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1 76 673



Wheat is the crop most largely grown, covering 343 square miles or
25 per cent, of the area cropped. Rice (230), maize (208), barley
(1 57), gram (151), kodon (i48\ and pulses (138) are also important.
Sugar-cane (49) and oilseeds (50) are the chief non-food crop^.



272 KHERI DISTRICT

The District was very backward at the time of the first regular
settlement, but in thirty years the cultivated area had increased by
1 8 per cent. A series of bad seasons from 1892 to 1896 reduced
cultivation considerably; but in 1903-4 the area was 25 per cent,
greater than it had been forty years before. There has also been
a rise in the area double cropped. The area under sugar-cane,
wheat, and rice has increased to some extent, but the improvement
in the kind of staple grown is not so marked as elsewhere. The
demand for advances under the Land Improvement and Agricul-
turists' Loans Acts is small, except in unfavourable years. Only
Rs. 88,000 was lent during ten years ending 1900, and half of this
sum was advanced in the famine year, 1897. Practically no loans
have been given since 1900.

Kheri is the most important centre for cattle-breeding in the
United Provinces. It supplies a large number of draught bullocks
to the whole of Oudh and the Gorakhpur Division. The most
distinctive breed is called Parehar, from the tract of country where
it is found. The bullocks are small, but fiery tempered, fast movers,
and very enduring. Other breeds are the Bhur, Khaingarh, Majhra,
Singahl, and Dhaurahra, which are larger and coarser. During the
hot season cattle are taken in large numbers to graze in the jungles
of Nepal. Ponies are numerous, but of a very inferior type, and are
chiefly kept as pack-animals. Sheep and goats are kept for meat, and
for their wool and hair.

Only 176 square miles were irrigated in 1903-4, of which 109 were
supplied by wells, 60 by tanks or jhl/s, and 7 by other sources.
Irrigation is practically confined to the south-west of the District,
excluding the Parehar tract, in which there is hardly any. The
spring-level is high, and the dkenkli or lever is used to raise water from
wells. Irrigation homjkils is carried on by the swing-basket.

' Reserved ' forests cover an area of 443 square miles in the north of
the District. The chief timber tree is sal {Shorca robusta) ; but the
forests also contain asaina {Termi/ialia foi/ientosa), lialdu (Adina cordi-
fo/ia), khair {Acacia Catechu), and other valuable species. The minor
products include fuel, thatching-grass, and grass used as fibre. In
1903-4 the total revenue from forest produce was 2-6 lakhs, the
receipts from timber being the most important item. The forests are
included in the Kheri division of the Oudh circle.

Kankar is the only mineral product, and is used for making lime
and metalling roads. It is, however, scarce and of poor quality, as is
usual in the submontane Districts.

The most important industry is sugar-refining, and this is only carried
on south-west of the Gumti. Cotton cloth for local use is woven at a
few places, and at Oel there is a small manufacture of brass utensils.



ADMINISTRATION 273

The District exports grain, sugar, forest produce, cattle, and ghi,

while the chief imports are piece-goods, metals, and salt. There is also

some trade with Nepal, from which timber, rice, and

spices are received. The principal trading centres
r r , l communications,

are Lakhlmpur, Muhamdl, and Cola.

The Lucknow-Bareilly State Railway (managed by the Rohilkhand
and Kumaun Railway) crosses the District south-west of the Ul. From
MailanI a branch strikes off through the forest to Marauncha Ghat on
the Sarda, which is crossed by a temporary bridge, the line being
continued from the opposite bank to Sonaripur. A short branch of
this line from Dudhwa to the Nepal frontier, opened in 1903, is used
chiefly for the export of grain and forest produce. The whole line
from MailanI is open only from January to June. The Pawayan
steam tramway, which connects MailanI with Shahjahanpur, has a
short length in the District.

Communications by road are very poor. Only 40 miles are metalled
out of a total length of 656. About 250 miles are maintained by the
Public Works department, but the cost of all but 17 miles is charged to
Local funds. The chief metalled road is that from Sltapur to Shah-
jahanpur, which passes through the south-west corner of the District,
and the other metalled roads are merely short lengths of feeder-roads
to railway stations. The improvement of communications, and in
particular the construction of bridges, is rendered difficult by the
vagaries of the streams which intersect the District. Avenues of trees
are maintained on only S miles.

Owing to the natural moisture of the soil and the rarity of a serious

failure of the rainfall, scarcity from drought is not severely felt in this

District. Distress was experienced in 1769, and _

, . r , c ■ Famine.

tradition relates that in 1783 there was severe famine

and many deaths occurred from starvation. Scarcity was again felt in
1865, 1869, and 1874. In 187S relief works and poorhouses were
opened, but were not much resorted to. Up to that time the difficulties
of transport had added to the distress caused by a local failure of
the crops; but the railway, opened in 1887, now makes it possible
to import grain when needed. From 1S92 to 1895 excessive rain
injured the crops in the low-lying parts of the District. The drought
of 1896 thus caused an increase in the cultivated area north-east of
the Ul, though it was followed by a contraction in the area under
spring crops in 1897. Relief works and poorhouses were opened, but
famine was not severe.

The Deputy-Commissioner is assisted by a staff of three Deputy-
Collectors recruited in India, and a tahsilddr resides . .

, , 1 c u \-r 1 a T ^ r- Administration,

at the head-quarters of each tahsil. A Deputy-Con-
servator of Forests is stationed at Lakhlmpur.



274



KHEKI DISTRICT



The civil courts are those of the Munsif and Subordinate Judge,
and the District is included in the Civil and Sessions Judgeship of
Sitapur. Crime is generally light, though thefts and burglaries are
common, owing to the fact that the houses in many parts are simply
wattle sheds. The jungle along the Kathna formerly had a bad
reputation for sheltering criminals. An attempt has been made, with
only partial success, to reclaim the criminal tribe known as Bhatus
or Sansias by settling them on the land. Female infanticide was
formerly rife, but is no longer suspected.

The records of the first summary settlement made after annexation
perished in the Mutiny. It is, however, certain that under it the taluk-
dars lost few villages. After the Mutiny a second summary settlement
was made on the basis of the accounts under native rule, the demand
amounting to 4-9 lakhs. A survey was commenced in 1864 and
a regular settlement followed, which was completed by 1872. The
assessments were based on estimates of produce and on selected rent
rates, while they also anticipated a great extension of cultivation
and proved too high. The necessity for revision was increased by a
succession of bad years, and the whole settlement was again examined
between 1872 and 1877, with the result that the demand was reduced
from 12-2 to 8 lakhs. The settlement officers sat as civil courts to
determine claims to rights in land, but their work was lighter here than
in most Districts of Oudh. A new settlement, preceded by a resurvey,
was made between 1897 and 1900, and was characterized by speed
and economy. Rents are payable in kind over a large area, and the
valuation of this portion of the District was made by ascertaining
the actual receipts over a series of years. In some cases rents are paid
by cash rates on the area actually cultivated in each harvest, and for
the finer staples cash rents are invariably paid. The demand fixed
amounted to 10-3 lakhs, which represented 46 per cent, of the estimated
net 'assets.' In different parts of the District the incidence varies
from Rs. 2 to R. 0-4, the average being R. 0-7.

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources
have been, in thousands of rupees : —



1880-1. 1890-1. 1900-1. 1903-4



Land revenue
Total revenue



7,44
8,39



8,3° I 9,03
1 1,02 12,42



9,86
H,47



The District contains one municipality, Lakhimpur, one 'notified
area,' MuhamdI, and two towns administered under Act XX of 1856.
Local affairs beyond the limits of these are managed by the District
board, which in 1903-4 had an income and expenditure of i-i lakhs



KHERWARA 275

About half the income is derived from rates, and the expenditure
included Rs. 58,000 spent on roads and buildings.

The District Superintendent of police has under him a force of

3 inspectors, 85 subordinate officers, and 256 constables, distributed in
12 police stations; and there are also 44 municipal and town police,
and 1,762 rural and road police. The District jail contained a daily
average of 286 prisoners in 1903.

Kherl is one of the most backward Districts in the United Provinces
in regard to education, and only i-8 per cent, of the population
(3-3 males and 0-2 females) could read and write in 1901. The
number of public schools increased from 95 with 3,430 pupils in
1880-1 to 116 with 4,046 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there were
162 such schools with 5,676 pupils, of whom 189 were girls, besides

4 private schools with 61 pupils. Three schools are maintained by
Government and 89 are managed by the District and municipal boards.
The total expenditure on education in the same year was Rs. 40,000,
of which Rs. 34,800 was provided from Local funds and Rs. 4,400
by fees.

There are 8 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for
39 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 46,000,
including 415 in-patients, and 1,988 operations were performed. The
expenditure amounted to Rs. 10,000, chiefly met from Local funds.

About 13,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre-
senting a proportion of 34 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is
compulsory only in the municipality of Lakhimpur.

[S. H. Butler, Settlement Report (1901) ; H. R. Nevill, District
Gazetteer (1905).]

Kheri Town (Khlri). — Town in the Lakhimpur tahsil of Kherl
District, United Provinces, situated in 27 54' N. and 8o c 48' L., on
the Lucknow-Bareilly State Railway. Population (1901), 6,223. Kheri
is a place of some antiquity, and contains a fine tomb built over the
remains of Saiyid Khurd, who died in 1563. It is administered under
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 800. Though giving
its name to the District, it is of small importance. A daily market
is held, and the town contains a branch of the American Methodist
Mission and a school with 144 pupils.

Kheri-Rajapur. — Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India.

Kherwara (1). — Cantonment included in the fifth or Mhow division
of the Western Command of the Indian army, and situated in 23' 59' X.
and 73 36' E., in the south-west corner of the State of Udaipur,
Rajputana, about 50 miles south of Udaipur city. It stands in a valley
1,050 feet above the sea, and on the banks of a small stream called the
Godavari. Population (1901), 2,289. Kherwara is the head-quarters
of the Mewar Bhll Corps, which was raised between 1S40 and 1844,



276 K HER WAR A

with the objects of weaning a semi-savage race from its predatory
habits, giving them honourable employment, and assisting the Mewar
State in preserving order. The uniform of the Bhll sepoy of those
early days was a scanty loin-cloth (he would wear no other) ; his arms
were a bow and arrows ; and his distrust and suspicion was such that
he would serve for daily pay only, deserting if that were withheld.
Throughout the Mutiny of 1857 the corps remained staunch. At that
time a squadron of Bengal cavalry was stationed here, and left in
a body for Nimach after endeavouring to persuade the Bhils to join
them. The latter followed up the squadron, killed every man, and
brought back their horses and accoutrements to Kherwara. A detach-
ment operated against Tantia Topi's adherents in Banswara and Partab-
garh, and gained the Mutiny medal. The corps received its colours in
1862, and was placed under the Commander-in-Chief in 1S97. It con-
sists of eight companies (seven of Bhils and one of Hindustanis), and
furnishes detachments at Kotra, Udaipur city, and the town of Dungar-
pur. Much good has been effected by the enlistment of these hill-
men ; and, through the influence of those in the service and of the
numerous pensioners in the districts, the Bhils have largely forsaken
their predatory habits. During the famines of 1899-1900 and 190 1-2
the corps did excellent work in hunting down dacoits and keeping
order generally. Besides > the regimental school and hospital, the
cantonment contains a school maintained by the Church Missionary
Society, which has a branch here, and a hospital with accommodation
for 10 in-patients, which is kept up from private subscriptions and a
grant from the Darbar. The commandant of the Bhll Corps is also
Political Superintendent of the Hilly Tracts, a wild country, com-
prising the two bhumiats or districts of Kherwara and Kotra, con-
taining altogether 361 villages and 34,296 inhabitants, almost all of
whom are Bhils. The villages are for the most part held by petty
Girasia chiefs, who pay a small tribute or quit-rent to the Mewar
Darbar. The principal chiefs in the Kherwara district are the Raos
of Jawas, Para, and Madri.

Kherwara (2).— Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India.

Khetri. —Head-quarters of the chiefship of the same name in Jaipur
State, Rajputana, situated in 28 N. and 75 47' E., about 80 miles
north of Jaipur city. Population (1901), 8,537. The town is pic-
turesquely situated in the midst of hills, and is difficult of access, there
being only one cart-road and two or three bridle-paths into the valley in
which it stands. It is commanded by a fort of some strength on the
summit of a hill 2,337 feet above sea-level. In the town the Raja.
maintains an Anglo-vernacular high school attended by 66 boys,
a Hindi school attended by 112 boys, and a hospital with accom-
modation for 6 in-patients. There are also 5 indigenous schools, and



KHILCHIPUR STATE 277

a combined post and telegraph office. In the immediate neighbour-
hood are valuable copper-mines, which, about 1854, yielded an income
of Rs. 30,000, but which, owing to the absence of proper appliances for
keeping down the water and a scarcity of fuel, have not been worked
for many years. Nickel and cobalt have been found ; but these minerals
are quarried principally at Babai, about 7 miles to the south, the ore
being extensively used for enamelling and exported for this purpose to
Jaipur, Delhi, and other places. The chiefship, which lies partly in the
Shekhawati and partly in the Torawati nizdmat, consists of 3 towns —
Khetri, Chi raw a, and Kot Putli — and 255 villages; and the popu-
lation in 1901 was 131,913, Hindus forming nearly 92 per cent, and
Musalmans 8 per cent. In addition, the Raja has a share in 26
villages not enumerated above, and possesses half of the town of Sin-
ghana. The town and pargana of Kot Putli are held as a free grant
from the British Government, while for the rest of his territory the Raja
pays to the Jaipur Darbar a tribute of Rs. 73,780. The normal income
of the estate is about 5-3 lakhs, and the expenditure 3-5 lakhs.

Khetur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Rajshahi Dis-
trict, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 24' N. and 88° 25' E.
Population (1901), 440. It enjoys a high repute for sanctity from its
having been visited by Chaitanya, the great Hindu religious reformer
of the sixteenth century, in whose honour a temple has been erected
in the village. A religious fair held annually in October is attended
by 25,000 persons.

Khewra. — Salt mines in Jhelum District, Punjab. See Mayo Mine.

Khiaoda. — Thakuratxn the Gwalior Residency, Central India.

Khiching. — Village in Mayurbhanj, one of the Orissa Tributary
States, Bengal, situated in 21 55' N. and 85 50' E. Population
(1901), 269. It contains archaeological remains, such as statues, pillars,
mounds, and the ruins of several brick and stone temples. A group of
temples adjoining the village is of great interest. One of the temples
(to Siva) seems to have been repaired in the time of Man Singh,
Akbar's Hindu general, to whom another (unfinished) temple should
probably be ascribed.

[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. xiii, pp. 74-6.]

Khijadia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Khijadia Dosaji. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Khijadia Najani. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Khilchipur State. — Mediatized chiefship in Central India, under
the Bhopal Agency, lying between 23 52' and 24'" 17' N. and 76° 26'
and 76 42' E., with an area of about 273 square miles. It is bounded
on the north by the Kotah State of the Rajputana Agency ; on the east
by Rajgarh ; on the west by Indore ; and on the south by Narsingh-
garh. The State is situated in the district of Malwa known as



27 3 KHILCHIPUR STATE

khichhvara, mainly in the Deccan trap area, but over its more northern
portion sandstones of the Kaimur and other allied series are exposed.
The climate is temperate, the annual rainfall averaging about 32 inches.

The chiefs are Khlchi Rajputs, a section of the great Chauhan clan.
This State was founded in 1544 by Ugrasen, who was forced by family
dissensions to migrate from the Khlchi capital of Gagraun. A grant of
land was subsequently made to him by the Delhi emperor, which
included the adjoining Zirapur and NL3.ch.a\$m fiarganas, now a part of
Indore State, and Shujalpur, now in Gwalior. This territory was lost in
1770, when Abhai Singh was obliged to make terms with Sindhia. At
the time of the settlement of Malwa in 18 19 a dispute existed regarding
the succession, which at the request of the Gwalior Darbar was settled
by the mediation of the British authorities, Dlwan Sher Singh succeed-
ing as a boy of five. He was followed in 1869 by his nephew Amar
Singh, who received the hereditary title of Rao Bahadur in 1873. In
1884 he abolished all transit duties in the State, except those on opium.
The present chief, Bhawani Singh, succeeded in 1899. The Rao
Bahadur of Khilchipur is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

The population was : (1881) 36,125, (1891) 36,302, and (1901)
31,143, giving a density of 114 persons per square mile. The State
contains one town, Khilchipur (population, 5,121), the capital; and
283 villages. Hindus number 29,258, or 94 per cent. ; Musalmans,
1,051, or 3 per cent. ; and Animists, 796, mostly Bhlls. The chief
castes and tribes are Sondhias, 4,900; Dhakads, 3,800; Deswalis
(allied to Sondhias), 3,070; Chamars, 2,550; Dangls, 2,520; Lodhas,
2,340; and Rajputs, 2,210.

The soil in the south-west is of the fertile black variety, bearing good
crops of all the ordinary grains ; but the northern portions are covered
with a rough stony soil of little agricultural value. Of the total area, 84
square miles, or 31 per cent., are cultivated, of which 5 square miles
are irrigable; 80 square miles are under forest; 46 square miles, or 17
per cent, are cultivable but not cultivated ; and the rest is waste.
Jowar occupies 38 square miles, or 44 per cent, of the cultivated area;
cotton, 4 square miles; poppy, 2 square miles; and wheat, 1 square
mile.

The State is divided for administrative purposes into three fahslls,
each under a tahslldar. The chief has full powers in civil and revenue
matters, but all serious cases of crime are dealt with by the Political
Agent in Bhopal. The total revenue amounts to about i-i lakhs, of
which Rs. 85,000 is derived from land, Rs. 11,000 from tanka, and
Rs. 10,000 from customs dues, including Rs. 2,000 from opium. The
principal heads of expenditure are : Rs. 7,000 on the chiefs establish-
ment, Rs. 4,000 on general administration, Rs. 10,000 on army and
police, and Rs. 3,000 on public works. A tribute of Rs. 12,625, formerly



KHOJAK 2 79

made direct to Sindhia, has been since 1844 paid to the British Govern-
ment through the Political Agent, in adjustment of Sindhia's contribu-
tion towards the local corps in Malwa. The land revenue is farmed
out and is realized in British coin, which lias been Krai tender since
1898. The State keeps up a small force of regular infantry, 161 strong,
as a body-guard to the chief. There are also 25 horse and 288 foot,
who act as police, and serve 4 guns. A British post office, a school,
and a hospital are maintained at the chief town.

Khilchipur Town. — Chief town of the State of the same name in
Central India, situated in 24 3' N. and 76 35' E., about 1,400 feet
above the level of the sea, in the rugged country at the foot of the arm
of the Vindhyas which strikes eastwards from Chitor to Chanderi. The
name was originally Khlchlpur ; and the corruption may be due to an
attempt on the part of the Muhammadan rulers to substitute KhiljTpur,
the name under which the town is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbart.
Population (1901), 5,121. A British post office, a jail, a school, and
a hospital are situated in the town. Khilchipur is connected with
the Agra-Bombay high road by a feeder-road, 25 miles long, whence
traffic passes to Guna station on the Bina-Baran branch of the (heat
Indian Peninsula Railway, 53 miles distant.

Khipro. — Taluka of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay, lying
between 25 26" and 2 6° 15' N. and 69 3' and 70 16' E., with an area
of 2,249 square miles. Population in 1901 was 54,681, compared with
47,199 in 1 89 1. The density, 24 persons per square mile, is almost
equal to the District average. The taluka contains 125 villages, the
head-quarters being at Khipro. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4
amounted to nearly 2 lakhs. Excepting the desert portion, known as
Rana.hu tapa, the taluka is irrigated by the Mithrao Canal and the
Dhoro Naro.

Khirasra. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Khirpai. — Town in the Ghatal subdivision of Midnapore District,
Bengal, situated in 22 43' N. and 87 37' E. The population in 1901
was 5,045, compared with 8,046 in 1872. The decrease is due to the
ravages of the Burdwan fever. Khirpai was constituted a municipality
in 1876. The income and expenditure during the decade ending
1901-2 averaged Rs. 2,300. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,100,
mainly derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) : and the
expenditure was Rs. 3,450.

Khojak (Koz/iak). — An historic pass across the Khwaja Amran off-
shoot of the Toba-Kakar mountains in the Quetta-Pishln District,
Baluchistan. It lies in 30 51' N. and 66° 34' E., 70 miles from Quetta
by rail. From Kila Abdullah, on the south, there is a gradual ascent
to Shelabagh, whence the summit (7,457 feet) is reached in 3! miles.
A cart-road through the pass connects Kila Abdullah with Chaman. At



2 So KHOJAK

Shelabagh the railway runs through the Khojak tunnel, which is just
under 2\ miles long, and cost rather less than 70 lakhs of rupees, or
about Rs. 530 per lineal foot. It was constructed between 1888 and
1891. Lying on the route from Kandahar to India, the Khojak Pass
has been crossed and recrossed for centuries by conqueror, soldier, and
merchant ; and its passage was twice effected by the British arms, in
1839 and in 1879.

Khojankhera. — Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India.

Kholapur.— Town in the District and taluk of Amraoti, Berar,
situated in 20 57' N. and 77 2>z' E., 18 miles west of Amraoti town.
Population (1901), 5,373. Its silk trade was once considerable. In
1809 Vithal Bhag Deo, Subahdar of Ellichpur, demanded a contribu-
tion of Rs. 1,00,000. On payment being refused he captured the town,
which was then protected by walls, and it was sacked by his troops.
Its rapid decadence is partly attributable to the annual fights which
formerly occurred between the Musalmans and the Rajputs, when
the victorious party always took occasion to plunder at least part of
the town.

Khond (Ka/idh). — A Dravidian tribe mostly found in the Tributary
States of Orissa, and in the adjoining Agency tract of Ganjam District,
Madras. The total number of Khonds or Kandhs (including Konda
Dora) returned at the Census of 1901 was 701,198, of whom no less
than 517,771 retained their animistic faith, while 494,099 still spoke
Kandh or KuT. The following description chiefly relates to the 103,000
Khonds in the Orissa State of Kalahandi, a large tract of which is
known as the Kondhan : —



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