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4 crores. The restoration of peace in America, however, brought about
a lower price for cotton in Lancashire, and the trade of Karachi gradu-
ally returned to what was then considered its normal level. The total
value sank to 4 crores in 1867-8, and 3^ crores in 1873-4; but by
1882-3 it had risen again to 7 crores, and in 1892-3 to n crores.

In 1903-4 the trade of Karachi port, exclusive of Government stores
and treasure, had increased in value to 24-9 crores (of which 5-5 repre-
sented coasting trade): namely, imports 9-6 crores, and exports 15-2
crores. The main cause of the growth is due to the annually increas-
ing exports of wheat and other food-grains, and oilseeds, which are
brought by rail from irrigated tracts of Sind and the Punjab. The
following were the chief articles of foreign import, with their values, in
1903-4: apparel, 14 lakhs: cotton piece-goods, 2 crores; cotton twist
and yarn, 10 lakhs; manufactures of wool, 20 lakhs; hardware and
cutlery, 13 lakhs ; wines and liqueurs, 9 lakhs ; spirits. 11 lakhs ; metals,
wrought and unwrought (chiefly copper, iron, and steel), 43 lakhs ; pro-
visions, 19 lakhs ; sugar, 102 lakhs ; machinery and mill-work, 10 lakhs;
mineral oil, 22 lakhs; and treasure, 44 lakhs. Total imports from
foreign ports (including treasure), 5-9 crores.

From the United Kingdom Karachi imports cotton manufactures,



[6 KARACHI CITY

railway materials, liquors, coal and coke, machinery, metals, provisions,
apparel, drugs, and medicines ; from Bombay, cotton piece-goods and
twist, treasure, metals, silk, sugar, tea. jute, spices, dyes, woollen manu-
factures, coco-nuts, manufactured silk, liquors, fruit, and vegetables ;
from the Persian Gulf, dried fruits, treasure, wool, grain, and horses ;
from the coast of Makran, wool, provisions, grain, and pulses; from
Calcutta, jute, grain, and pulses ; and from Russia, mineral oil.

The following list shows the value of the exports to foreign ports in
1903-4: raw cotton, 2| crores ; grain and pulses, 7! crores, of which
l\ crores represented wheat ; hides and skins, 47 lakhs ; oilseeds,
chiefly rape and //'/, one crore : raw wool, 52^ lakhs; bones, 17 lakhs.
Total value of exports (including treasure), 13! crores.

To the United Kingdom Karachi exports cotton, wool, wheat, seeds,
skins, and bones ; to France, wheat, cotton, bones, hides, gram, gingelly,
and rapeseed ; to Germany, wheat, cotton, hides, bones, and seeds ; to
Japan, cotton ; to Russia, indigo and cotton ; to Bombay, Cutch, and
Gujarat, cotton, grain, indigo, seeds, skins, fish-maws and shark-fins ; to
Mauritius, grain and pulses ; to Persia, rice ; to Madras, rice and skins ;
and to China, raw cotton.

The inland trade of Karachi includes wheat from the Punjab and the
United Provinces, cotton from the Punjab, a large quantity of wool,
dried fruits, and horses from Kandahar and Kalat ; while camels,
bullocks, and donkeys bring in firewood, grass, ghl, palm-leaves, hides,
&c, from Las Bela and Kohistan.

The harbour of Karachi during the period of the Talpur Mirs, and
for the first few years after British annexation, was capable of accommo-
dating only small native craft. Steamers and large ships anchored
outside Manora Point, whence men and stores were conveyed in boats
up the river, as far as the tide permitted, and then transferred into
canoes, which carried them through a sea of liquid mud to a spot near
the site of the existing custom-house. In process of time, however, it
became apparent that the bar did not interpose so great an obstacle
as was originally supposed, and that square-rigged vessels of a certain
draught could cross it with safety. In 1854, under the Commis-
sionership of Sir Bartle Frere, the Napier Mole road or causeway,
connecting Karachi with the island of Kiamari, was completed, which
offered additional inducements to ships for visiting the harbour.

In 1856 a scheme for improving the harbour by deepening the water
on the bar was submitted for the opinion of Mr. James Walker, an
eminent London engineer, who estimated the cost of works to provide
an ample width of passage, with a depth of 25 feet at neap tides,
at 29 lakhs. After much debate and intermissions, owing to partial
failures, the principal part of the works — the Manora breakwater, 1,503
feet in length — was commenced in 1869, and completed in 1873 at



COMMERCE 17

a cost of 7 lakhs. It affords complete slicker to the- entrance channel
(eastern) over the bar during the south-west monsoon, and, combined
with other works, lias already led to the deepening at the entrance to
20 feet at low-water spring tides. The rise and fall is about 8 feet.
Further progress was ensured by the creation in 1880 of a Harbour
Board, for the purpose of levying shipping dues, which eventually was
transformed into the Fort Trust by Act VI of 1886. Among the works
carried out by the board are the Kiamari and East ( Channel groynes or
stone banks, which direct and confine into one channel the tidal flow ;
extensive dredging, boring, and submarine blasting operations ; the
Merewether Pier, opened in 1882, to accommodate one steamer and
provide facilities for trooping ; the Erskine wharf, 2,000 feet long, and
the James wharf, 1,900 feet long, which can together accommodate ten
large steamers and are linked for cargo purposes with the North-Western
Railway by a commodious railway yard ; a special pier for oil-steamers,
to serve the four bulk-oil installations at Kiamari ; and the Mansfield
import yard, with warehouse accommodation for all goods landed at the
wharves. In the harbour entrance, within shelter of the breakwater,
there is a minimum depth of 24^ feet of water, which is maintained and
will eventually be improved by dredging during the fair season. Further
developments are under consideration, while the reclamation of a large
area and the construction of two new steamer berths, with a minimum
depth of 28 feet, are now being carried out.

In 1847-8 the number of vessels which entered the harbour was 891,
all native craft, with a total burden of 30,509 tons. In 1903-4, 384
vessels (of which 174 were steam-vessels) entered Karachi harbour with
cargoes from foreign ports: gross tonnage, 301,109 tons. In the same
year 515 vessels (of which 344 were steam-vessels) cleared with cargoes
for foreign ports; gross tonnage, 720,919 tons. From the ports on the
coasts of India and Burma 1,311 vessels entered Karachi laden with
cargoes ; tonnage, 567,436 tons. For the ports on the coasts of India
and Burma 1,177 vessels left Karachi laden with cargoes; tonnage,
392,463 tons. The affairs of the port are managed by the Karachi Port
Trust, the income of which in 1903-4 was about 19 lakhs and the
expenditure 13 lakhs. During the three years ending 1904-5, the
average income expanded to more than 2 1 lakhs and the expenditure
to 15^ lakhs. The surplus is devoted to paying off the debt of 66
lakhs, which has now been reduced to 58^ lakhs. The principal steam-
ship lines are the Ellerman, Wilson, Strick, Hansa, Austrian Lloyd,
British India, and Bombay Steam Navigation Company.

The Karachi municipality was established in 1852, and had an
income during the decade ending 1901 of about 12 lakhs. In 1903-4
the income was 15 lakhs and the expenditure 14 lakhs. The chief
heads of municipal revenue are : octroi (10 lakhs, excluding refunds of



1 8 KARACHI CITY

6 lakhs), tax on houses and lands (Rs. 53,000), and rents (Rs. 27,000) ;
and the chief items of expenditure are administration and collection
charges (7 lakhs), water-supply and drainage (Rs. 62,000), conservancy
(Rs. 1,50,000), hospital and dispensary (Rs. 15,000), public works
(Rs. 1,63,000), and education (Rs. 49,000). The management of the
cantonment is in the hands of a committee, which had an income and
expenditure of about Rs. 18,500 in 1903-4. The normal strength of
the Karachi garrison is 1,300, and of the volunteer forces 800.

The difficulty of water-supply long formed one of the chief drawbacks
to Karachi, most of the wells being too brackish for drinking purposes.
Formerly the supply was mainly derived from wells tapping a subter-
ranean bed of the Layari. The inhabitants of Kiamari, and the ship-
ping in the harbour, obtained water from carts, which brought it up
from 'camp 1 .' For the purposes of ice manufacture, water was for-
merly imported by rail from Kotri. A scheme for constructing an
underground aqueduct, 18 miles in length, from the Malir river at
a cost of 5 lakhs was completed in 1882, and Karachi is now in
possession of a pure water-supply. The capital outlay on this under-
taking, including pipes for distributing the water to the city, Kiamari,
and the cantonment, amounted to 17 lakhs; and the annual charges
are 3 lakhs, of which Rs. 32,600 represents maintenance charges.

Education is carried on by the Sind College, the Government high
school, Anglo-vernacular schools, the Government vernacular school, and
several female and other minor establishments. The
total number of boys' schools is 48, with a daily
attendance of 6,239, ar| d of girls' schools 20, with an attendance of
1,861. The Dayaram Jethmal Sind Arts College was established in
1887. It is attended by 120 scholars, some of whom are accommo-
dated in a hostel attached to it. A law class prepares students for the
first LL.B. The Narayan Jagannath high school prepares students
for the matriculation and school final examination. It is managed by
Government, and Rs. 1 0,000 is annually contributed from Provincial
revenues. Among the special schools may be mentioned the Muham-
madan high school (Madrasat-ul-Islam), the normal class for the training
of mistresses, and the engineering class. Newspapers or periodicals
published at Karachi include four English (the Sind Gazette, the Sind
Times, the Phoenix, and the Karachi Chronicle) and four native (in
Sindl, GujaratI, and Persian).

The city possesses a civil hospital, a Dufferin hospital for females,

and four dispensaries. These institutions afforded relief in 1904

to 70,155 persons, of whom 1,543 were in-patients

treated in the civil hospital. The Dufferin hospital,

1 The portion of Karachi comprising the Sadr bazar, civil line-;. &c, is locally
known a-; 'cam]).' as opposed to the old town proper and Kiamari.



KARAD TOWN 19

built by Mr. Edaljl Dinsha in 1 901, treated 10,017 patients in 11)04,
of whom 206 were in-patients. A sick hospital, now called the military
hospital, was established in 1869, in connexion with the cantonment,
and in 1901 the cantonment hospital was opened in the Preedy quarter
of the city. Adjacent to the barracks is a third hospital, known as the
followers' hospital, where camp servants are treated.

[A. F. Baillie, Kurrachee, Past, Present and Future (1890) ; Official
Compendium of Military Information regarding Karachi (Bombay,
1896); Karachi Harbour Works (Bombay, 1867); An Account of the
Port of Karachi (Karachi, 1892).]

Karad Taluka. — Tdluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying between
1 7 5" and 17 30' N. and 74 and 74/ r8' E., with an area of 378 square
miles. There is one town, Karad (population, 11,499), the head-
quarters; and 98 villages, including Kale (5,077). The popula-
tion in 1901 was 134,947, compared with 154,383 in 1891. The den-
sity, 357 persons per square mile, is much above the District average.
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2-9 lakhs, and for cesses
Rs. 24,000. The tdluka is a portion of the valley of the Kistna river,
which runs 30 miles from north to south between two parallel chains of
hills. The western chain is broken half-way by the Koyna, which joins
the Kistna at Karad. The land is generally flat and open, but becomes
rougher as it rises towards the hills. Gardens and groves' and several
charming river reaches lend a picturesque appearance to the country.
The soil is extremely fertile. In the cold season the days are
warm and the nights bitterly cold, and in the hot season Karad is
one of the hottest parts of the 1 Hstrict. The annual rainfall averages
30 inches.

Karad Town (Karhdd, originally Karahdkada). — Head-quarters
of the tdluka of the same name in Satara District, Bombay,
situated in 17 17' N. and 74 n' E., at the confluence of the Koyna
and Kistna, on the Bombay-Madras high road, 31 miles south-south-
east of Satara town, and about 4 miles south-west of Karad Road on
the Southern Mahratta Railway. Population (1901), 11,499. The
town was constituted a municipality in 1885. During the decade
ending 1901 the income averaged Rs. 10,500. In 1903-4 the income
was Rs. 12,000. It is referred to in ancient writings as Karahakada,
and has given its name to a subdivision of Brahmans. In the north-
east is an old mud fort containing the mansion of the Pant Pratinidhi,
the most noteworthy objects in which are an audience-hall with an orna-
mental ceiling of teak and iron, built about 1800, and a curious step-
well. The mosque of Karad is interesting, as it contains nine Arabic
inscriptions. One of these shows that it was built during the reign of
the fifth Bijapur king, All Adil Shah (1557-79), by one Ibrahim Khan.
About 3 miles to the south-we-t is a group of 54 Buddhist caves of



2o KARAP TOWN

a very plain and early type. The town contains a Subordinate Judge's
court, a dispensary, and an English school.

Karadge. — Village in the Chikodi taluka of Belgaum District,
Bombay, situated in i6° 33' N. and 74 30' E. Population (1901),
5,138. The village, which is purely agricultural, contains a boys'
school with 66 pupils.

Karagola. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Purnea
District, Bengal, situated in 25 24' N. and 87 28' E., on the left bank
of the Ganges. Karagola is on the old route from Calcutta to Darjeeling,
and is a place of call of the Ganges Dispatch Service, though the
steamer now touches 2 miles below the village. The fair held here
was formerly one of the largest in Bengal, but has recently lost
much of its importance. It takes place at the time of the full moon in
the month of Magh (about February) ; and a brisk trade is carried on
in nuts and spices, as well as in tents, carpets, and wooden furniture
imported from Monghyr.

Karaia. — Village in the Gwalior Gird district of Gwalior State,
Central India, situated in 25 54' N. and 78 1' E. Population (1901),
4,989. The place is held by a family of Ponwar Thakurs on a quit-
rent. It is said to have been founded in 1564, but nothing is known
of its early history. In 1852 it fell to Sindhia, and until 1868 was in
a prosperous condition. It afterwards, however, became notorious for
the depredations committed by the Ponwars, their excesses reaching
such a pitch as to necessitate the forcible depopulation of the place in
1893. It has since then been slowly recovering its position.

Karaikkudi. — Town in the Tiruppattur tahsil of the Sivaganga
estate, Madura District, Madras, situated in to 4' N. and 78 47' E.
The population has rapidly increased, and numbered 11,801 in
1901, compared with 6,579 in 1891. The town is chiefly noted as
one of the centres of the Nattukottai Chettis, an enterprising class of
merchants and money-lenders ; and the many handsome residences
which these people have constructed within it have added greatly to
its appearance.

Karajgaon. — Town in AmraotI District, Berar. See Karasgaon.

Karajgi. — Eastern taluka of Dharwar District, Bombay, lying between
r4° 44' and 15 5' N. and 75 17' and 75 44' E., with an area of 441
square miles. It contains one town, Havkri (population, 7,974), the
head-quarters; and 127 villages. The population in 1901 was 104,342,
compared with 90,206 in 1891. The density, 237 persons per
square mile, is slightly below the District average. The demand for
land revenue in 1903-4 was 2.09 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 16,000.
Except in the south-west, where it is broken by hills, the country is
flat. It is crossed from east to west by the Varada, a tributary of
the Tungabhadra. In the north and east the soil is black and in the



KARAMUNG1 21

south and west mostlj red. with an occasional plot of black. The plain
of Karajgi is broken at Deogiri, Kanvali, and Kabur by short ranges
of hills. The annual rainfall averages 30 inches.

Karakat. — Tahsil in Jaunpur District, United Provinces. See

KlKAKAT.

Karamnasa {Karam?idsha, ' the destroyer of religious merit ' ; the
Kommenases of Arrian).— River of Northern India, rising near Sarodag
in the Kaimur Hills (24° 32' N., 83 26' E.), 18 miles west of Rohtas-
garh in Bengal. It first flows north-west, and near Darihara begins to
form the boundary between the Districts of Shahabad (Bengal) and
Mirzapur (United Provinces). It then flows north for about 15 miles
across Mirzapur, after which it turns north-east and separates Shahabad
from Benares and Ghazlpur, until it falls into the Ganges near Chausa,
after a total course of about 146 miles. Its tributaries are the DurgautI
and DharmautI, two small streams on the right bank. In the hills, the
bed of the Karamnasa is rocky and its banks abrupt : but as it de-
bouches upon the plains, it sinks deeply into a rich clay, very retentive
of moisture. During the rains small boats can ply as high as the con-
fluence of the DurgautI. There are two falls, called Deo Dhari and
Chhanpathar, which attract attention from their height and beauty.

Two legends account for the ill repute of the river. One tells how
Raja Trisanka of the Solar race had killed a Brahman and contracted
an incestuous marriage. He was purged from these sins by a saint who
collected water from all the sacred streams of the world and washed
him. The bath took place at the spot where the river issues, and this
bears for ever the taint of his guilt. The other legend makes Trisanka
attempt to ascend into heaven by means of long austerities. Half-way
he was suspended head downwards by the gods, and a poisonous mois-
ture exudes from his mouth into the river. The real cause of its ill
fame is probably the fact that the Karamnasa was the boundary of the
eastern kingdom of Magadha, which is treated with contempt in San-
skrit literature because its inhabitants were not Aryans. Hindus living
on its banks, except those of the highest castes, are not defiled by it,
and carry more scrupulous travellers over it for a consideration. There
is no regular irrigation from the Karamnasa.

Ka.Ta.msad.— Patidar village in the Anand td/uka of Kaira District,
Bombay, situated in 22 n' N. and 72° 54' E., and one of the thirteen
kulin villages of the District. Population (1901), 5,105. It contains
a middle school with 38 pupils.

Karamungi. — Crown taluk in Bldar District, Hyderabad State.
The population in 1901, including jagirs, was 51,808, and the area
was 362 square miles. In 1891 the population had been 60,341, the
decrease being due to the famine of 1 899-1 900. The taluk contains
130 villages, of which 19 are jdgir : and Janwada (population, 2,165)



22 KARAMUNGI

is the head-quarters. Since 1905 the taluk has included the old taluk
of Aurad, which had an area of 189 square miles, a population of
19,301, and 65 villages in 1901. The land revenue in 1901 was 1-7
lakhs. The Manjra river flows through the taluk. The paigah taluk
of Narayankher (population, 42,972) lies south of this taluk, and con-
sists of 106 villages. Farther south again is the paigah taluk of Hasan-
abad (population, 21,563), with 45 villages.

Karangarh. — Hill, or more properly plateau, in the head-quarters
subdivision of Bhagalpur District, Bengal, situated in 25 15' N. and 86°
56' E., near Bhagalpur town, and said to derive its name from Kama,
a pious Hindu king. The plateau, which is locally known as the kila
or fort, is believed to be the site of one of the famous pre-Buddhist
forts in Bengal : the lines of several bastions and the ditch in the west
can still he traced. In more modern times it contained the lines of the
Hill Rangers, a body of troops raised in 1780 from among the hill
people by Augustus Clevland, Collector of the District, for the paci-
fication of the lawless jungle tribes. The corps was disbanded in 1863
on the reorganization of the Native army. The only objects of interest
are Saiva temples of some celebrity. These consist of four buildings
{maths), with square bases and the usual pointed pinnacles. One is
several hundred years old, the others being modern. Numbers of Hin-
dus, though not usually worshippers of Siva, pay their devotions here
on the last day of the month of Kartik. The temples contain several
of the so-called seats of Mahadeo or Siva, one of which is made of
stone from the Narbada. There are also two monuments erected to
the memory of Clevland— one by Government, and the other by the
landholders of the District. The Bidyasagar Memorial Sanskrit tol
occupies a fine building in the fort compound.

Karanja. — Peninsula, village, and petty division (petl/a) in the Pan-
vel taluka of Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18 51' N. and
7 2 57' E., in the south-east of Bombay harbour, and about 6 miles
south-east of the Carnac Bandar of Bombay. On a clear day the
peninsula can be distinguished plainly, and apparently but a mile or
two distant, from Bombay. It is 8 miles long and 4 broad. The
peninsula consists of two rocky hills, between which stretch grass
and rice lands, wooded with mango-trees and palms. The creek to
the east is broken up into several salt-pans, the officers connected
with which are stationed at the town of Uran close by. Besides its.
rice crop, which is of considerable value, the two special exports of
Karanja Island are salt and liquor made from the mahua or from
the date-palm. The chief industry of the people, however, is fishing.
The great area of the salt-works, about 3,000 acres, the shining white
pans, regular boundaries, and heaps of glistening salt, produce a curi-
ous effect to the eye. The salt pans are not of recent date ; reference



KARANJIA

i> made to them in 163S, and in 1820 they are noted as having pro
duced 20,000 tons of salt. During the year 1903-4 the salt export
was about 2,000,000 maunds, and the revenue therefrom 29 lakhs.
There are 19 distilleries at Mora on the island of Uran, all owned
by Parsls. The mahua flowers distilled in these' are brought through
Bombay from the Panch Mahals, and the annual revenue is about 35
lakhs. The water-supply is good, being derived from reservoirs, and
from many ponds and wells which hold water for several months after
the rains.

Karanja has passed under every form of rule and suffered every
species of vicissitude. Under the Silaharas, in the twelfth century,
the island was prosperous, with many villages and gardens. It formed
part of Bassein province, under the Portuguese, from 1530 to 1740:
was fortified with two strongholds, one at Uran, the other on the top
of its southern peak ; and 100 armed men were maintained as garrison.
At the present day may still be seen the ruins of Portuguese hermitages
and churches. In 1535 the island was in charge of the Franciscans.
In 1613 it was the scene of a great riot. In 1670 it was plundered
by a Maratha freebooter. In 1737 the Marathas finally occupied the
place, and held it until 1774, when the English took possession.

The most noteworthy ruins are on the summit of Dronagiri, the
southern of the two hill peaks, including the Portuguese fort, guard-
house, church, rock-temple, and reservoir. On the east face of Khar-
avli (the north hill peak) is a Buddhist rock-cut chapel; at Uran town,
the old Portuguese fort and churches ; in the village of Sheva, a ruined
church, of which the broken walls of the graveyard are the only trace.

Karanja. — Town in the Murtazapur taluk of Akola District, Berar,
situated in 20 29' N. and 77 32' E. Population (1901), 26,535.
Karanja is a place of some commercial importance. It is said to take
its name from a Hindu saint, Karinj Rishl, who, being afflicted with a
grievous disease, invoked the aid of the goddess Amba. She created
for him a tank, still existing opposite the temple of the goddess, in
which he bathed and became clean. The town is surrounded by an
old wall, now dilapidated. It is known as Karanja Blbi, owing, it
is said, to its having once formed part of the dowry of Daulat
■Shah Begam (see Badnera). The municipality was created in 1895.
The receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 1900-1
averaged Rs. 14,000 and Rs. 13,500. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 18,000, mainly derived from taxes and cesses ; and the expendi-
ture was Rs. 15,000, chiefly devoted to conservancy and education
Karanja is connected with Murtazapur (20 miles) by a metalled road.



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