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tends northwards from the Gogra. It is crossed by the Kuwana, Ami,
and several smaller streams. The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was
394 square miles, of which 234 were irrigated. Tanks and swamps
supply more than half the irrigated area, and wells about one-third.

Khambhaliya. — Fortified town in the State of Navanagar, Kathi-
awar, Bombay, situated in 22 12' N. and 69 50' E., at the confluence
of two small streams, the Teli and Ghi, flowing into the Salaya creek,
about 10 miles east of the port of Salaya. Population (1901), 9,182.
After Navanagar, it is the most important town in the State. It was
formerly a possession of the Vadhels, from whom it was conquered by
Jam Rawal, and was the residence of the Jam or chief until the death
of the emperor Aurangzeb. It contains several old temples. The iron-
smiths of the town are renowned for their skill, and the gunsmiths are
capable of making breech-loading firearms. A tax is levied on all pil-
grims passing through to Dwarka and Pindtarak, a seaport under
Khambhaliya which contains a celebrated shrine. It is said that the
remains of several ancient temples, now covered by the sea, are visible
at extremely low tides. Khambhaliya is the head-quarters of a mahal
or revenue division of the Navanagar State.

Khambhtav. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Khamgaon Subdivision.— Subdivision of Buldana District, Berar,
consisting of the taluks of Jalgaon and Khamgaon.

Khamgaon Taluk. — Taluk of Buldana District, Berar, lying
between 20 26' and 20 55' N. and 76 32' and 76 48' E., with an
area of 443 square miles. The population rose from 99,785 in 1891 to
102,948 in 1901, the density in the latter year being 232 persons per
square mile. The taluk contains 134 villages and two towns, Kham-



KHAMTI HILLS 221

r.AON (population, 18,341), the head-quarters, and Shegaon (15,057).
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,04,000, and for
cesses Rs. 23,000. The Khamgaon State Railway, connecting Kham-
gaon with Jalam on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, lies within the
taluk, which is bounded on the east by the Mun river and on the north
by the Puma. The taluk formerly belonged to Akola District, and
was transferred to Buldana in 1905.

Khamgaon Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and taluk of
the same name in Buldana District, Berar, situated in 20 43' N. and
76 38' E. Population (1901), iS,34r. Khamgaon was the largest
cotton market in Berar before Amraoti outstripped it. Its cotton trade
dates from about the year 1820, when a few merchants opened shops
and began to trade in ghl, raw thread, and a little cotton ; and it now
has several cotton-presses and ginning factories. A state railway
8 miles in length, connects the town with the Nagpur branch of the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Jalam station. The weekly market
is held on Thursdays, and during the busy season it is very largely
attended. The town has also a special cotton market. The munici-
pality was created in 1867. The receipts and expenditure during the
ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 35,000 and Rs. 39,000. In
1903-4 the income was Rs. 34,000, derived chiefly from taxes and
cesses ; and the expenditure was Rs. 25,000, the principal heads being
conservancy and education. The town is supplied with water from
a tank about i| miles distant, and several gardens produce good oranges
and vegetables.

Khammamett. — Southern taluk of Warangal District, Hyderabad
State, with an area of 990 square miles. The population in 1901, in-
cluding jaglrs, was 154,540, compared with 154,159 in 1891. The
taluk contains 195 villages, of which 13 are j'dglr, and Khammamett
(population, 3,001) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901
was 46 lakhs. Rice is largely grown and irrigated from tanks and
wells. The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway runs through the taluk
from north to south.

Khamti Hills. — A hilly country on the frontier of Assam, lying at
the eastern end of the Brahmaputra Valley and inhabited by the Kham-
tis, a tribe of Shan origin, who are said to have migrated northwards to
the hills near the upper waters of the' Irrawaddy and Mekong when
Mogaung was conquered by the Burmese king, Alaungpaya, about
the middle of the eighteenth century. A section of the tribe moved
on into Assam and settled near Sadiya, and their leader succeeded
in establishing his position as the feudal chief of the surrounding
country. He was recognized by the British when they took over the
territories of the Ahom prince ; but his son declined to abide by the
decisions of the local British officer, and was deprived of his office and

p 2



2 22 KHAMTI HILLS

dignities. The Khamtis then rose, raided the settlement at Sadiya,
and killed the commanding officer, Colonel White, in 1839. The rising
was, however, quickly suppressed, and no trouble has since been given
by the tribe.

Bor Khamti, the principal stronghold of this people, consists of the
valley of the Namkiu (the western branch of the Irrawaddy) with the
surrounding hills. It can be reached via the Patkai and the Hukawng
valley, or by a route running south-east from Sadiya up the valley of the
Diyun, over the Chaukan pass, which is 8,400 feet above the level of
the sea. The distance from Sadiya to Putau, the principal Bor Khamti
village, is 197 miles. After Bishi the path is very difficult in places,
running through dense forests where there are no villages and no means
of obtaining supplies. Oaks, rhododendrons, and beeches grow freely
on the hills, and large game, such as elephants and rhinoceros, are
common. Putau is situated in a valley, shut in on every side except the
south by hills, which in the winter are crowned with snow. The valley
is about 25 miles long by 15 broad, and is about 1,500 feet above sea-
level. The villages are surrounded with a palisade about 12 feet high,
made of split trees interlaced with bamboo. The houses are large, com-
modious structures built on piles, and the audience chamber in the
Raja's house is 50 feet in length by 40 wide. Rice is the staple crop
grown in the valley, but pulse and poppy are also cultivated, the Kham-
tis being much addicted to the use of opium. The people are much
more civilized than most of the hill tribes on the north-east frontier,
and near Putau there is a brick-built temple 95 feet high with a gilded
cupola. Some of the images of Buddha in this temple are of consider-
able artistic merit. The Khamtis seem to stand in some awe of the
Singphos, who adjoin them on the west, and also of the Khakus, said to
be of the same race as the Singphos, who occupy the hills on the east.
Little is known about the geology of the tract, but pyrite, calcho-pyrite,
and galena have been found.

[An account of the Khamtis will be found in Colonel Dalton's
Ethnology of Bengal ?\

Khana. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Burdwan Dis-
trict, Bengal, situated in 23 20' N. and 87 46' E. Population (1901),
1,600. Khana is an important junction on the East Indian Railway,
where the chord-line branches off from the loop-line.

Kha.nak.ul. — Village in the Arambagh subdivision of Hooghly Dis-
trict, Bengal, situated in 22 43' N. and 87 52' E., on the west bank
of the Kana Nadl. Population (1901), 886. There is some trade in
brass-ware, and cotton fabrics of a superior quality are manufactured
in the neighbourhood. Vegetables are extensively grown for the
Calcutta market. A large temple to Siva stands on the river bank.

Khanapur Taluka (1). — Southernmost taluka of Belgaum District,



KHANDALA 223

Bombay, lying between 15 22' and 15° 47' N. and 74 5' and 74 44'
E., with an area of 633 square miles. It contains 217 villages, includ-
ing Nandgad (population, 6,257). The population in 1901 was
81,902, compared with 85,596 in 1891. The density, 129 persons
per square mile, is much below the District average, and it is the most
sparsely peopled taluka in the District. The head-quarters are at
Khanapur. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-45 lakhs,
and for cesses Rs. 11,000. In the south and south-west the country is
covered with hills and dense forest ; the inhabitants are few and
unsettled ; and, except in patches, tillage disappears. In the north-
west the hills are especially lofty. In the centre, north-east, and east,
the country is an open, well-tilled, black-soil plain, with many rich and
populous villages. The climate is temperate and healthy during the
hot months, but feverish in the cold season and during the south-
west rains. The annual rainfall, averaging 71 inches, is heavier than
in other tdlukas.

Khanapur Taluka (2). — Taluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying
between 17 8' and 17 27' N. and 74 14' and 74 51' E., with an area
of 510 square miles. It contains 91 villages, including Khanapur
(population, 5,229) and Vita (5,035), the head-quarters. The population
in 1901 was 86,049, compared with 95,931 in 1891. The density, 169
persons per square mile, is much below the District average. The
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was i-6 lakhs, and for cesses
Rs. 13,000. Khanapur is an upland, rising more than 200 feet above
the Karad valley on the west and the great plain of the Man on the
east. It is sparingly wooded, except near the feeders of the Yerla river,
which crosses the taluka from north to south on its way to join the
Kistna. The climate is fairly temperate, save for occasional hot winds ;
but the rainfall, which measures only 24 inches annually, is uncertain,
and water is often scarce in the hot season. The soil is either black or
grey murram with its intermediate varieties.

Khanapur Village. — Village in the taluka of the same name
in Satara District, Bombay, situated in 17 15' N. and 74 43' E.,
about 10 miles east of Vita. Population (1901), 5,229. From its
proximity to the fort of Bhopalgarh it was probably in early times the
administrative head-quarters of the surrounding country. The town
has stone and mud walls, now much decayed, and gates at the north-
west and east flanked with bastions. Within the village is an old
mosque, containing the tomb of a female saint, supposed to have been
the daughter of one of the Bijapur Sultans. The mosque contains two
inscriptions, in Arabic and Kanarese.

Khandala. — Sanitarium in the Maval taluka of Poona District,
Bombay, situated in 18 46' N. and 73 22' E., on the Western Ghats,
about 41 miles north-west of Poona city. It is a favourite retreat of



224 KH AND ALA

the inhabitants of Bombay during the summer months. Population
(1901), 2,322. A much-admired waterfall, distant about half a mile,
consists in the rainy season of two cataracts, divided into an upper and
a lower fall. The upper cataract has a sheer fall of 300 feet. Khan-
dala owes its importance entirely to the Great Indian Peninsula
Railway, on which it is a station. The climate is temperate in the hot
season, owing to the cool sea-breezes. There are a hotel for Euro-
peans, a convalescent home, and a dispensary. Khandala contains
4 schools with 175 boys and 65 girls, three of which are supported by
missions. One is a Roman Catholic Mission school, connected with
the St. Mary's College in Bombay, the second is St. Peter's Protestant
High School, and the third is maintained by the All Saints' Community
of Bombay. Several bungalows have been built by native merchants of
Bombay, who resort hither during May and October. In the vicinity
are many fine views of the Ghat range, which runs north and south
in lines of great natural beauty. Khandala is a military sanitarium
in the Poona division of the Western Command.

Khandela. — Principal town of an estate of the same name in the
Tomwati nizamat of the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 27 37'
N. and 75 30' E., about 55 miles north-by-north-west of Jaipur city.
Population (1901), 9,156. The town has a local reputation for its
lacquered articles and toys, and possesses a fort and three indigenous
schools attended by 155 pupils. The Khandela estate is held by two
Rajas, who pay a tribute of Rs. 72,550 to the Jaipur Darbar.

Khanderi (or Kenery). — Small island in the Alibag taluka of
Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18 42' N. and 72 49' E., near
the entrance of Bombay harbour, 1 1 miles south of Bombay and
6 north-west of Alibag. It lies 2-| miles from the Kolaba mainland and
\\ miles from its sister island of Underi. Population (1901), 130.
The island is a mile and a half long by half a mile broad. A lighthouse,
which was built in 1867, stands on the highest part. It is an octagonal
masonry tower 78 feet high on the centre of a fiat-roofed house, the
centre of the lantern being 1,581 feet above the level of high-water.
The light is a catadioptric of order 1, and is a single light with groups
of flashes showing white with red sector. The period of revolution is
ten seconds, and it is visible for 18 miles. A flagstaff 200 feet high
stands north-east-by-north from the light tower.

In 1679 Sivaji, whom no advantage escaped, sent 300 soldiers and as
many labourers, with arms and materials, to Khanderi, and began to
raise breast-works at the landing-places. The island had never before
been inhabited, and its only produce was fuel, which had formerly been
sent to Bombay. When they heard of Sivaji's works on Khanderi, the
English claimed it as part of Bombay, the Portuguese as an old settle-
ment. Two attempts to turn out the Marathas failed ; and even after



KHANDESH DISTRICT 225

a naval battle in which the British fleet of eight ships put to flight 50
sail, the English were not able to prevent the Marathas strengthening
their forces on Khanderi. The Sldi, as Mughal admiral, joined the Eng-
lish with a strong fleet; but the English commander found that the Sidl
did not mean to give up the island if he took it, and held aloof. The
Sldi continued to batter Khanderi and then suddenly fortified Underi.
Daulat Khan, Sivaji's admiral, tried to stop this, bringing guns on the
mainland opposite. But he was defeated and severely wounded, his
small open boats not being able to stand against the Sidi's stronger and
larger vessels. For several years after this there were constant struggles
between the Sldi and the Marathas for the possession of these islands.
In 1693 Khali Khan mentions ' Kalaba and Gandiri' as the strongest
of Sivaji's newly built forts on the sea-shore. In 1695 Gemelli Careri
calls them Underin and Canderin, two forts on the island and continent,
a rock with some dwellings of SivajT, who was at war with the Great
Mughal and consequently in action against the Sldi. About 1706 Mr.
Strutt, Deputy-Governor of Bombay, described Khanderi as strongly
fortified by Angria and covered with houses. Khanderi was one of the
ten forts and sixteen fortified places of less strength which, in 1713,
Kanhoji Angria obtained on siding with Raja Sahu. In October, 1 718,
the English tried to take Khanderi and failed. This failure is said to
have been due to the treachery of one Rama Kamati who held a con-
fidential post under Governor Boone, while a year later a Portuguese
captain, who lay on one quarter of it with some war-vessels to hinder
relief coming to it, betrayed his trust, and let some boats pass in the
night with provisions and ammunition which the island greatly needed.
About 1740 it was settled between the English and the Sldi that, if
Khanderi was taken, it should be delivered with all its guns and stores
to the English. The cession of Khanderi to the English was again pro-
posed in 1755. It was not actually ceded until 1775 under the terms
of the Treaty of Surat, and shortly after was taken back under the
Treaty of Purandhar. Khanderi was then held by the Marathas till it
passed to the British in 1S18 as part of the Peshwa's dominions.

Khandesh District '.—District in the Central Division of the
Bombay Presidency, lying between 20° 16' and 22 2' N. and 73 35
and 76 24' E., with an area of 10,041 square miles. It is bounded on
the north by the Satpura Hills and the Narbada. river ; on the east by
Berar and the Nimar District of the Central Provinces ; on the south
by the Satmala, Chandor, or Ajanta hills; on the south-west by the

1 In 1906 the District was divided into two new Districts called West and East
Khandesh, with head-quarters at Dhulia and Jalgaon. The former contains 7 lalnkas
and one petha, with an area of 5,497 square miles, a population of 469,654, and a land
revenue of 15.7 lakhs. The latter contains 10 talukas and 3 pelhas, with an area of
4,544 square miles, a population of 957,728, and a land revenue of 27-4 lakhs.



226 KHANDESH DISTRICT

District of Nasik • and on the west by Baroda territory and the petty
State of Sagbara in the Rewa Kantha Agency.

Khandesh forms the most northerly section of the Deccan table-land.
The chief natural feature is the river Tapti, which, entering at the
north-east corner of the District, flows in a westerly
Physical direction, dividing it into two unequal parts. Of
these, the larger lies towards the south, and is
drained by the rivers Girna, Bori, and Panjhra. Here is the long
central plain of Khandesh— an unbroken stretch of 150 miles, from
the border of Nimar to Nandurbar, comprising an extensive area of
rich alluvial soil. In this tract large and prosperous towns and villages,
surrounded by mango groves and gardens, are numerous. Except
when blasted by the hot winds of the dry season, the fields are clothed
with a harvest of various crops. Northwards beyond the alluvial plain
the land rises towards the Satpura Hills. In the centre and east, save
for some low ranges of barren hills, the country is level, and has in
general an arid, infertile appearance. Towards the north and west,
the plain rises into a difficult and rugged country, thickly wooded,
and inhabited by tribes of Bhils, who chiefly live on the wild fruits
of the forest and are supported by the profits of wood-cutting. The
drainage of the District centres in the Tapti, which receives thirteen
principal tributaries in its winding course of 180 miles through Khan-
desh. None of the rivers is navigable, and the Tapti flows in too
deep a bed to be made use of for irrigation. Its banks rise high
and bare at a distance of from 240 to 400 yards across. Except for two
waterfalls, one above and the other below the Bhusawal railway bridge,
the river rolls over long sandy stretches for forty miles till it meets the
waters of the Vaghar. During the rainy season the Tapti is not ford-
able ; the only bridge across it is the railway bridge at Bhusawal. The
Nareada skirts the north-west corner of the District for 45 miles.
It occasionally serves to carry timber to the coast. Khandesh District
on the whole ma\ be said to be fairly well supplied with surface water,
for, besides the rivers that flow during the whole year, the channels
of many of the smaller streams are seldom entirely without water.
The four principal mountain ranges are : in the north, the Satpura
Hills, dividing the valleys of the Tapti and the Narbada, including the
peak of Panchu-Pandu (3,000 feet) and plateau of Turanmal (3,300
feet), the starting point of Khandesh history; in the south-east, the
ll.uii; in the south, the Satmala, Chandor, or Ajanta range, sepa
rating Khandesh from the Deccan table-land, and, speaking roughly,
from the Nizam's Dominions; on the west, between Khandesh and
Gujarat, is the northern extremity of the Western Ghats. The Arva
and Galna hills divide Khandesh from Nasik.

The geology of Khandesh has been examined only as far south



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 227

as the Tapti. The strip of varying breadth between the Tapti and
Satpura Hills is chiefly covered with alluvium. Basalt of the 1 )eccan
trap group is the only other formation, composing the hills and showing
here and there in the deeper ravines. Basalt probably occurs in the
bed of the Tapti, as, in many places to the south, it rises at no great
distance from the stream ; and though alluvium stretches north for
15 miles, rock appears near Bhusawal at the point where the railway
bridge crosses the Tapti. About 5 miles from Burhanpur, and about
a mile north-east of Chulkhan village, there is a singular patch of lime-
stone, about 50 feet long. It shows no sign of crystallization and
appears to contain no fossils. At one end there is white sandy rock,
like decomposed gneiss, standing upright as if part of a vertical bed.
The presence of rounded grains points to its being sandstone ; and
the whole rock is evidently part of an infra-trappean formation, either
Lameta or Bagh, brought up by a dike or included in a lava-flow. The
Deccan trap in the north of Khandesh shows signs of disturbance sub-
sequent to its original formation. The beds are in some places hori-
zontal, as in the Aner valley and near Daulet, north of Chopda, and
also westward as far as the Bombay-Agra road, where, on the top
of the ascent to Sindwa, the beds stretch in horizontal terraces. The
traps of Turanmal are nearly horizontal, but in the low rises from
Burhanpur to the neighbourhood of Raver the beds appear to dip
northwards. North-west of Turanmal is a low east-north-east dip
which continues as far as the Udai river. The trap along the north
boundary of Khandesh has a low irregular northerly dip. There are
four hot springs, three in Chopda and one in Shirpur '.

Khandesh is usually considered a separate botanical province of the
Presidency, including the valley of the Tapti and the western half
of the Satpura Hills. The former is generally well wooded, and the
latter is clothed with dense forests. In the east of the Khandesh
Satpuras anjan and salai (Bosive/Iia serratd) predominate. In Chopda
and Shirpur teak is found in all the valleys. The Shahada forests are
chiefly khair, and in Akhrani anjan reappears on the banks of the
Narbada. On the west the spurs of the Ghats are remarkable for
the growth of anjan, and about Savda on the east the country has
quite a park-like appearance. In the south-east the forest area is small,
yielding only a small quantity of anjan. The chief trees are the banyan,
mango (Mangifera indica), mahua (Bassia latifolia), pipal {Ficus reh-
giosa),palas {Butea frondosa), umbar {Fiats glomerata), and temburni
{Diospyros melanoxylori). The chief flowering plants are the Hibiscus,
Sida, Indigo/era, Crotalaria, Butea, Cassia, Echinops, Tric/iodesma,
Commelina, Ipomoea, and Celosia.

1 W. T. Blanford, ' Geology of the Tapti and Lower Narbada Valleys, &c.,'
Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. vi, pp. 286-90 and 344-51.



228 KHANDESH DISTRICT

Wild beasts are numerous, comprising the tiger, leopard, hunting
cheetah, bear, lynx, wolf, bison, savibar deer, spotted deer, nl/gai,
antelope, ' ravine deer ' (gazelle), and the four-horned deer. Up to the
seventeenth century the hilly tracts to the north of the District were a
breeding-ground for wild elephants. At the time of the introduction of
British rule, and for many years after, tigers and leopards were found
in every part of the District. As late as 1858, tigers were numerous;
but since then they have been very closely hunted, and are now rare.

Owing to differences of elevation, the climate varies greatly in differ-
ent parts of the District. In the western hills and forests and in the
Satpuras the rainfall is heavy ; but over much of the centre and south
it is scanty. Nevertheless the District has till quite recently been
considered safe from famine. The town of Dhulia, which may be
taken to illustrate the average, has an annual rainfall of 22 inches.
In the District it varies from 20 to 45. In the cold season (October
to January), except on cloudy days, the climate is pleasant and bracing.
I kiting the hot months the air is extremely dry. At Dhulia the
temperature falls as low as 52 in January, rising to no° in May, when
the heat is excessive. The general health of the people is best in the
hot and worst in the cold season. Malaria is rife at the beginning of
the latter, when the ground commences to dry after the rains. In the
east and centre, the climate is trying to Europeans, but healthy to the
natives. In the west, all periods except the hot season are injurious
to native and European alike.

The early history of Khandesh extends from 150 B.C., the date of
the oldest rock inscription yet discovered and deciphered, to the year
a. d. 1295, when the Musalman emperor Ala-ud-din
suddenly appeared from Delhi. The mythical annals
of the Hindu period may be said to commence with the mention in
the Mahabharata of the hill forts of Turanmai and Asirgarh : the ruler
of Turanmai is recorded as having fought against the Pandavas ; the
fort of Asirgarh is named as a place of worship to Ashvatthama. Local



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