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culturists.

Locusts have sometimes visited Khandesh, but seldom in sufficient
numbers to do much harm. In 1869 a large cloud crossed the Dis-
trict from north to south, and in 1873 and 1878 they did some injury
to the late crop. Rats in 1847-8, 1878-9, and in 1901-2 caused much
havoc.

The District is divided into seventeen talukas, in charge of three
covenanted Civilians and two Deputy-Collectors. Of the three cove-
nanted Civilians, one is Personal Assistant to the . , ... ,.
_ „ ,11 tx ^ ,, Administration.

Collector, who has also an extra Deputy-Collector

as daftardar. There are four petty subdivisions or pethas : Parola,
Bhadgaon, Navapur, and Edalabad, in the talukas of Amalner, Pachora,
Nandurbar, and Bhusawal respectively. The formation of two separate
Districts is referred to in the note on p. 225. The Mehwas estates are
included in the District for administrative purposes.

The District and Sessions Judge at Dhulia is aided for civil business
by ten Subordinate Judges. Criminal justice is administered by 50
Magistrates, including the District Magistrate. The commonest forms
of crime are theft, house-breaking, and dacoity.

On occupation by the British, 1,146 Government villages were found
entirely deserted, besides 413 which were uninhabited but partly tilled
by persons living in the neighbouring villages; only 1,836 villages
were inhabited. The establishment of order and the advent of high
prices soon caused a rapid increase in tillage and revenue. But a sub-
sequent fall in prices checked improvement, and progress was slow for
several years. After 1832 the improvement began to be more marked,
and continued steadily up to 1852. One of the first measures of im-

Q 2



2 3 8



KHANDESH DISTRICT



provement was the withdrawal from the hereditary officials of powers
the possession of which by them was found to be a source of oppression
to the people. The settlement of the revenue was then made direct
with the cultivators and not with the headmen of the villages. The
revenue was fixed on the average payments of ten previous years.
Gradually, inequalities of measurement were reduced to a common
standard. About 1830 it was found that the assessments were too
high, leaving no margin to the cultivator for improvements. Great
reductions were then made in the rates on irrigated lands ; the rates
on ' dry-crop ' lands were also reduced, wherever this was found to be
necessary, and liberal remissions were made. Still progress was slow ;
and no attempt was made until 1852 to introduce a survey, which, it
was felt, would be very costly. In that year, as it appeared that the
rates in Khandesh were higher than in other Districts, it was determined
to carry out a survey on a plan suited to a country where so much of the
land was waste. The objects of it were misunderstood, and troops had
to be called out. But, on the leaders being seized, the opposition died
away and the work was carried out between the years 1854 and 1870.
Since then the District has made a most marked advance. Its popu-
lation has largely increased and the area under cultivation has nearly
trebled. Cultivation has been pushed to the base of the hills ; and
only in a few parts can good land now be found untitled, while wild
beasts have been driven from the plain to the hills and the ravines.
This remarkable development is, no doubt, in great measure due to the
facilities offered by the railway for the export of produce to better
markets, and to the great demand for cotton, which Khandesh is in
a position to satisfy. The revision survey settlement was commenced
in 1886 and completed (with the exception of a small area, chiefly in
Xandurbar, originally settled in 190 1-3) in 1904. The new survey
found an increase in the cultivated area of 4 per cent, over the amount
shown in the accounts, and the settlement enhanced the total revenue
from 31 to 40 lakhs. The average assessment per acre of ' dry ' land is
Rs. 1-6 ; of rice land, Rs. 1-10 ; and garden land, Rs. 2-14.

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources
have been, in thousands of rupees : —





1880-1.


1890-1.


IQOO-I.


1903-4.


[.and revenue .
Total revenue


34,13
46,27


39>7 6

57.40


5°,3 2
64,72


4S,6o
67,59



The District has 21 municipalities: namely, Amalner, Parola,
Erandol, Dharangaon, Bhadgaon, Chopda, Shirpur. Sindkheda,
Betwad, Savada, Yaval, Bhusawal, Jalgaon, Dhulia, Songir,



KHANDGIR1 230

Taloda, Shahada, Prakasha, Nandurbar, Faizpur, and Ravi r.
The total receipts of these average 1 nearly 3 lakhs. The District I
and 17 taluka boards had an income in 1903-4 of 4^ lakhs. The
principal source of income is the land cess. The expenditure
amounted to 4^ lakhs, including nearly 2 lakhs devoted to the main-
tenance and construction of roads and buildings.

The District Superintendent of police is aided by three Assistant
Superintendents, one probationary Assistant Superintendent, and four
inspectors. There are altogether 37 police stations. The force in 1904
numbered 1,636 : namely, 23 chief constables, 335 head constables,
and 1,278 constables. The mounted police number 62 under S daffa-
dars. In addition to the District jail at Dhulia, with accommodation for
450 prisoners, there are 23 subsidiary jails and 21 lock-ups which can
accommodate 408 and 202 prisoners respectively. The daily average
number of prisoners in 1904 was 493, of whom 16 were females.

Khandesh stands twelfth as regards literacy among the twenty-four
Districts of the Presidency. The Census of 1901 returned 4-8 per cent,
of the population (9-3 males and 0-2 females) as able to read and write.
Education has made great progress of late years. In 1881 there were
only 317 schools, attended by 18,656 pupils. The number of pupils rose
to 29,346 in 1891 and to 30,293 in T90T. In 1903-4 the schools num-
bered 538 (including 122 private schools with 1,713 pupils), attended
by 22, i8r pupils, of whom 845 were girls. One is a high school, 12 are
middle schools, 401 primary, one is a training school, and one an indus-
trial school. Three are maintained by Government, 332 by local boards,
70 by municipalities, and 1 1 are aided. The training school and the
industrial school are at Dhulia. The expenditure on education in
1903-4 was 2\ lakhs, of which Local funds contributed Rs. 73,000
and Rs. 24,000 was recovered as fees. Of the total, nearly 80 per
cent, was devoted to primary schools.

The District contains twenty dispensaries, one hospital, and two other
medical institutions, accommodating 167 in-patients. In these institu-
tions 114,213 persons, including 1,229 in-patients, were treated in 1904,
and 3,797 operations performed. The total expenditure was over
Rs. 39,000, of which Rs. 16,940 was contributed by Local and muni-
cipal funds.

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was
39,000, representing a proportion of 27 per 1,000 of population, which
exceeds the average for the Presidency.

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xii (1880) ; A. F. David-
son, Settlement Report (1854).]

Khandgiri. — Hill in the Khurda subdivision of Purl District, Ben-
gal, situated in 20 16' N. and 85 47' E., about 4 miles west of
Bhubaneswar. It consists of two separate peaks, the northern one of



2 4 o KHANDGTRI

which is called Udayagiri and the southern Khandgiri, the last name
being also applied to the entire group. The caves on this hill were
occupied by monks of the Jain sect, and not, as is usually stated, by
Buddhists. The earliest of them go back to the time of king Khara-
vcla, whose large but mutilated inscription over the Hathi Gumpha
cave is dated in the year 165 of the Maurya era, or 155 B.C. ; and there
are also short inscriptions of his queen and immediate successors.
Various mediaeval Jain carvings and inscriptions show that the Jains
continued to occupy the caves till about the twelfth or thirteenth cen-
tury ; and there still exist later Jain temples, one of which, on the top
of the Khandgiri peak, is annually visited by Jain merchants from Cut-
tack. Of the oldest caves the most interesting are the following : On
the Udayagiri peak, (1) the Rani Gumpha, comprising two storeys with
open verandas. The frieze of the upper veranda contains a series of
relief carvings, evidently representing one connected story, in which
occurred a fight with wild elephants, the rape of a female, and a hunt
after a winged antelope ; the legend to which it refers has not, however,
been traced. (2) The Ganesh Gumpha, with a carved frieze represent-
ing the same story as in the Ran! Gumpha ; the steps of the cave are
flanked by the figures of two elephants. (3) The Hathi Gumpha, with
the famous inscription of king Kharavela, a purely historical record of
the principal events of his life. Unfortunately it has been badly muti-
lated, but it has recently been protected by a shade to preserve it from
further destruction. (4) The Bagh Gumpha, shaped like the head of
a tiger; and (5) the Svarga Gumpha, (6) the Maujapuri, and (7) the
Patal Gumpha, three caves raised one above the other and consequently
now explained as a representation of heaven, earth, and hell. On the
Khandgiri peak, the most notable of the old caves are the Ananta
Gumpha, with carved panels over its gates, representing Lakshml, the
sun-god, an elephant, and the worship of a sacred tree ; the Tentuli
Gumpha, so called from a tamarind-tree close to it ; and the Tantua
Gumpha I and Tantua Gumpha II, one above the other. The name
tantua means a diving-bird and has been given to these caves on
account of the figures of birds, with their heads bent down as if in the
act of diving, which have been carved over the arches of the doors.
The best specimens of mediaeval caves are : the Navamuni cave, with
an inscription dated in the eighteenth year of king Uddyota Kesari,
who preceded the Ganga kings and belonged to the family of the so-
called Somavansi, or kings of the lunar race, who ruled over Orissa
in the tenth and eleventh centuries ; and the Satghara cave, which has
numerous mediaeval Jain figures carved over its walls.

[Report of the Archaeological Survey of India for 1902-3 (Calcutta,
1904).]

Khandia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.



KHANDWA TOWN



241



Khandpara. — One of the Tributary Stales of Orissa, Bengal, lying
between 20 1 1' and 20 25' N. and 85 o' and 85 22' E., with an
of 244 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Mahanadi
river, which separates it from the States of Narsinghpur and Baramba;

on the east by Cuttack and Pun Districts ; on the south by Pun
and the State of Nayagarh ; and on the west by Daspalla State. The
State originally formed part of Nayagarh, and was separated from it
about 200 years ago by a brother of the Nayagarh Raja, who estab
lished his independence. The State has an estimated revenue of
Rs. 30,000, and pays a tribute of Rs. 4,212 to the British Government.
The land is very fertile, and the State is one of the best cultivated in
Orissa. Fine sal timber (S/iorea robustd) abounds in the hilly tracts,
and magnificent banyan and mango trees stud the plain. It is inter-
sected by the Kuaria and Dauka rivers, small tributaries of the
Mahanadi. The population increased from 63,287 in 1891 to 69,450
in 1 901. The number of villages is 325, of which the most important
is Kantilo, a large mart on the Mahanadi. The density is 284 per-
sons per square mile. The State maintains a charitable dispensary,
a middle vernacular and 30 lower primary schools.

Khandwa Tahsil.— North-western tahsil oi Nimar District, Central
Provinces, lying between 21 31' and 22 20' N. and 76 4' and 76
59' E., with an area of 2,046 square miles. The population in 1901
was 181,684, compared with 163,003 in 1891. The density is 89
persons per square mile. The tahsil contains one town, Khandwa
(population, 19,401), the head-quarters of the District and tahsil; and
437 inhabited villages. Excluding 671 square miles of Government
forest, 58 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation.
The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 713 square miles. The demand
for land revenue in the same year was Rs. 1,67,000, and for cesses
Rs. 18,000. The tahsil consists of an undulating plain, forming the
valleys of the Abna and Sukta rivers, and fringed by low hills towards
the north and west.

Khandwa Town. — Head-quarters of Nimar District, Central Pro-
vinces, situated in 21 50' N. and 76 22' E., on the Great Indian
Peninsula Railway, 353 miles from Bombay, and forming the junction
for the metre-gauge Rajputana-Malwa branch line to Mhow. The
town stands at an elevation of 1,007 f eet > on a sheet of basalt rock
covered with shallow surface soil ; and, because of the proximity of the
rock to the surface, there is a noticeable absence of trees. The popu-
lation at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 14,119, (1881)
15,142, (1891) 15,589, and (1901) 19,401.

Khandwa is a place of considerable antiquity. Owing to its situation
at the junction of the two great roads leading from Northern and
Western India to the Deccan, it must have been occupied at an early



24 2 KHANDWA TOWN

period, and Cunningham identifies it with the Kognabanda of Ptolemy.
It is mentioned by the geographer Albiruni, who wrote early in the
eleventh century. In the twelfth century it was a great seat of Jain
worship ; and many finely carved pillars, cornices, and other stone-
work belonging to old Jain temples may be seen in the more modern
buildings. The town has four old tanks with stone embankments. A
new Jain temple, constructed at a cost of Rs. 75,000, is now approach-
ing completion. Khandwa is mentioned by the historian Firishta as
the seat of a local governor of the kingdom of Malwa in 15 16. It was
burnt by Jaswant Rao Holkar in 1802, and again partially by Tantia
Topi in 1858.

Khandwa was created a municipality in 1867. The municipal
receipts and expenditure during the decade ending 1901 averaged one
lakh. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,07,000, the main heads of
receipt being octroi (Rs. 65,000), markets and slaughter-houses
(Rs. 5,000), and conservancy (Rs. 3,000) ; while the expenditure,
which amounted to Rs. 1,04,000, included refunds of duty on goods
in transit (Rs. 34,000), conservancy (Rs. 8,000), education (Rs. 10,000),
and general administration and collection of taxes (Rs. 8,000). The
town is supplied with water from the adjoining Mohghat reservoir.
The catchment area of the tank has been increased by the construction
of a canal 3| miles in length to Ajanti, and is now about 9 square
miles, the daily supply being calculated at 450,000 gallons. The
works were opened in 1897 at a cost of 4 lakhs. The maintenance
charges amount to about Rs. 5,000, to meet which a water rate has
recently been imposed. Cotton is an important crop in Nimar District,
and Khandwa is a centre for the export of the raw product. It now
contains 9 ginning and 5 pressing factories, which have a total capital
of about 6^ lakhs and employ 1,000 operatives. Seven out of the
fourteen factories have been opened within the last eight years. An
oil-pressing and timber-sawing factory has also been erected. The
depot for the supply of ganja (Cannabis sativa) to the Central Pro-
vinces is situated at Khandwa, the crop being grown under licence
in Nimar District. A rest camp for troops is maintained during the
trooping season. There is a printing press, which issues a weekly paper
in Marathl. The educational institutions comprise a high school,
with 46 pupils, two English middle schools, and four branch schools.
The Roman Catholic and Methodist Episcopal Churches carry on mis-
sion and educational work in Khandwa, and maintain schools and an
orphanage. The town has three dispensaries, one of which is a police
hospital and another is maintained by the railway. A veterinary
dispensary has recently been opened.

Khangah Dogran Tahsil. — Tahsll of Gujranwala District, Punjab,
lying between 31 31' and 31 59' N. and 73° 14' and 74 5' E., with



KHANIADHANA 243

an area of 873 square miles. This tahsll was formed, mainly out of
the unwieldy tahsll of Hafizabad, in 1893. The population in 1901
was 237,843. It contains 239 villages, including Khangah Dogran
(population, 5,349), the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,41,000. The tahsll consists of a uni-
form Bar tract with a soil of good loam. Three-fourths of it art: now
irrigated by the Chenab Canal.

Khangah Dogran Village. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the
same name in Gujranwala District, Punjab, situated in 31 49' N. and
73 41' E. Lying in the heart of the Bar, it was until recently famous
only for a number of Muhammadan shrines at which a fair is held in
June. In 1893 it was made the head-quarters of the newly constituted
tahsll named after it ; and as it lies in the centre of the tract brought
under irrigation by the Chenab Canal, it is rapidly growing in impor-
tance, as is testified by the increase of its population from 877 in 1881
and 1,646 in 1891 to 5,349 in 1901. The village is administered as
a 'notified area.' It contains a cotton-ginning factory, which in 1904
employed 34 hands.

Khangarh. — Town in the District and tahsll of Muzaffargarh, Pun-
jab, situated in 29 55' N. and 71 10' E., 11 miles south of Muzaffar-
garh town and 4 miles west of the Chenab, on the road leading to
Sind. Population (1901), 3,621. It was built by Khan Blbi, sister
of Muzaffar Khan, and at the beginning of the last century was an
Afghan post ; but the town has now outgrown the dimensions of the
circular fortification which originally enclosed it. At annexation in
1849 it became the head-quarters of the District, but was abandoned
in 1859 on account of floods from the Chenab. The municipality was
created in 1873. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3
averaged Rs. 6,200, and the expenditure Rs. 6,400. In 1903-4 the
income was Rs. 6,400, chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was
Rs. 5,600. The town contains a small cotton-ginning and rice-husking
factory, which gave employment in 1904 to 25 persons; but it owes
such importance as it possesses to its being the agricultural centre
for a fertile tract.

Khaniadhana. — Small sanad State in the Central India Agency,
under the Resident at Gwalior. It has an area of about 68 square
miles, lying round the town of the same name. It is bounded on the
east by Jhansi District of the United Provinces, and on all other
sides by Gwalior State. Although the State is situated politically in
the Gwalior Residency, it lies geographically in Bundelkhand, and
until 1888 was included in the Political Charge of that name.

Khaniadhana was originally a part of Orchha ; but in 1724 it was
granted by Maharaja Udot Singh of Orchha to his son Arnar Singh,
together with the villages of Mohangarh and Ahar. On the dis-



244 KHANIADHANA

memberment of the Orchha State by the Marathas a sanad was granted
to Amar Singh by the Peshwa in 1751, confirming him in his grant.
The question of suzerainty was, from this time onward, always a subject
of contention between the chiefs of Orchha and of the Maratha State
of Jhansi. On the lapse of the latter State in 1854, the Khaniadhana
chief, Pirthlpal Bahadur Ju Deo, claimed absolute independence. It
was, however, ruled that he was dependent on the British Government
as successor to all the rights previously exercised by the Peshwa ; and
a sanad was accordingly granted in 1862 confirming him in his posses-
sion, a sa?iad of adoption being granted at the same time. The chiefs
of Khaniadhana are Bundela Rajputs of the Orchha house, and bear
the title of Jaglrdar. The present chief, Chitra Singh, who succeeded
in 1869, obtained the title of Raja as a personal distinction in
1877.

The population has been: (1881) 13,494, (1891) 14,871, and (1901)
15,528. Hindus number 13,548, or 87 per cent. ; and Animists, 1,208,
or 8 per cent., chiefly Saharias. The population has increased by 4 per
cent, since 1891, and its density is 243 persons per square mile. The
chief dialect is Bundelkhandl. Only one per cent, of the inhabitants are
literate. The principal castes are Thakurs (Bundela) and other Raj-
puts, and the population is almost entirely supported by agriculture.
The State contains 49 villages.

The country is rocky, belonging to the Bundelkhand gneiss area.
In the valleys, where intrusive dikes of trap are met with, good soil
is produced by its disintegration, bearing fair crops of all the ordinary
grains. Of the total area, 21 square miles, or 32 per cent., are under
cultivation, of which 13 are irrigated. About 27 square miles are
capable of cultivation, the rest being rocky and irreclaimable. The
chief exercises full powers in all general administrative matters. In
criminal cases he is required to report all heinous crimes to the
Resident at Gwalior. The total revenue is Rs. 22,000, of which
Rs. 18,000 is derived from the land. The British rupee was made
legal tender in 1886. There are two schools in the State and one
dispensary.

The chief place is Khaniadhana, situated in 25 2' N. and 78 8' E.
Population (1901), 2,192. It contains a small fort in which the chief
lives, and also a school and a dispensary.

Khanna.— Town in the Samrala tahsfl of Ludhiana District, Punjab,
situated in 30 42' N. and 76 13' E., on the North-Western Railway,
27 miles from Ludhiana town. Population (1901), 3,838. The town
possesses two cotton-ginning factories, with a flour-mill attached to one
of them. The number of employes in the factories in 1904 was 145,
and in the mill 30. Khanna is a depot for the agricultural produce
of the neighbourhood. It contains an .Wlo-Sanskrit middle school



KHA VUA



2 45



(unaided) and a Government dispensary. The municipality was < reated
in 1875. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged
Rs. 6,400, and the expenditure Rs. 6,100. In 1903 4 the income
was Rs. 6,600, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was
Rs. 5,900.

Khanpur Tahsil. — Head-quarters tahsll of the Khanpur nizamat,
Bahawalpur State, Punjab, lying on the left bank of the Indus, between
2 7 43' and 29 4' N. and 70 27' and 70 53' E., with an area of
2,415 square miles. The population in 1901 was 120,810, compared
with 115,112 in 1891. It contains the towns of Khanpur (population,
8,611), the head-quarters, Garhi Ikhtiar Khan (4,939), an ^ Ghaus-
pur, which was created a municipality in 1903; and 52 villages. It is
traversed by the Hakra depression, south of which comes the desert. To
the north lie the central tract of barren soil and the fertile lowlands
along the Indus. The tahs'd is famous for its date-palms, and is, after
Allahabad, the most fertile in the State. The land revenue and cesses
in 1905-6 amounted to i-8 lakhs.

Khanpur Town. — Head-quarters of the nizamat and tahsil of the
same name in Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 28 39' N. and
70 41' E., on the North-Western Railway, 63 miles south-west of
Bahawalpur town. Population (1901), 8,611. Eounded in 1806 by
Nawab Bahawal Khan II as a counterpoise to Garhi Ikhtiar Khan,
which lies 6 miles to the west, the town is now the chief centre of the
trade in agricultural produce in the State, and contains three steam
rice-husking mills, in one of which cotton-ginning is carried on as well.
It possesses a middle school and a dispensary. The municipality had
an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 12,800, chiefly from octroi.

Khanpur. — Name once given to Gujranwala Town in Gujranwala
District, Punjab.

Khanspur. — Part of the Ghora Dakka cantonment in Hazara Dis-
trict, North-West Erontier Province, situated in 34 2' N. and 73
30' E. During the summer months it is occupied by a detachment
of British infantry.

Khanua. — Village in the Rupbas tahsil of the State of Bharatpur,
Rajputana, situated in 27 2' N. and 77 33' E., close to the left bank
of the Banganga river, and about 13 miles south of Bharatpur city.
Population (1901), 1,857. Here, in March, 1527, was fought the great
battle between Babar and the confederated Rajputs under Rana.
Sangram Singh of Mewar. In the preliminary skirmishes the latter
were successful, and the emperor, deeming his situation serious,
resolved to carry into effect his long-deferred vow and nevermore drink
wine. The gold and silver goblets and cups were broken up and the
fragments distributed among the poor. In the final battle (March 1 2,
1527) the Rajputs were completely defeated ; the Rana was wounded



246 KHANL\ I

and escaped with difficulty, while among the slain was Rawal Udai
Singh of Dungarpur.

Khapa. — Town in the Ramtek tahs'd of Nagpur District, Central



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