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{Piper Betle\ grow best on the sandy clay known as
doashia. In the decomposed vegetable deposits of
the marshes winter rice of the coarsest sort is the only crop grown.
Except in the higher land and in the north of the Satkhira subdivision,
partial failure of crops is not uncommon owing to the deposits of salt
left by the tide. The south-west of the District suffers especially from
this cause ; elsewhere the salt is as a rule annually washed away during
the rainy season, and the soil is renovated by the deposits left by
the overflow of the rivers. The cultivators in some places put up small
embankments, known locally as bheris, to keep out the salt water. It
is estimated that 1,343 square miles were cultivated in 1903-4, and
that the cultivable waste amounted to 334 square miles ; separate
statistics for the subdivisions are not available.

Rice is the staple food-grain, covering 1,213 square miles. The
principal crop is the winter variety, for which the reclaimed portions
of the Sundarbans are famous ; the soil is here new and unexhausted,
and the out-turn is abundant. In the Sundarbans this crop is sown
broadcast in the early part of July and reaped in January. Elsewhere
it is sown in nurseries during April and May, transplanted about July,
and reaped in November and December ; in low lands, however, it is
occasionally sown broadcast. Oilseeds, principally mustard, are grown
on 100 square miles, while jute covers 14 and tobacco 8 square miles.
Date-palms (Phoenix acanlis) and betel-nut palms (Areca Catechu) are
also largely grown. Fisheries are plentiful, and fishing constitutes an
important industry.

Cultivation is being steadily extended into the shallow' blls which
form so marked a feature of this part of Bengal. In the south progress
is being made in pushing back the jungle of the Sundarbans, where the
new clearances attract cultivators not only from other parts of the J >is-
trict, but also from Nadia, Jessore, Faridpur, and elsewhere. There
was some scarcity in 1896-8, when Rs. 69,000 was advanced under the
Agriculturists' Loans Act ; the annual average of the sums advanced
under that Act during the ten years ending 190 1-2 was Rs. 7,000, while
the sums advanced under the Land Improvement Loans Act averaged
Rs. 5,000 per annum.

There is little real pasture land in the District, and fodder is scarce.



2 9 o KHULNA DISTRICT

Xo attempts have been made to improve the breed of cattle, which
is very poor.

The Forest department administers 2,081 square miles of 'reserved'
forests in the Sundarbans, but this area includes 533 square miles of
water channels ; large quantities of forest produce are
exported to the adjoining Districts. The principal
trees are sundri (Heritiera littoralis), pasur ( Carapa moluccensis), amur
(Apioora cucullata), keora (Sonnerafia apetala), garan (Ceriops Can-
dolleana), and geoa (Excoecaria Agallocha). The minor produce con-
sists of golpata (JVipa frutescens), hantal {Phoenix paludosa), nal or
thatching-grass, honey, wax, and shells. The gross revenue from the
forests in 1903-4 was 3-33 lakhs.

The chief industry is the manufacture of sugar and molasses from
the juice of the date-palm, but for some years it was seriously affected

by the competition of imported sugar. The out-turn

Trade and c A 1 ,

communications. of su § ar ln x 9°3-4 was 19,000 maunds valued at

1-96 lakhs, and of molasses 68,000 maunds valued

at 1 83 lakhs. The earthen pottery, cutlery, and horn industries of

KalTganj are of considerable importance. Coarse cotton cloths are

manufactured on hand-looms, and are said to be preferred by the

poorer classes to machine-made goods on account of their durability ;

but the industry is not flourishing.

The chief exports are rice and paddy to Calcutta, the Twenty-four
Parganas, Nadia, and Jessore ; and gram, pulses, oilseeds, jute, tobacco
(unmanufactured), sugar (unrefined), firewood, timber, minor forest
produce, pan leaf, betel-nuts, coco-nuts, and fish to Calcutta. The
chief imports are raw cotton, cotton twist, European cotton piece-goods,
hardware, glassware, sugar (refined), shoes, English liquors, kerosene
oil, coal and coke, lime, and tobacco. The chief trade centres are
Khulna, Daulatpur, Phultala, Allpur, Kapilmuni, Chaknagar, Chalna,
Jalma, Dumria, and Kutlrhat, all in the head-quarters subdivision ;
Bagherhat, FakTrhat, Mausha, Jatrapur, Kachua, Chitalmari, Gaur-
ambha, and Morrelganj in the Bagherhat subdivision ; and Baradal,
Patkelghata, KalTganj, Kalaroa, Debhata, Chanduria, Basantpur,
Asasuni, Tala, and Naobanki in the Satkhira subdivision. The
principal castes engaged in trade are Kayasths, Telis, Baruis, Sahas,
Malos, Baniks, Namasudras, and Muhammadans.

The Eastern Bengal State Railway connects Khulna with Jessore
and Calcutta. In 1903-4 the District contained 490 miles of roads, of
which only 12 miles were metalled, in addition to 1,031 miles of village
tracks. The principal roads are those connecting Khulna with Jessore
and Bagherhat.

The larger rivers are for the most part tidal and navigable by large
boats throughout the year, and they carry a great amount of traffic



FAMINE 291

Some of the connecting channels form portion of a very important
system of waterways connecting Calcutta with the eastern Districts,
and also with the Ganges and the Brahmaputra systems {see Cal-
cutta and Eastern Canals). The central mart of the Sundarbans is
the town of Khulna, towards which all the boat routes converge. The
chief route, after reaching the junction of the Kabadak with the
Morirchap river, proceeds by the latter as far as its junction with
the Betua and the Kholpetua, where it divides into two channels. The
large boats pass along the Kholpetua, Galghasia, Banstala, and Kank-
siali channels to Kallganj, while the smaller boats enter the Sovnali
at its junction with the Kholpetua and proceed to Kallganj by the
Guntiakhali, Habra Sltalkhali, Jhapjhapia, and Kanksiali ; the route
through the Sltalkhali has been shortened since the opening of the
Gobinda Canal, and boats of all sizes now pass through it. From
Kallganj the route proceeds through the Jamuna. as far as Basantpur,
where it again divides, forming an inner and an outer passage. The
outer passage enters the Twenty-four Parganas through the Kalindri
river and the Sahibkhali and Barakulia Khals, while the inner passage
proceeds by the Jamuna from Basantpur to Husainabad, where it
enters a channel called the Husainabad or Dhansara Khal. From
Khulna routes branch off north, east, and south ; the chief northern
route proceeds up the Atharabanki, MadhumatI, and Garai into the
Padma or main channel of the Ganges, and carries the river trade
not only of Northern Bengal but also of Bihar during the season when
the Nadia rivers are closed. In recent years, the silting up of this
route has led to its abandonment by steamers. The eastern route
from Khulna passes down the Bhairab, and then by Barisal through
Backergunge District to Dacca. The main southern route connects
Khulna with Morrelganj.

In addition to the Cachar-Sundarbans dispatch service, which plies
from Calcutta through the Sundarbans to Barisal, Chandpur, Narayan-
ganj and Assam, there are services of steamers between Khulna and
Muhammadpur, Khulna and Binodpur, and (during the rains) Magura
and Khulna and Madaripur via the MadhumatI Bil route {see Faridpur
District). There is also a service on the Kabadak between Kapilmuni
in Khulna and Kotchandpur in the Jessore District, which taps the
railway at Jhingergacha.

The famine of 1897-8 affected parts of the Khulna and Satkhira sub-
divisions. The rainfall was deficient in 1895-6, and a cyclonic storm
drove salt water over the fields and destroyed the mine

young plants. The rainfall was again very short in
1896-7, and the out-turn of the great rice area bordering on the
Sundarbans barely amounted to an eighth of the normal crop. An
area of 467 square miles with a population of 276,000 was affected, but



292 KHULNA DISTRICT

the number requiring relief never exceeded 16,000. The relief works
were closed at the end of September, but poorhouses were maintained
till a month later. The total expenditure was 1-74 lakhs, of which
Rs. 61,000 was spent on relief works and Rs. 75,000 on gratuitous relief.
Apart from this, Rs. 48,000 was advanced under the Land Improvement
Loans Act and Rs. 69,000 under the Agriculturists' Loans Act.

For administrative purposes the District is divided into three sub-
divisions, with head-quarters at Khulna, Bagherhat, and Satkhira.

... . The Magistrate-Collector is assisted at head-quarters

Administration. . ° . . ~ ,, • , ^ „ . j

by a staff of four Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors, and

the Bagherhat and Satkhira subdivisions are each in charge of a Deputy-
Magistrate-Collector assisted by a Sub-Deputy-Collector. A Deputy-
Conservator of forests and two Extra-Assistant Conservators attached to
the Sundarbans division are also stationed at Khulna.

For the disposal of civil judicial work, in addition to the District and
Sessions Judge, who is also Judge of Jessore, two Munsifs and a Sub-
ordinate Judge sit at Khulna and three Munsifs at each of the other
subdivisional head-quarters. There are in all twelve criminal courts,
including the court of an Additional Sessions Judge, who also sits at
Jessore for a portion of the year. The most common cases are those
arising out of land disputes.

The early land revenue history of the District cannot be distinguished
from that of the neighbouring Districts of Jessore and the Twenty-four
Parganas, of which until recently it formed part. At the time of the
Permanent Settlement, most of the present District was divided into
a few large zamlnddris, including portions of the Isafpur and Saidpur
estates (see Jessore District). Of 979 estates in 1903-4 with a current
demand of 6-9 lakhs, 756 with a demand of 5-1 lakhs were permanently
settled. There are no tenures peculiar to the District. Utbandi
tenants pay rent only upon the land actually cultivated during the year
(see Nadia District). Korfa ryots hold under a middleman such as
a ganthidar or jotdar, middi ryots are liable to ejectment after a fixed
period, kistkdri ryots are tenants-at-will, while the occupants of jula
jama and dhanya karari holdings pay rent in kind. For the whole
District the incidence of rental is Rs. 4-3-2 per cultivated acre ; but
rents vary greatly, ranging from Rs. 4-8 to Rs. 9 per acre in the Khulna
subdivision, from Rs. 3 to Rs. 18 in Bagherhat, and from Rs. 3 to Rs. 7
in Satkhira. Fan and garden lands bring in between Rs. 6 and Rs. 9
in Bagherhat, and between Rs. 9 and Rs. 18 in Khulna, while in
Satkhira as much as Rs. 30 is occasionally paid for garden and Rs. 52
for pan land. In a settlement of a small tract which was made in
1 90 1-2 the rate of rent was found to vary from Rs. 2-13 to Rs. 6 per
cultivated acre, the average rate being Rs. 4-6-6, and the average
holding of each tenant 12-28 acres.



ADMINISTRA TION



293



The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : —





1890-1.


1900-1.


> 903-4-


Land revenue
Total revenue


6,44
11,48


6,69

I3>21


6,86
i4, 2 3



Outside the municipalities of Khulna, Satkhira, and Debhata,
local affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate local
boards in each subdivision. In 1903-4 the income of the District
board was Rs. 1,95,000, of which Rs. 1,03,000 was derived from rates ;
and the expenditure was Rs. 1,56,000, including Rs. 98,000 spent on
public works and Rs. 35,000 on education.

The District contains 13 police stations and 9 outposts ; and in 1903
the force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted of 3
inspectors, 35 sub-inspectors, 36 head constables, and 394 constables,
including 41 water constables and 57 town police. In addition, there
was a rural police of 239 daffaddrs and 2,155 chaukidars. The District
jail at Khulna has accommodation for 49 prisoners, and subsidiary
jails at Satkhira and Bagherhat have accommodation for 47.

In respect of education Khulna is less advanced than would be
expected from its proximity to Calcutta, and in 1901 only 6-9 per cent,
of the population (12-4 males and o-8 females) could read and write.
The total number of pupils under instruction fell from 38,000 in 1892-3
to 34,000 in 1 900-1. In 1903-4 there were 34,000 boys and 3,000
girls at school, being, respectively, 34-7 and 3-4 per cent, of the children
of school-going age. The number of educational institutions, public
and private, in that year was 1,009, including an Arts college, 91
secondary, 909 primary, and 8 special schools. The expenditure on
education was i-8 lakhs, of which Rs. 21,000 was met from Provincial
funds, Rs. 34,000 from District funds, Rs. 1,000 from municipal funds,
and Rs. 96,000 from fees.

In 1903 the District contained n dispensaries, of which 3 had
accommodation for 41 in-patients. At these the cases of 79,000 out-
patients and 500 in-patients were treated during the year, and 2,000
operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, of which
Rs. 1,100 was met by Government contributions, Rs. 7,000 from Local
and Rs. 2,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 4,000 from subscriptions.

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. In r 903-4 the
number of persons successfully vaccinated was 32,000, or 26-28 per
1,000 of the population.

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal, vols, i and ii (1875) '>
Sir J. Westland, Report on Jessore (Calcutta, 1874); F. E. Pargiter,
Revenue History of the Sundarbans from 1765 to 1870 (Calcutta, 1885).]



294 KHULNA SUBDIVISION

Khulna Subdivision. — Head-quarters subdivision of Khulna Dis-
trict, Bengal, lying between 21 41' and 23 1/ N. and 89 14' and
89 45' E., with an area of 649 square miles. The subdivision is an
alluvial tract, merging to the south in the Sundarbans ; the general
features are the same as in the lower delta through which the rivers of
Bengal find their way to the sea. Its population in 1901 was 401,785,
compared with 341,493 in 1891, the density being 619 persons per
square mile. It contains one town, Khulna, its head-quarters (popu-
lation, 10,426) ; and 929 villages. Khulna town is the chief centre of
trade : but Alaipur, Daulatpur, Dumria, Phultala, and Kapil-
muni are also important marts.

Khulna Town. — Head-quarters of Khulna District, Bengal, situated
in 22 49' N. and 89 34' E., at the point where the Bhairab river
meets the Sundarbans. Population (1901), 10,426. Khulna may be
described as the capital of the Sundarbans, and has been for more than
a hundred years a place of commercial importance. It was the head-
quarters of the salt department during the period of the Company's salt
manufacture. It is the terminus of the central section of the Eastern
Bengal State Railway, and all the great river routes converge on the
town, it being connected by steamer with Narayanganj, Barisal,
Madaripur, Muhammadpur, and Binodpur. Rice, sugar, betel-nuts,
and coco-nuts, the produce of the vicinity, are collected here for export
to Calcutta, and the trade in salt is also large. Khulna was constituted
a municipality in 1884. The income during the decade ending
1901— 2 averaged Rs. 22,000, and the expenditure Rs. 20,000. In
1903-4 the income was Rs. 19,000, including Rs. 4,600 derived from
a tax on persons (or property tax), Rs. 3,500 from a tax on houses and
lands, and Rs. 4,600 from a conservancy rate ; and the expenditure
was Rs. 17,000. The municipality has recently undertaken a scheme
for improving the drainage. The town contains the usual civil, criminal,
and revenue courts, District jail, circuit-house, hospital, and schools.
The jail has accommodation for 49 prisoners ; the principal industries
are oil-pressing, wheat-grinding, paddy-husking, mat-making, aloe-
pounding, and rope-making. The YVoodburn Hospital was com-
pleted in 1 901 at a cost of Rs. 18,000.

Khunti Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of RanchT Dis-
trict, Bengal, lying between 22 38' and 23 18' N. and 84 56' and
85 54' E., with an area of 1,140 square miles. The subdivision,
which was created in 1905, is an elevated table-land ; but to the south
the surface is broken and the undulating ridges and valleys give place
to steep hills and ravines, terminating in a comparatively open plain to
the south-east towards Manbhum. It had a population in 1901 of
225,407, compared with 198,730 in 1891, the density being 198
persons per square mile. It contains one town, Bundu (popula-



KHURDA SUBDIVISION 295

tion, 5,469), and 599 villages, one of which, Khunti, is the head-
quarters.

Khunti Village.- — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same
name in Ranch! District, Bengal, situated in 23 5' N. and 85 16' E.
Population (1901), 1,446. It is a trade centre of some importance on
the road from Ranch! to Chaibasa.

Khurai Tahsil {Kurai). — North-western tahsil of Saugor District,
Central Provinces, lying between 23 51/ and 24 27' N. and 78° 4'
and 78 43' E., with an area of 940 square miles. The population
decreased from 126,004 in 1891 to 93,788 in 1901. The density in
the latter year was 100 persons per square mile, which is below the
District average. The tahsil contains two towns, Khurai (population,
6,012), the head-quarters, and Etawa (6,418); and 470 inhabited
villages. Excluding 124 square miles of Government forest, 45 per
cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated
area in 1903-4 was 238 square miles. The demand for land revenue
in the same year was Rs. 77,000, and for cesses Rs. 8,000. The tahsil
is an open undulating plain, with a stretch of hilly and stony land in
the north, and belts of forest on the borders of the Bina and Betwa
rivers.

Khurai Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in
Saugor District, Central Provinces, situated in 24 3' N. and 78 20' E.,
on the railway line towards Bina, 2>Z miles from Saugor town. Popu-
lation (1901), 6,012. An old fort is now used as the tahsil office.
Khurai contains a considerable colony of Jains and a number of fine
Jain temples. It was created a municipality in 1867. The municipal
receipts during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 15,300. In
1903-4 the receipts were Rs. 8,000, mainly derived from fees on the
registration of cattle. The town is a collecting centre for local trade.
A large weekly cattle market is held here, and dried meat is prepared
for export to Burma. Khurai contains an English middle school, two
branch and two girls' schools, one of which is supported by the
Swedish Lutheran Mission, and a dispensary.

Khurda Subdivision. — Western subdivision of Pur! District, Ben-
gal, lying between 19 41' and 20 26' N. and 84 56' and 85 53' E.,
with an area of 971 square miles. The population in 1901 was
359,236, compared with 331,423 in 1891, the density being 370
persons per square mile. The subdivision adjoins the south-
eastern fringe of the Chota Nagpur plateau, and detached hills of
gneiss occur, the plains between them consisting of laterite and
alluvium. It contains 1,212 villages, one of which, Khurda, is its
head-quarters ; but no town. At Bhubaneswar are situated the cele-
brated Lingaraj temple and numerous other temples, and the Kha.\i>
giri and Udayagiri hills contain many caves and rock temples.



29 6 KHURDA SUBDIVISION

Khurda was the last portion of territory held by the independent
Hindu dynasty of Orissa. The Maratha cavalry were unable to overrun
this jungle-covered and hilly tract ; and the ancient royal house retained
much of its independence till 1804, when the Raja rebelled against the
British Government and his territory was confiscated. A rising on the
part of the peasantry took place in 181 7-8, due chiefly to the oppres-
sion of the minor Bengali officials. The insurrection was speedily
quelled, reforms were introduced and grievances redressed ; and at the
present day Khurda is a profitable and well-managed Government
estate, the cultivators being a contented and generally prosperous
class. The current settlement dates from 1897, when the demand was
assessed at 3-77 lakhs. The present Raja of Khurda is hereditary
superintendent of the temple of Jagannath, but has delegated all his
powers as such for five years to an experienced Deputy-Magistrate-
Collector.

[J. Taylor, Settlement Report (Calcutta, 1900).]

Khurda Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same
name in Purl District, Bengal, situated in 20 n / N. and 85 38' E.,
on the high road from Cuttack to Ganjam in Madras, and connected
by road with the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. Population (1901), 3,424.
Between 18 18 and 1828 Khurda was the head-quarters of Purl Dis-
trict, transferred in the latter year to Purl town. It contains the usual
public offices; the sub-jail has accommodation for 10 prisoners.

Khuria. — Plateau in the Jashpur State, Central Provinces, occupying
the north-western portion of the State, and lying between 23 o' and
2 3 1 4' N. and 83 30'' and 83 44' E. It consists of trap-rock topped
with volcanic laterite, overlying the granite and gneiss which form the
surface rocks at lower elevations. The plateau affords excellent
pasturage, and Ahirs or cowherds from Mirzapur and elsewhere drive
in large herds of cattle to graze ; many such Ahirs have settled here
permanently.

Khurja Tahsil. — Southern tahsil of Bulandshahr District, United
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Jewar, Khurja, and Pahasu, and
lying between 28 4' and 28 20' N. and 77 29' and 78 12' E., with
an area of 462 square miles. The population rose from 221,137 in
1 891 to 266,838 in 1901. There are 348 villages and seven towns, the
largest of which are Khurja (population, 29,277), the tahsil head-
quarters, Jewar (7,718), Pahasu (5,603), Chhatari (5,574), and
Rabupura (5,048). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was
Rs. 5,05,000, and for cesses Rs. 82,000. The tahsil is drained by
the East Kali Nadi, the Karon or Karwan, and the Patwai or Patwaha
Bahu, all which have been deepened and straightened to improve
the drainage. The Jumna flows along the western border. East of
the Kali Nadi and west of the Patwai are tracts of light sandy soil ;



KHUSHAB TAHSIL 297

but the central portion is highly fertile, and is well supplied by irri-
gation from the Upper Ganges Canal and the Mat branch of the same
work. Cotton is more largely grown in this tract than in any other
part of the District. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 345
square miles, of which 152 were irrigated. Well-irrigation supplies
about one-third of the total, and is chiefly important in the area
between the canals.

Khurja Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in
Bulandshahr District, United Provinces, situated in 28 15' N. and 77
51' E., near the grand trunk road, and 4 miles from Khurja station on
the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 29,277, of whom 15,878
are Hindus and 12,923 Musalmans. The town is said to derive its
name from kharija ('revenue free'), as it was built by the Bhale Sultan
Rajputs on a revenue-free grant made by Firoz Shah Tughlak. The
descendants of the original grantees retained possession of their hold-
ings till they were resumed partly by Suraj Mai, Raja of Bharatpur,
in 1740, and partly by Daulat Rao Sindhia towards the close of the
eighteenth century. There is only one ancient building, the tomb of
Makhdiim Sahib, near the grand trunk road, which is about 400 years
old. The chief public buildings are the fahsili, dispensary, and town
hall. The principal inhabitants are Kheshgl Pathans and Churuwal
Banias ; the latter, who are Jain by religion, are an enterprising and
wealthy class, carrying on banking all over India and taking a leading
share in the trade of the place. Thirty years ago they built a magni-
ficent domed temple, which cost more than a lakh and is adorned with
a profusion of stone carving of fine execution. The interior is a blaze
of gold and colour, the vault of the dome being painted and decorated
in the most florid style of indigenous art. The market-place, bazar, and
dharmsala, all adorned with handsome gateways of carved stone, also
owe much to the munificence of the Jain traders. There are branches
of the American Methodist and the Zanana Bible and Medical Missions.

Khurja has been a municipality since 1866. The receipts and
expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 27,500.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 38,000, chiefly derived from octroi
(Rs. 28,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 42,000. The town is the



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