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chief commercial centre of the District, and contains seven cotton-gins
and presses, which employed 444 hands in 1903. Cotton-ginning by
hand is important, and there is a very large export of grain, besides
a smaller trade in indigo, sugar, and gki. The pottery of Khurja
resembles that made at Multan and in the Rampur State, and has
some reputation. English cotton cloth, metals, and brass utensils are
the chief articles imported. There are eight schools with about 600
pupils.

Khushab Tahsil. — Tahsil o( Shfihpur District, Punjab, lying between



29 8 KHUSHAB TAHSIL

31 32' and 32 42' N. and 71 37' and 72 38' E., with an area of
2,536 square miles. It is bounded on the east by the Jhelum river.
The population in 1901 was 161,885, compared with 151,627 in 1891.
The head-quarters are at the town of Khushab (population, 11,403).
The number of villages is 206. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4
amounted to 2-4 lakhs. The Salt Range runs through the north of the
tahsll, culminating in the peak of Sakesar. The fertile southern slopes
sink into a salt-impregnated plain, which in turn gives place to the sand-
hills of the Thai. Along the Jhelum lies a narrow strip of fertile lowland.

Khushab Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in
Shahpur District, Punjab, situated in 32 18' N. and 72 22' E., on the
right bank of the Jhelum river, and on the Sind-Sagar branch of the
North-Western Railway. Population (190 1), 11,403. It has an exten-
sive trade, exporting cotton, wool, and ghl to Multan and Sukkur ;
cotton cloth to Afghanistan and the Derajat ; and wheat grown in the
Salt Range, which is considered particularly suitable for export, princi-
pally to Karachi. The municipality was created in 1867. The income
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 12,100, and the
expenditure Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 11,500, chiefly
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 11,000. The town possesses
an Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality,
and a Government dispensary.

Khutahan. — Northern tahsll of Jaunpur District, United Provinces,
comprising the parganas of Ungll, Ran {taluka Badlapur), Karyat
Mendha, and Chanda, and lying between 25 50' and 2 6° 12' N. and
82 21' and 82 46' E., with an area of 362 square miles. Portions of
the tahsll form enclaves in Partabgarh and Sultanpur Districts. Popu-
lation fell from 286,832 in 1891 to 269,438 in 1901. There are 700
villages and only one town, Shahganj (population, 6,430), the tahsll
head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs.
2,27,000, and for cesses Rs. 50,000. The density of population, 744
persons per square mile, is below the District average. Several small
drainage channels exist ; but the Gumtl, which crosses the south-west
of the tahsll, is the only considerable river. Khutahan contains a large
area of good rice land, and also a number of barren usar tracts. The
area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 288 square miles, of which 129
were irrigated. Wells supply about seven-eighths of the irrigated area,
and tanks and jhlls most of the remainder.

Khuzdar. — The principal place in the Jhalawan division of the
Kalat State, Baluchistan, and the head-quarters of the Native Assistant
and of the Khan of Kalat's naib, situated in 27 48' N. and 66° 37" E.
It is known to the Sindls as Kohiar, and is a long narrow valley, at the
upper end of which a fort was constructed in 1870. Khuzdar owes its
importance to its central position at the point of convergence of roads



KHYBER



299



from Kalat on the north, Karachi and Bela on the south, Kachhi on
the east, and Makran and Kharan on the west. It is unhealthy in
summer. The garrison consists of 7 artillerymen with one gun and
45 irregular levies. The Native Assistant has a small escort of 20
levies. The niabat of Khuzdar includes land in Baghwana, Zidi, the
valley of the Kolachi river, Karkh, and Chakku.

Khyber (Khaibar). — Historic pass leading from Peshawar District
in the North-West Frontier Province into Afghanistan, the centre of
the pass lying in 34 6' N. and 71 5' E. The name is also applied
to the range of hills through which the pass runs. The Khyber moun-
tains form, indeed, the last spurs of the Safed Koh, as that mighty
range sinks down into the valley of the Kabul river. The elevation of
the connecting ridge is 3,400 feet, but it rises to 6,800 feet in the
Tartara peak. On either side of it are the sources of two small streams,
one flowing north-west to the Kabul river, the other south-south-east
towards Jamrud. The beds of these streams form the Khyber defile.

The Khyber Pass is the great northern route from Afghanistan into
India, while the Kurram and Gomal Passes form intermediate com-
munications, and the Bolan Pass is the great southern passage. The
pass begins near Jamrud, io| miles west of Peshawar, and twists
through the hills for about 33 miles in a north-westerly direction till
it debouches at Dakka. The most important points en route are All
Masjid, a village and fort ioi miles from Jamrud; Landi Kotal, the
summit of the pass, 10 miles farther; and Tor Kham, at which point
the pass enters Afghan territory, about 6 miles beyond Landi Kotal.
The plains of Peshawar District stretch from the eastern mouth of the
pass, and those of Jalalabad from the western. Outside the eastern
gate is the remarkable collection of caves at Kadam, and beyond its
western limits are many interesting remains of Buddhism and of
ancient civilization. The pass lies along the bed of a torrent, chiefly
through slate rocks, and is subject to sudden floods, especially in July,
August, December, and January. The gradient is generally easy,
except at Landi Khana, and the road is in good condition.

The elevation, in feet, at various points of the pass is : Jamrud,
1,670; All Masjid, 2,433; Landi Kotal, 3,373; Landi Khana, 2,488;
Dakka, 1,404. The ascent over the Landi Khana pass is narrow,
rugged, steep, and generally the most difficult part of the road. Guns
could not be drawn here except by men, and then only after the
improvement of the road ; the descent is a well-made road, and not
so difficult. Just beyond All Masjid the road passes over a stretch
of uneven and slippery rock, which is extremely difficult for laden
animals. The Khyber can be turned by the Mullagori road, which
enters the hills about 9 miles north of Jamrud, and either joins the
Khyber road or keeps to the north of the range and emerges at Dakka.

vol. xv. u



3 oo KHYBER

The Khyber has always been one of the gateways into India. Alex-
ander of Macedon probably sent a division under Hephaistion and
Perdiccas through the Khyber, while he himself followed the northern
bank of the Kabul river, and thence crossed the Kunar valley into
Bajaur and Swat. Mahmud of Ghazni only once used the Khyber
route, when he marched to encounter Jaipal in the Peshawar valley.
The Mughal emperors Babar and Humayun each traversed it more
than once. Nadir Shah, advancing by it to attack Nasir Khan, Subah-
dar of Kabul under the Mughal government, was opposed by the
Pathans ; but he led his cavalry through Bazar, took Nasir Khan
completely by surprise, and overthrew him near Jamrud. Ahmad
Shah Durrani and his grandson Shah Zaman, in their invasions of
the Punjab, also followed the Khyber route on several occasions.
The Mughal emperors attached great importance to the control of the
Khyber, but were singularly unsuccessful in their attempts to keep
the route open. Then, as now, it was held by the Afrldi Pathans,
a race implacably hostile to the Mughals.

Jalalabad, first fortified by Humayun in 1552, was further strength-
ened by his son Jalal-ud-din Akbar, after whom it was named ; and
the latter emperor so improved the road that wheeled carriages could
traverse it with ease. But even in his reign the Khyber was infested
by the Roshania sectaries, who wielded great influence over the Afghan
tribes ; and the Rajput general Man Singh had to force the pass in
1586, when Akbar desired to secure possession of Kabul on the death
of his brother Mirza Muhammad Hakim. In 1672, under Aurangzeb,
the tribes waylaid the Subahddr of Kabul, Muhammad Amln Khan,
in the pass, and annihilated his army of 40,000 men, capturing all his
treasure, elephants, women, and children.

The first British advance into the Khyber was in 1839, when
Captain Wade was deputed to conduct Shahzada Tlmur to Kabul via
Peshawar, while his father Shah Shuja was escorted thither by the
army of the Indus via the Bolan Pass and Kandahar.

During the first Afghan War the Khyber was the scene of many
skirmishes with the Afridis and of some disasters to our troops.
Captain Wade, with from 10,000 to 11,000 of all arms, including the
Sikh contingent, moved from Jamrud on July 22, 1839, to Gagri ;
here he halted a day and entrenched his position ; on July 24 he
again marched to Lala China ; on the 25th he moved to the attack
of All Masjid, sending a column of 600 men and 2 guns, under
Lieutenant Mackeson, to the right, and 1 1 companies of infantry,
one 6-pounder gun, and one howitzer to the left, while below a column
was placed to watch the mouth of Shadi Bagadi gorge. Both columns
drove the enemy before them, the right meeting with some opposition,
and the left getting into a position to shell the fort. On the 26th all



KHYBER



301



the enemy's outposts were driven in, and on the 27th they evacuati d
the fort. The enemy had 509 jazailchis, or musket-men, and were
supported by several hundred Afridis. The British loss was 22
killed and 15S wounded. After this there was no further opposition.

A strong post was left in All Masjid and a detachment near Lala
China to maintain communication with Peshawar, and a post of
irregulars under Lieutenant Mackeson was placed near Dakka. The
post near Lala China was attacked during the operations. It was
garrisoned by Yusufzai auxiliaries, whose numbers had been thinned
and the survivors worn down by continued sickness, when the Afridis,
estimated at 6,000 strong, attacked their breastwork. They were long
kept at bay, but the marauders were animated by the lust of plunder,
and persevered in their attacks. They were aware that the devoted
garrison had recently received their arrears of pay, and that a sum of
Rs. 12,000 was buried on the spot. Finally, they carried the weak
fieldwork, and put to the sword 400 of its defenders. They did not
keep possession of it, but, after repeating their vain attempts on Ah
Masjid and the posts in the valley, retired to their mountains.

When Jalalabad was blockaded, it was proposed to send a force
through the Khyber to its relief, and as a preliminary measure Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Moseley was detached to occupy All Masjid with two
regiments of native infantry. He marched on the night of January 15,
1842, and reached the place with little opposition the next morning.
Through some mismanagement, however, only a portion of the pro-
visions requisite for the two regiments accompanied them. It became
necessary, therefore, to forward the residue without delay ; and Briga-
dier Wilde advanced from Jamrud with the remaining two regiments
(the 60th and 30th Native Infantry) and 4 Sikh guns. But the appear-
ance of Colonel Moseley's detachment had alarmed the Afridis, who
now rose and, closing the pass, prepared to resist Brigadier Wilde's
entrance. The brigadier nevertheless pushed onwards on January 19,
and encountered the enemy at the mouth of the pass ; but, owing
to the uselessness of the Sikh guns and the inadequacy of his force
with so powerful a body of the enemy advantageously placed in his
front, his attempt to reach All Masjid totally failed. The situation of
Lieutenant-Colonel Moseley, shut up in All Masjid, with scarcely any
provisions, now became desperate ; but he was successful in forcing
his way back to Jamrud.

The next occasion on which the Khyber was used as a great military
road was when General Pollock advanced on April 6, 1842. On his
return to India the British army marched through the Khyber in three
divisions. The first, under General Pollock, passed through with no
loss. The second, under General M'Caskill, was not equally fortunate.
One brigade being overtaken by night left two mountain-train guns

u 2



302



KHYBER



with the rear-guard, which was suddenly attacked, and the guns were
taken, but recovered next day. The rear-guard of General Nott's force
was also attacked on November 5 and 6 between Landi Khana and
Lalabagh, and again on leaving All Masjid.

It was at All Masjid in 1878 that Sir Neville Chamberlain's friendly
mission to the Amir Sher All Khan was stopped and repelled with
threats. An ultimatum was therefore handed to the Amir's general, Faiz
Muhammad, in All Masjid; and the day specified having passed without
the return of an answer, Afghanistan was invaded by three British
columns, one of which started from Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber.

On the second day of the campaign the fortress of All Masjid was
brilliantly captured by the British troops under General Browne. The
successful passage of the Khyber, and the unopposed occupation, first
of Dakka at the western mouth of the pass, and then of Jalalabad in
the plains beyond, immediately followed. The treaty which closed the
war in May, 1879, left the Khyber tribes for the future under British
control. From that date the history of the Khyber Pass is bound up
with that of the Khyber Political Agency, which includes Mullagori
country north of the Khyber, Tlrah of the Afridis, and the country on
both sides of the Khyber Pass. None of it is administered, but the pass
is kept open and is picketed twice a week for the passage of caravans.

The Khyber Political Agency is bounded on the north by the Kabul
river and the Safed Koh ; on the east by Peshawar District ; on the
south by the Aka Khel and Orakzai countries ; and on the west by the
Chamkanni and Masuzai countries, and the Safed Koh. The Khyber
Pass between Jamrud and Landi Kotal originally belonged to the Shin-
waris, Zakka Khel, Kuki Khel, and the Orakzai only. At the time
of the extension of Sikh rule to Jamrud the Orakzai were ousted by the
Afridis, and the only trace of their presence is a ruined village near
Jam. The Sikh rule never extended beyond Jamrud. When Captain
Mackeson was negotiating with the Afridis in 1840, the Malikdln
Khel Maliks of Chora forced their way between the Zakka Khel and
Kuki Khel, and established a small village at Katta Kushta near All
Masjid. The Sipah Kambar Khei and Kamrai Khel also, seeing the
advantages of a footing in the Khyber, stepped in, and were admitted
to a share in the Khyber allowance.

After the Sikh War the Afridis took service in large numbers in the
Indian army, and when the Mutiny of 1857 broke out they did exceed-
ingly well. From 1857 to 1878 the Afridis were subsidized by the
Afghan government, who kept a garrison of Afghan troops at All
Masjid. The Afridis were, however, never on good terms with the
Afghans. They very often visited the British officers of Peshawar
District ; but relations with them were maintained through the KhallL
and Mohmand Arbabs of Peshawar District, who were generally of an



KHYBER



3°3



intriguing disposition, and very seldom did any real service. Their
main object was to keep those tribes in a state of unrest, and thus
enhance their own importance. A year or two before the second
Afghan War Amir Sher All summoned the jirgas of all the Afrldis
and Shinwaris, and distributed about 5,000 rifles among them. When
war broke out, and All Masjid was attacked and turned, the Afghans
and Afrldis fled in great disorder, and the Afghans were robbed of their
clothes and rifles by the Afridis in the Khyber and in Bazar. The
Afrldis, and especially the Bazar Zakka Khel, subsequently harassed
the passage of the British troops through the Khyber, and a force was
sent against them in December, 1878.

By the Gandamak Treaty of 1879 between the British and Amir
Yakub Khan, it was agreed that the British Government should retain
the control of the Khyber Pass ; and, in pursuance of this agreement,
allowances were fixed for the Afrldis, aggregating Rs. 87,540 per
annum. The management of the pass was entrusted to the tribesmen
themselves through their maliks, who executed a formal agreement by
which they undertook to guard it with their tribesmen. Some local
levies called jazailchis (which afterwards became the Khyber Rifles \
numbering about 400 men, were also raised for escorting caravans
through the Khyber. These were eventually increased to 600 strong.

In 1897 disturbances broke out all along the frontier. The Afrldis
remained quiet for some time, but in August they attacked the Khyber
posts and sacked the fortified sarai at Landi Kotal. They met with
opposition from the Khyber Rifles, but the garrison could not hold out
owing to want of water. To punish the Afrldis for this violation of
their engagements, a force was sent into Tlrah under Sir W. Lockhart,
and a fine of Rs. 50,000 and 800 breech-loading rifles was recovered
from them by April, 1898. In October of the same year a fresh settle-
ment was made with the Afrldis, by which they undertook to have no
intercourse with any power except the British, and to raise no objection
to the construction of railways or roads through the Khyber. On these
conditions the allowances were restored, with a small increase of
Rs. 250 for the Kambar Khel. The Khyber Rifles were augmented
to two battalions of 600 each, 50 of the total being mounted, and were
placed under British officers.

The chief subdivisions of the Afrldi tribe are as follows : —

Section. Habitat. Strength (estimated).

ir v rr-L 1 \ Maidan, Bara Valley .

Kambar Khel . j RajQri VaUey _ _

Kamrai . . Bara Valley

Kuki Khel . . I Ali y a r sjid ; Jamriid ;

Malik Din Khel . Mardan .

Sepaiah (Sipah) . Bara Valley and Kajuri Plain

Zakka Khel . . Khyber, Bazar, and Bara Valley



4,500


fighting men


600


j> >»


4,000


>) >>


5,000


,!


1,200


,, ,,


4,50°


>J >»



3^4



KHYRIM



Khyrim {Khairam or Nongkhrem). — Petty State in the Khasi Hills,
Eastern Bengal and Assam. The population in 1901 was 31,327, and
the gross revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 12,161. The principal products are
potatoes, rice, millet, maize, lac, oranges, and cotton ; and the chief
manufactures, silk, cloth, and iron hoes and billhooks. Deposits of
lime, coal, and iron exist in the State, but they are not worked.

Kiamari. — Formerly an island, now owing to the action of sand-
drifts a portion of the mainland on the farther side of Karachi harbour,
Sind, Bombay, situated in 24 49' N. and 67 2' E., and forming one
of the municipal quarters of Karachi City, with which it is connected
by a tramway road called the Napier Mole, 3 miles long, constructed in
1854 by the North-Western Railway. Kiamari is the landing-place for
passengers and goods destined for Karachi or dispatch up-country, and
contains the Merewether Pier, called after a former Commissioner in
Sind, the foundation-stone of which was laid by Lord Ripon in 1880,
the Erskine Wharf, the James Wharf, and an oil pier. There are here
a commissariat store, a customs house, a dispensary, &c. Kiamari is
a station on the North-Western Railway.

Kichhaunchha (or Ashrafpur-Kichhaunchha). — Town in the Tanda
tahsll of Fyzabad District, United Provinces, situated in 26 25' N. and
82 47' E., on the bank of a small stream called the Tonrl. Population
(1901), 2,325. This place, with the neighbouring villages of Bashkari
and Rasulpur, is celebrated as having belonged to a famous saint,
named Makhdum Ashraf, who lived in the fourteenth century, or to
his descendants, who received rent-free grants from the Mughal em-
perors. The saint's tomb is built on rising ground in the village of
Rasulpur, and is much resorted to by pilgrims, especially in the month
of Aghan (November-December). A visit is believed to be very effi-
cacious for persons possessed by devils. Kichhaunchha is admin-
istered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of Rs. 300. A school
lias 95 pupils.

Kidderpore. — A quarter of Calcutta containing the docks. See
Calcutta.

Kiggatnad.— Southern taluk of Coorg, Southern India, lying be-
tween n° 56' and 12 18' N. and 75 50' and 76 12' E., with an area
of 410 square miles. The population in 1901 was 37,235, compared with
31,230 in 1 89 1. The taluk contains 68 villages, of which Ponnampet
is the head-quarters. The west rests upon the Western Ghats, covered
with evergreen forest ; the south is bounded by the Brahmagiri or
Marenad range, from which ridges of hills branch off throughout the
taluk ; the east is a continuous stretch of deciduous forest, through
which flows the Lakshmantlrtha.

Kila Didar Singh. — Town in the District and tahsll of Gujranwala,
Punjab, situated in 32 7' N. and 74° 5' E., 10 miles south-west of



KILIMANUR 305

Gujra.nwa.la town, on the road to Hafizabad. Population (1901), 2,705.
The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 2,900, and the expenditure Rs. 2,800.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,800, chiefly from octroi; and the
expenditure was Rs. 3,000.

Kilakarai. — Seaport in the Ramnad tahsil of the Ramnad estate,
Madura District, Madras, situated in 9 14/ N. and 7 8° 48' E., on the
Gulf of Manaar, 10 miles south of Ramnad town, from which it is
separated by a wide morass, all but impassable in the rainy season. It
is an untidy and dreary looking town, surrounded by sandy wastes and
a little low scrub. The population (11,078 in 1901) consists mainly
of Labbais, a Musalman trading community. Its commerce, which
•s chiefly in grain, is carried on mainly with Cocanada and Ceylon.
The Labbais are experts in diving for sanhh-sheWs (Turbinella rapa),
which are obtained principally opposite Devipatam, Tirupalakudi, and
Rameswaram.

Kila Saifulla. — Tahsil of the Upper Zhob subdivision of the
Zhob District, Baluchistan, situated between 30 32' and 31 43' N.
and 68° 9' and 69 18' E. It lies along the central part of the
valley of the Zhob river, and also includes part of the Toba-Kakar
range known as Kakar Khorasan. Its area is 2,768 square miles, and
population (1901) 19,229. The land revenue, including grazing tax,
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 44,000. The head-quarters station is Kila
Saifulla, and the tahsil contains 60 villages. The majority of the
people are Sanzar Khel Kakars, who combine flock-owning with agri-
culture. They cultivate considerable ' rains-crop ' areas. The Jogizais,
once the ruling family in Zhob, live in this tahsil. Earth-salt is manu-
factured, and traces of coal have been found. A small trade is done in
fox-skins.

Kila Sobha Singh. — Town in the Pasrur tahsil of Sialkot District,
Punjab, situated in 32 14' N. and 74 46' E., on the banks of the
Dengh torrent. Population (1901), 3,338. It was founded in the
eighteenth century by the Sikh chief Bhag Singh, Ahluwalia, who built
a fort here and called it after his son Sobha Singh. It contains a
colony of Kashmiri weavers who weave pashmlna shawls. Vessels of
white metal are also made, but both industries have much decayed of
late years. The municipality was created in 1867. The income and
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,900.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,400, chiefly from octroi; and the
expenditure was Rs. 3,700. A vernacular middle school is maintained
by the District board.

Kilimanur. — An idavagay, or petty principality, in the Chirayinkll
taluk of Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8° 46' N. and 76 52' E.
Population (1901), 3,053. It is a freehold estate belonging to the Koil



3 o6 KILIMANUR

Tampurans, who are allied by marriage to the Ranis of Travancore and
thus to the reigning family. The estate was granted about 1728, in
recognition of the bravery with which a Koil Tampuran saved a Rani
and heir apparent to the throne of Travancore from their enemies.

Kiling. — River in Nowgong District, Eastern Bengal and Assam.
See Umiam.

Kin~hinjunga (Kanchenjunga). — A mountain, second only to Everest
in elevation, situated in the Eastern Himalayas, on the Sikkim-Nepal
boundary (27 42' N., 88° 9' E.), its summit attaining an altitude of
28,146 feet above sea-level.

'The geological position of Kanchenjunga is obviously in the main
axis of the Himalayas, although that mountain lies considerably to the
south of the line of water-parting between the Tibetan plateau and
India, and on a spur which runs at right angles to this line, so that



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