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even the drainage of its northern slopes flows directly down into the
Indian plains. . . . The name Kanchenjunga is Tibetan, and means,
literally, " The Five Repositories of the Great Glaciers," and it is phy-
sically descriptive of its five peaks. . . . The Lepcha name of thi3
mountain is Kong-lo-chu, or " The Highest Screen or Curtain of
Snows.'" (Waddell, Among the Himalayas, 1899.)

Kindat Subdivision. — Central subdivision of the Upper Chin-
dwin District, Upper Burma, containing the Kindat and Tamu
townships.

Kindat Township. — Central township of the Upper Chindwin
District, Upper Burma, stretching across the Chindwin river from the
Yoma in the west to Shwebo District in the east, between 23 25' and
23 58' N. and 94 18' and 95 2' E., with an area of 1,715 square
miles. It is covered with forest, thinly populated, and, except in the
immediate neighbourhood of the Chindwin, hilly. The population was
11,429 in 1891, and 13,946 in 1901, distributed in 117 villages and one
town, Kindat (population, 2,417), the head-quarters. The area culti-
vated in 1903-4 was 21 square miles, and the land revenue and thatha-
meda amounted to Rs. 42,000.

Kindat Town. — Head-quarters of the Upper Chindwin District,
Upper Burma, situated in 23 44' N. and 94 26' E., on the left bank
of the Chindwin river, about 200 miles from the point at which that
stream flows into the Irrawaddy. Population (1901), 2,417. The
town is well wooded, but low-lying and in many ways unfavourably
situated, as in the dry season it is separated by a wide expanse of sand
from the river channel and the steamer ghat, and during the rains it
occupies a narrow strip of land bounded on one side by the stream and
on the other by a large jliil and swampy ground. It is faced across
the stream by low wooded hills, but on its own side of the river the
immediate surroundings are flat and uninteresting. The native quarter



KIRAOLI 307

stretches for some distance along the bank ; the civil station lies at its
northern end ; the jail occupies the farther end of the civil station, and
the military police lines are located to the north again of the jail.
The civil station, which is protected by embankments from the en-
croachment of the river on one side and of the jhil on the other,
contains the District court and circuit house, the residences of the local
officials, and the club. The civil hospital and the post and telegraph
offices are in the native quarter. Kindat was a frontier post of some
importance in Burmese times, but has never succeeded in attracting
much trade, and is still nothing more than a village. The hospital
contains 16 beds, and there is a small Anglo-vernacular school.
Kindat is not a municipality, and can boast of little in the way of
roads or other public improvements.

Kinu. — Eastern township of Shwebo District, Upper Burma, extending
from the Irrawaddy to the Mu river, between 22° 38' and 22 55' N. and
95 27' and 96 o' E., with an area of 244 square miles. It is for the
most part a level plain, with a low rainfall. The population was 28,107
in 1 89 1, and 31,499 in 1901, distributed in 120 villages, Kinu (popula-
tion, 2,223), about 12 miles north of Shwebo on the railway, being the
head-quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 39 square miles,
and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 75,900.

Kinwat. — Taluk in Adilabad District, Hyderabad State, constituted
in 1905 out of the northern villages of the former Narsapur and Nirmal
taluks. The head-quarters are at Kinwat (population, 1,514).

Kirakat.— Eastern tahsil of Jaunpur District, United Provinces,
comprising the parganas of Daryapar and Bialsl and tappas Chandwak,
Pisara, and Guzara, and lying between 25 32' and 25 46' N. and
82 47' and 83 5' E., with an area of 244 square miles. Population
fell from 201,546 in 1891 to 187,128 in 1901. There are 455 villages
and only one town, Kirakat (population, 3,355), the tahsil head-quarters.
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 180,000, and for
cesses Rs. 36,000. The density of population, 767 persons per square
mile, is almost equal to the District average. Kirakat is bisected by
the Gumtl, which flows from north-west to south-east in a very winding
course. The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 161 square miles,
of which 95 were irrigated. There are few tanks or j 'hi Is, and irrigation
is supplied almost exclusively by wells.

Kiraoll.— North-western tahsil of Agra District, United Provinces,
conterminous with the pargana of Fatehpur Sikri, lying between 2 7 o'
and 2 7 17' N. and 77° 30' and 77 55' E., with an area of 272 square
miles. Population increased from 106,977 in 1891 to 123,812 in 1901.
There are 171 villages and two towns, Fatehpur Sikri (population,
7,147) and Achhnera (5,375). The demand for land revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 2,51,000, and for cesses Rs. 31,000. The density of



3 oS KIRAOLI

population, 455 persons per square mile, is below the District average.
The Utangan flows close to the southern border, while the Khari Nadi
crosses the centre. The eastern portion is level, but in the western
half there are hills, the most important being the range on which the
town of Fatehpur Sikri stands. A much shorter and lower range of
hills runs parallel to this, north of the Khari Nadi. Both ranges consist
of red sandstone. The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 210
square miles, of which 67 were irrigated. About one-third of the
irrigated area is served by the Agra Canal, and extensions are con-
templated. Wells supply the rest, but in many parts the water is so
brackish that without good rains it cannot be used.

KIratpur. — Town in the Najlbabad iahsil of Bijnor District, United
Provinces, situated in 29 30' N. and 7S 13' E., 10 miles north of
Bijnor town. Population (1901), 15,05 r. There are two quarters
of the town, Kiratpur Khas and Basl. The former was founded in
the. fifteenth century during the reign of Bahlol LodI, and the latter
in the eighteenth century by Pathans, who built a fort. The walls are
still standing near the gateway, and within is a handsome mosque.
Kiratpur is administered under Act XX of 1S56, with an income of
about Rs. 3,600. Trade is insignificant, but lacquered chairs and
boxes are made. The District board school has 112 pupils, and six
aided schools 216 pupils. The American Methodist Mission has
a branch here.

Kirkee (Kirki or Khadki). — Town in the Haveli tdluka of Poona
District, Bombay, situated in 18° 34' X. and 73° 51' E., on the south-
east branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 116 miles south-
east of Bombay and 4 north-west of Poona city. Population (1901),
10,797. On Xovember 5, 1817, the first of three battles which led to
the collapse of the Maratha power was fought near Kirkee, then a mere
village. The British force under Colonel Burr was 2,800 strong, of
whom 800 were Europeans. 7'he Peshwa's force under Bapu Gokhale
numbered 18,000 horse and 8,000 foot, with an immense train of
ordnance. The Peshwa Baji Rao witnessed the battle and his own
defeat from Parbati hill, one mile south of Poona. Kirkee is the
principal artillery station in the Bombay Presidency, four field batteries
being quartered here. It contains an arms and ammunition factory,
employing about 2,000 operatives. The average income of the canton-
ment fund during the decade ending 1901 was Rs. 22,000. In 1903-4
it was Rs. 28,000, and the expenditure amounted to Rs. 22,000. The
town contains an English school. A branch of the Church Missionary
Society, stationed here, carries on evangelistic work in the tdluka.

Kirli.— Petty State in the Dangs, Bombay.

Klrthar Range. — Mountain range forming the boundary between
Sind and the Jhalawan country in Baluchistan, between 26' 13' and



KISHANGANJ TOWN 309

28 36' N. and 67 11' and 67 40' E. From the point where the
Mula river debouches into the Kachhi plain, the range runs almost
due south for a distance of 190 miles in a series of parallel ridges of
bare rocky hills. At intervals similar ranges run athwart them. The
offshoots tail off south-eastwards into Karachi District, but a single line
of low hills extends as far as Cape Monze. The greatest breadth is
about 60 miles. The highest point is the Zardak peak (7,430 feet),
and another fine peak is the Kuta-ka-kabar, or Kuta-jo-kabar, i. e. ' the
dog's tomb' (6,878 feet). The principal offshoot is the Lakhi range.
The Klrthar hills are pierced by the Kolachi or Gaj river in a fine
gorge, and the chief passes are known as the Harbab, Phusi, Rohel,
and Garre. These hills give their name to the Klrthar geological group
of Nummulitic limestone, which is found on their crests, overlaid by
Tertiary rocks of Nari and Gaj beds, the former being soft sandstone
and the latter a hard dark-brown limestone exposed on the Gaj river.
The tribes residing in the Kirthar are the Marri and Jamali Baloch,
Jamot and Chuta Jats, and some Khidrani and Sassoli Brahuis. They
subsist chiefly by tending flocks, and by exporting the dwarf-
palm (Nannorhops Ritchieana). Sind ibex and mountain sheep are
fairly plentiful, and both black bears and leopards are occasionally
met with.

Kishanganj Subdivision. — North-eastern subdivision of Purnea
District, Bengal, bordering on Nepal and lying between 25 54' and
26 35' N. and 87 37' and 88° 32' E., with an area of 1,346 square
miles. The subdivision is a fertile alluvial tract stretching southwards
from the Nepal tarai. The population in 1901 was 619,476, compared
with 651,039 in 1891. It contains one town, Kishanganj (population,
7,671), the head-quarters; and 1,227 villages. The public offices are
at present situated at the village of Bhariadangi, 4 miles north-west
of the town ; but the courts will shortly be removed to Kishanganj
town, where buildings are under construction. The subdivision is
the most fertile portion of the District, and is more densely populated
than the rest, supporting 460 persons to the square mile. It is more
nearly allied to the neighbouring Districts of North Bengal than to
Bihar, and the majority of the inhabitants are of Rajbansi (Koch)
origin, though most of them are now converts to Islam. The chief
markets are at Kishanganj town, Phulbaria, Bibiganj, Gandharbdanga,
and Islampur.

Kishanganj Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the
same name in Purnea District, Bengal, situated in 26 7' N. and 87
56' E., on the Ganges-Darjeeling road, east of the Mahananda river.
Population (1901), 7,671. Kishanganj is a large exporting centre
for rice and jute. It was constituted a municipality in 1887. The in-
come during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 7,500, and the



3 io KISHANGANJ TOWN

expenditure Rs. 6,800. In 1903-4 the income, which is mainly derived
from a tax on persons (or property tax), was Rs. 12,000, and the
expenditure was Rs. 8,000. The public offices are at present situated
about 4 miles from the town, but new courts are being built at Kishan-
ganj ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 23 prisoners. The town
contains the head office of the Khagra Ward's estate ; a great fair is
held annually under the auspices of the estate, which is attended by
some 100,000 persons. A great number of elephants, camels, ponies,
sheep, and cattle are sold, and much general merchandise changes
hands ; the camels are in great demand for sacrifice by Musalmans
at the Bakr-Id festival. Cart-wheels are largely manufactured in the
neighbouring village of Chakla, which are used throughout the District
and are also exported.'

Kishangarh State. — A State lying almost in the centre of Rajpu-
tana, between 25 49/ and 26 59' N. and 70 40' and 75 n' E., with
an area of 858 square miles. It is bounded on the north and north-
west by Jodhpur \ on the east by Jaipur ; on the west and south-east by
the British District of Ajmer; and on the extreme south by the Shah-

pura chiefship. Leaving out of account five small
aspects isolated patches which contain but a village or two

each, the territory consists of two narrow strips of
land, separated from each other, which together are about 80 miles in
length from north to south, and have a breadth varying from 20 miles in
the centre to about 2 at the southern extremity. The northern and
larger of these two tracts is for the most part sandy, and is crossed by
three parallel ranges of hills, running from south-west to north-east,
which form part of the Aravallis, the highest peak being 2,045 ^ eet
above the sea ; the southern portion of the State is generally fiat and
fertile. A few streams contain water during, and immediately after,
the rains. The Rupnagar, after a north-easterly course, empties itself
into the Sambhar Lake, while the Mashi (with its tributary, the Sohadra)
and the 1 )ain flow east and eventually join the Banas.

The hill ranges and intervening valleys in the north consist of an
ancient series of highly metamorphosed sediments known as the
Aravalli system, among the varied strata of which the crystalline lime-
stones constituting white and coloured marbles are especially valuable.
The plain in the south-east and south consists principally of gneiss.
Numerous igneous intrusions penetrate this rock, and most of them
are granitic pegmatites, sometimes with plates of mica of marketable
size. Near the capital the intrusions belong to the exceptional group
of the eleolite syenites, and are remarkable for containing an extraor-
dinary variety of sodalite, acquiring, when kept in the dark for some
weeks, a vivid pink tinge, which disappears in a few seconds on ex-
posure to light, the mineral becoming once more colourless until again



KISHANGARH STA TE 311

protected. Near Sarvvar in the south is a considerable outcrop of mica
schists, containing an abundance of garnets remarkable for their size,
transparency, and beautiful colouring.

In addition to antelope, 'ravine deer' (gazelle), and the usual small
game, there are wild hog and nilgai {Boselaphus tragocamelus) in the
northern and central portions of the State, and leopards, hyenas, and
occasionally wolves in the hills.

The climate is dry and healthy, but malarious fevers are prevalent in
October and November. The annual rainfall at the capital averages
between 20 and 21 inches, ranging from over 36 inches in 1892 to
about \\ inches in 1899. There is usually less rain to the north and
slightly more to the south of the capital.

The chiefs of Kishangarh belong to the Rathor clan of Rajputs, and
are descended from Raja Udai Singh of Jodhpur. The latter's second
son, Kishan Singh, born in 1575, remained in the
country of his birth till 1596, when, in consequence
of some disagreement with his elder brother, Sur Singh, then Raja of
Jodhpur, he took up his abode at Ajmer. Obtaining an introduction to
Akbar, he received from him the district of Hindaun, now in Jaipur; and
subsequently, for services rendered in recovering imperial treasure car-
ried off by the Mers, he obtained a grant of Setholao and certain other
districts. In 161 1 he founded the town of Kishangarh close to Setholao,
which is now in ruins, and from that time the State began to be called by
its present name. In Akbar's time Kishan Singh was styled Raja, but
according to the State records Jahanglr gave him the title of Maharaja.
He died in 1615 and has been followed by sixteen successors. The
fourth of these, Rup Singh (1644-58), was a favourite of the emperor
Shah Jahan, for whom he fought well and gained several victories. He
thrice accompanied an expedition to Afghanistan, and was rewarded
with a command of 5,000 and several estates, including the fort and
district of Mandalgarh, now in Udaipur. Raj Singh, the seventh chief
of Kishangarh (1706-48), fought in the battle of Jajau on the side of
Shah Alam Bahadur Shah against Azam Shah, and was wounded ; he
received a grant of the districts of Sarwar and Malpura, the latter of
which now belongs to Jaipur. His successor, Sawant Singh, gave half
the State to his younger brother, Bahadur Singh, and himself ruled at
Rupnagar in the north. He was a religious recluse, and soon retired
to Brindaban, where he died in 1764. His son, Sardar Singh, ruled
for two years only ; and, his successor being a minor, Bahadur Singh
actually governed the whole territory till his death in 1781.

The thirteenth chief was Kalyan Singh (1797-1832), and in his time
(1818) Kishangarh was brought under British protection. He soon
began to behave in a manner which argued either insanity or a total
absence of principle. Becoming involved in disputes with his nobles,



3 i2 KISHANGARH STATE

he fled to Delhi, where he busied himself in buying honorary privileges
from the titular sovereign, such as the right to wear stockings in the
royal presence. Meanwhile affairs grew worse at Kishangarh, and,
British territory having been violated by the disputants, the leaders of
both parties were called upon to desist from hostilities and to refer
their grievances to the mediation of the Government. The Maharaja
was at the same time warned that, if he did not return to his capital
and interest himself in the affairs of his State, the treaty with him would
be abrogated, and engagements formed with the insurgent Thakurs.
This threat brought Kalyan Singh back to Kishangarh, but, finding
himself unable to govern the State, he offered to lease it to Govern-
ment. This offer was refused, and he took up his residence at Ajmer.
The nobles then proclaimed the heir apparent as Maharaja, and laid
siege to the capital, which they were on the point of capturing when
Kalyan Singh accepted the mediation of the Political Agent, through
whom matters were for the time adjusted. The reconciliation with the
nobles, however, did not prove sincere, and in 1832 Kalyan Singh
abdicated in favour of his son, Mohkam Singh. The latter was suc-
ceeded in 1840 by his adopted son, Prithwl Singh, who carried on the
administration with prudence and more than average ability. In 1867
a sum of Rs. 20,000 a year was granted by the British Government as
compensation for the loss of transit dues owing to the introduction of
the railway; in 1877 he received an addition of two guns to his salute
for life ; and in 1879 a further sum of Rs. 25,000 a year was granted as
compensation for suppressing the manufacture of salt and abolishing
customs duties of every kind on all articles except spirits, opium, and
intoxicating drugs. Maharaja Prithwl Singh died in 1879, an d was
succeeded by his eldest son, Sardul Singh, who continued the enlight-
ened policy of his father. During his rule many valuable reforms in
almost every department were introduced and carried to a successful
issue, and in 1892 he was created a G.C.I. E. On his death in 1900
his only son, Madan Singh, the present Maharaja, succeeded. His
Highness, who is the seventeenth chief of the State, was born in 1884,
was for some time an under-officer in the Imperial Cadet Corps, and
was invested with powers in 1905. The Maharaja of Kishangarh is
entitled to a salute of 15 guns, and in 1862 the usual sanad was granted
guaranteeing the privilege of adoption.

The number of towns and villages in the State in 1901 was 221, and
the population at each of the three enumerations was : (1881) 112,633,
Population. (l89l) I2 5'5i6, and (1901) 90,970. The decrease
during the last decade of over 27 per cent, is ascribed
to emigration during the famine of 1 899-1900, and to excessive
mortality from fever in the autumn of 1900. The State is divided into
the five districts or hukumats of Arain, Bandar Sindri, Kishangarh,



AGRICULTURE



3*3



Rupnagar, and Sarwar. The first four form the northern portion of
the territory, with an area of 650 square miles, while Sarwar is the
detached tract on the south. All the three towns (Kishangarh,
Rupnagar, and Sarwar) are municipalities.

The following table gives the chief statistics of area and population
in 1901 : —



Hitkumat.


u

c3

3

Cm

C~

<


Number of


3
O.




Percentage of
variation in

population be-
tween 1891
and 1901.


Number of

persons able to

read and

write.


c

i;

O

H


So
>


Arain ....
Bandar Sindri )
Kishangarh \
Rupnagar ....
Sarwar ....

State total


196

260

194

208


I

I
I



; 6
36


17,994

35, 6 55
17,409
19,912


- 25-8

- 25-2

- 29-3

- 310


64S

2,230

642
6S2


858


3


218


90,970


- 27-5


4,202



At the Census of 1901, Hindus numbered 79,670, or more than
87 per cent, of the total; Musalmans, 7,169; and Jains, 4,081. The
majority of the Hindus are said to be Vaishnavas, and the religious
head of the Nimbarak Sampradaya (a sect of Vaishnavas) resides at
Sallmabad in the Rupnagar district. The language mainly spoken in
the State is a form of Dhundari, but in the north many speak Marwarl.

The most numerous caste is that of the Jats, who number 16,000, or
more than 17 per cent, of the total. Next come the Mahajans (7,600) ;
the Brahmans (7,100); the Gujars (6,100); and the Rajputs (5,100),
more than half of whom are of the ruling clan. The main occupation
of the people is agriculture ; nearly 45 per cent, live solely by the land,
and there are many others who are partially agriculturists. About
18 per cent, are engaged in industries such as cotton-weaving and
dyeing, pottery, work in precious stones, &c. ; and nearly 6 per cent, in
commerce.

Of the 31 Christians enumerated in 1901, all but one were natives,
but their denomination was not returned. The United Free Church
of Scotland Mission has a small branch at the capital, and a native
pastor of the American Methodist Church resides at Rupnagar.

Agricultural conditions vary in different parts of the State. In the
north, where the soil is sandy and the rainfall less than elsewhere, there
is practically but one harvest, the Man/, and the
principal crops are bajra, jowdr, mung, and moth.
In the centre the soil, though still poor, is firmer, the rainfall heavier,
and there are several irrigation works. Maize and til take the place
of bajra in the kharif, while the rabi or spring crops consist of barley,



Agriculture.



3 i 4 KISHANGARH STATE

wheat, gram, and cotton. The southern portion of the State is in every
way the most favoured, and excellent crops are gathered in both
autumn and spring.

Agricultural statistics are available from 1 900-1, but only for the
khalsa area, or land paying revenue direct to the State. This area
is estimated at one-third of the total, or about 286 square miles.
Returns exist for about 200 square miles, and the net area cropped in
1903-4 was 153 square miles. The areas under principal crops were,
in square miles, approximately: jowar, 40; barley, 25; maize, 23;
bajra, 17; til, 17; cotton, n ; gram, 7; and wheat, 5. A few acres
were also under tobacco, poppy, linseed, and a coarse kind of rice.

The local cattle are described as of the Gujarati type, being of
medium size but capable of hard work. Efforts are being made to
improve the breed by importing bulls from Hissar and Nagaur. A
cattle fair is held yearly in August at Sursara, near Riipnagar. Mule-
breeding was started on a small scale in 1901, but is not popular.
Sheep and goats are kept in considerable numbers to provide wool,
meat, milk, and manure.

Of the net area cropped in 1903-4, 73 square miles, or 48 per cent.,
were irrigated : namely, 30 from tanks, 38 from wells, and 5 from other
sources. The subject of irrigation has for the last forty years received
the special attention of the Darbar, and very few sites for tanks now
remain in the central and southern districts. In the khalsa area alone
there are 175 tanks and 2,500 wells available for irrigation.

There are no real forests, but several blocks of scrub jungle and
grass, having a total area of 41 square miles, are protected. The sale
of timber, grass, and minor produce brings in about Rs. 18,000 a year,
and the annual expenditure is about Rs. 4,000.

The principal minerals now worked are garnets near the town of
Sarwar. The Silora stone quarries near the capital yield slabs
excellent for roofing and flooring, and are managed by the State Public
Works department. The yearly out-turn is about 40,000 cubic feet,
valued at Rs. 10,000. The white marble quarries at Tonkra will supply
material for the proposed Victoria Memorial Hall at Calcutta ; a pink
variety is found at Narwar, west of the capital, and a black at Jhak and
other places in the north. A black mineral paint, discovered in 1886,
has been successfully tried on the Rajputana-Malwa and Jodhpur-
Blkaner Railways and on ocean steamers.

The indigenous industries consist of the manufacture of chintzes and



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