathedral
of this group is the temple to Jinanath. Its design is unusual, consist-
ing of a simple oblong with an open pillared vestibule and sanctuary,
and the interior decoration is very fine. A Chandel inscription of
954 exists in it.

On the Kurar Nala, not far from the village of Khajraho, stands the
magnificent temple known as the Kunwar Nath, which, though inferior
in size to some of those in the three groups, is quite equal to them in
design and the profuseness of its decoration. At the village of Jatkari,
1 1 miles away, stands another temple which is traditionally said to have
been built by Suja, sister of the famous Banaphar hero, Alha, who
figures so prominently in popular traditions of the wars between the
Chandels and Prithwi Raj of Delhi.

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. ii, p. 412 ;
vol. \ ii, p. 5 ; vol. x, p. 16 ; vol. xxi, p. 55 ; Epigraphia I/idica, vol. i,
p. 121 ; Archaeological Sui-vey of Western India Progress Report to
June, 1904.]

Khajuha Tahsil. — Western tahsll of Fatehpur District, United
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Bindkl, Kora, Kutia Gunir, and
Tappa Jar, and lying between 25 51/ and 2 6° 16' N. and 8o° 14' and
So° 47' E., with an area of 504 square miles. Population fell from
206,711 in 1891 to 199,223 in 1901, the rate of decrease being the
highest in the District. There are 385 villages and three towns, the
largest being Bindki (population, 7,782). Khajuha, the tahsll head-
quarters, has a population of 2,944. The demand for land revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 4,42,000, and for cesses Rs. 71,000. The density of
population, 395 persons per square mile, is below the District average.
The tahsil extends from the Jumna to the Ganges, and is crossed by
the Rind. A considerable area is covered by the ravines of the Jumna
and Rind, which are absolutely waste, though they provide grazing for
herds of cattle. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 276 square
miles, of which 83 were irrigated. The Fatehpur branch of the Lower
Ganges Canal at present serves about one-third of the irrigated area, but
is likely to take a larger share. Wells supply most of the remainder.

Khajuha Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in
Fatehpur District, United Provinces, situated in 26 3' N. and 8o° 32''
E., on the old Mughal road from Agra to Allahabad, 21 miles west of
Fatehpur town. Population (1901), 2,944. A town was founded in
the village of Khajuha by Aurangzeb to commemorate his victory over
Shuja in 1659, and was called Aurangabad, but the old name has sur-
vived the new. The sarai and oaradarl, built at the same time, are

vol. xv. p



2 2o KHAJUHA TOWN

fine buildings which have been restored. In 1712 Farrukhsiyar de-
feated his cousin, Azz-ud-dln, near here, and proceeded on his victorious
march to Delhi. The town is administered under Act XX of 1856,
with an income of about Rs. 600. The trade of the place has largely
been diverted to Bindkl ; but brass vessels are still made in some quan-
tities, and the playing-cards made here have some reputation. There
is a school with 50 pupils.

Khajuri. — Thakurdt in the Bhopal Agency, Central India.

Khalilabad. — South-eastern tahsll of Basti District, United Pro-
vinces, comprising the parganas of Maghar (East) and Mahuli (East),
and lying between 26 25' and 27° 5' N. and 82 50' and 83 13' E.,
with an area of 564 square miles. Population increased from 380,486
in 1891 to 394,675 in 1901. There are 1,388 villages and only one
town, Mehndawal (population, 10,143). The demand for land
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,75,000, and for cesses Rs. 70,000. The
density of population, 700 persons per square mile, is above the District
average. The tahsll lies entirely in the fertile upland tract which ex-



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