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coloured cloths, lace, and drinking vessels and bottles made from khas-

kkas grass (Afidropogon muricatus). The establish-

Irade and c .,, , - . . . ,

communications. ment oi mills an d lactones as joint-stock concerns

with limited liability under a local Company Act has

been encouraged. There are two steam hydraulic cotton-presses



ADMINISTRA TION 3 1 5

worked by the State, which in 1903-4 employed an average of 182
hands and pressed about 520 tons of cotton and wool. One of these
is at the capital, where also there is a spinning- and weaving-mill and
a soap factory.

The chief exports are cotton, wool, caraway, and g/il, while the chief
imports are sugar, salt, piece-goods, and cereals. A good deal of
the cotton is exported to Agra, Aligarh, Cawnpore, and Hathras.

Since 1875 the Rajputana-Malwa Railway has traversed the northern
portion of the State from south-west to north-east ; its length within
Kishangarh territory is about 13 miles, and there is one station — at the
capital. The total length of metalled roads is 35 miles, and of un-
metalled roads So miles. The Government of India maintains 28
miles of the metalled roads : namely, ro miles of the Agra-Ahmad-
abad road and 18 miles of the Naslrabad-Deoli road.

There are four British post offices in the State, three of which are
also telegraph offices. The Darbar has also its own postal system and
postage stamps, maintaining thirteen local post offices and ten runners
over a length of 65 miles. The postal income and expenditure are
about Rs. 2,400 and Rs. 1,000 respectively.

The State has suffered from constant scarcities. In 1755-6 the fort
at the capital, and in 1783-4 the town walls, were built as relief works.
The records show that there was famine in 1803-4,
in 1848-9, and more or less continuously between
1868 and 1872. In 1891 the rainfall was less than 8 inches; the crops
failed, and fodder was very scarce. One-fifth of the people emigrated,
and more than 42,000 cattle died. The average number relieved daily
for a period of eight months was 1,400, and the total expenditure,
including loans to agriculturists, was i-8 lakhs. The worst famine of
which there is any detailed account was that of 1899- 1900. The
preceding two years had been indifferent ones ; the rainfall in 1899 was
barely 4! inches, the kharif crop failed entirely, and the whole State
was affected. The measures adopted by the Darbar were wise and
humane, and the relief was both effective and economical. The works
were mainly irrigation projects, but the garnet quarries also afforded
useful and congenial employment. More than five million units were
relieved on works, or gratuitously, and the total expenditure exceeded
3-5 lakhs. Owing to scarcity of fodder and water, 70 per cent, of the
cattle are said to have perished. There was again famine in 1 901-2,
and one million units were relieved at a cost (including remissions of
land revenue) of about 1-7 lakhs.

The administration is carried on by the Maharaja, assisted by a

Council of two members, the senior of whom is . , . .

, , ^- _ rr^i . 1 • . r ,r- 1 Administration.

styled Diwan. I he head-quarters district of Kishan-
garh is directly under the Revenue Commissioner, while each of the

vol. xv. x



3 i6 KISHANGARH STATE

remaining hukumafs is under an official called hakim. In each district
are several tahslldars and naib-tahsildars, who are purely revenue
officers.

For the guidance of its judiciary the State has its own Codes and
Acts, based largely on those of British India. Of the four hakims, one
has the powers of a third-class magistrate, and the rest are second-class
magistrates, while all of them can try civil suits of any value arising
in their respective districts. Criminal cases beyond their powers are
heard by the Sadr Faujdari Court, the presiding officer of which has
the powers of a first-class magistrate and is also magistrate for the
Kishangarh district. The civil work of the latter district is disposed
of partly by the Small Cause Court, and partly by the Sadr Diwani, or
chief civil court. The next tribunal is the Appellate Court, which,
besides hearing all appeals (civil and criminal), has the powers of
a Sessions Judge. The Council is the highest court in the State ; it
hears special appeals, exercises general supervision, and when presided
over by the Maharaja can pass death sentences.

The normal revenue of Kishangarh is about 4-6 lakhs, and the
expenditure 4-2 lakhs. The chief sources of revenue are : land (in-
cluding irrigation), 1-5 lakhs; customs (including Rs. 45,000 received
as compensation from the British Government), Rs. 60,000 ■ cotton-
mill and presses, &c, Rs. 25,000 ; and judicial (including stamps),
Rs. 21,000. The main items of expenditure are: administrative staft
(civil and judicial), 2-6 lakhs ; palace and privy purse, Rs. 70,000 ;
army and police, Rs. 40,000 ; and public works (including irrigation),
Rs. 33,000. The financial position is sound ; for while there are no
debts, there is a considerable cash balance and a further sum of about
2-8 lakhs is invested in Government securities and the local cotton-
presses, mills, &c.

The State has its own coinage, and there have been several issues
since the mint was started. The rupee now most common is known
as the Cliaubisania (twenty-fourth year) ; once worth about thirteen
British annas, it now exchanges for barely eleven, and it is proposed
to convert the local currency when the rate becomes more favourable.

The land tenures are the usual jaglr, muaft, and khaha. The
jaglrdars have to serve with their quota of horsemen, or make a cash
payment in lieu, and ordinarily attend the Maharaja on his birthday
and certain festivals. Their estates descend from father to son, or,
with the sanction of the Darbar, to an adopted son, but are liable
to resumption for serious offences against the State. Mudfi grants,
or lands held by individuals such as Brahmans, Charans, and Bhats,
or by charitable and religious institutions, are rent free, inalienable,
and may be resumed on failure of heirs. In the khaha area or
crown lands the cultivators are for the most part tenants-at-will,



KISHANGARH TOWN 317

liable at any time to be dispossessed, though they are rarely evicted.
The land revenue is generally paid in kind, the Darbar's share vary-
ing from one-fourth to one-third of the produce. In some parts, how-
ever, and in the case of such crops as cotton, poppy, maize, tobacco,
and spices, the revenue is collected in cash, the rates varying from
Rs. 6 to Rs. 18 per acre. Special concessions are made to those
who bring new land under cultivation or sink new wells ; they pay
the Darbar one-ninth, or sometimes one-eleventh, of the gross pro-
duce the first year, one-eighth or one-tenth in the second year, and
so on till the usual one-third is reached.

The military force consists of 220 regulars (84 cavalry and 136
infantry) and 1,739 irregulars (836 cavalry and 903 infantry). The
irregular cavalry are supplied by the jaglrdars. There are 65 guns,
serviceable and unserviceable, and 35 artillerymen.

Police duties are performed by a force of 511 of all ranks, in-
cluding 1S7 Rajput sepoys from the irregular infantry, and 91 village
chaukidars. There are nine police stations and numerous outposts,
the latter being mostly manned by the jagir militia. Besides the
Central jail and a small prison for persons under trial at the capital,
there are three district jails — at Arain, Rtipnagar, and Sarwar — in
which persons sentenced to one month or less are confined. These
five jails have accommodation altogether for 153 prisoners.

In the literacy of its population Kishangarh stands fourth among
the twenty States and chiefships of Rajputana, with 4-6 per cent.
(8-4 males and 0-4 females) able to read and write. There are now
29 educational institutions in the State, attended by about 1,000
pupils, of whom 70 are girls. Of these schools, 17 are maintained
by the Darbar at a cost of about Rs. 6,500 a year, 2 by the United
Free Church of Scotland Mission, and the rest by private individuals.
The only secondary school is the Maharaja's high school at the
capital. An education cess calculated at 1 per cent, of the land
revenue has been imposed since 1902.

The State possesses one hospital and three dispensaries ; and in
1904 the number of cases treated was 25,584, of whom 95 were
in-patients, and 655 operations were performed. The total expendi-
ture was about Rs. 5,000.

Vaccination is backward. In 1904-5 the number of persons
successfully vaccinated was 1,880, or about 21 per 1,000 of the
population.

Kishangarh Town.— Capital of the State of the same name in
Rajputana, situated in 2 6° 34' N. and 74 53' E., on the Rajputana-
Malwa Railway, about 18 miles north-east of Ajmer city, and 257
miles souUvwest of Delhi. It takes its name from Kishan Singh,
the first chief, who founded it in 161 1. Population (1901), 12,663,

x 2



3 i8 KISHANGARH TOWN

The town and fort occupy a picturesque position on the banks of an
old lake, over a square mile in extent, called Gundolao, in the centre
of which is a small garden known as the Mohkam Bilas. The
Maharaja's palace is in the fort and commands a fine view of
the surrounding country. The principal industrial occupations of the
people are cloth-weaving, dyeing, the cutting of precious stones, and
the manufacture of drinking vessels and betel-nut boxes from khas-
khas grass. A municipal committee, established in 1886, attends to
the lighting, conservancy, and slaughter-house arrangements. The
town possesses a combined post and telegraph office ; a couple of
jails, with accommodation for 123 prisoners; a hospital, with beds
for 1 2 in-patients ; and 1 1 schools, attended by about 400 boys and
50 girls. Of these schools, three are maintained by the State and
two by the United Free Church of Scotland Mission. The Maha-
raja's high school is affiliated to the Allahabad University, and
teaches up to the middle standard in both English and vernacular ;
the number on its rolls is 294, and the daily average attendance
270. About a mile and a half north of the town and close to the
railway station, a flourishing suburb, called Madanganj after the
present chief, has sprung up. It contains a steam hydraulic cotton-
press, and a spinning- and weaving-mill. The latter, which was opened
in 1897, has 10,348 spindles and employs about 500 hands. In 1904
the total out-turn exceeded 685 tons of yarn, and the receipts were
about 4-6 lakhs.

Kishenganj.— Subdivision and town in Purnea District, Bengal.
See Kishanganj.

Kishorganj Subdivision.— South-eastern subdivision of Mymen-
singh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 2' and
24 38'' N. and 90 35' and 91 16' E., with an area of 985 square
miles. The population in 1901 was 719,184, compared with 643,381
in 1 89 1. It contains two towns, Kishorganj (population, 16,246),
the head-quarters, and Bajitpur (10,027); and 1,661 villages. It
is an alluvial tract, intersected by marshes, and is subject to annual
inundations and deposits of fertilizing silt from the Meghna and its
tributaries. It is, after Tangail, the most populous subdivision in the
District, the density being 730 persons per square mile, against an
average of 618 for the whole District. There are important markets
at Bhairab Bazar, Karimganj, and Katiadi.

Kishorganj Town.- -Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same
name in Mymensingh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in
24 26' N. and 90 46' E., on the Kundali Khal, 13 miles east of the
Brahmaputra. Population (1901), 16,246. An annual fair is held here
during the Jhulanjatra, a festival in honour of Krishna lasting for a
month from the middle of July to the middle of August. Kishorganj



KISTNA DISTRICT 319

is connected with the Brahmaputra by a road and also by the Kundali
Khal, which is navigable during the rainy season. The town was
formerly noted for its muslin manufactures, and the East India Com-
pany had a factory here. Kishorganj was constituted a municipality
in 1869. The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged
Rs. 6,500, and the expenditure Rs. 6,200. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 8,000, of which Rs. 4,600 was obtained from a property tax ; and
the expenditure was Rs. 7,800. The town contains the usual public
offices ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 2 2 prisoners.

Kistna District {Krishna). — district on the north-eastern coast
of the Madras Presidency, lying between 15 37' and 17 g' N. and
79 14' and 8i° 33' E., with an area of 8,498 square miles 1 .

It is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal ; on the west by the

Nizam's Dominions and Kurnool District; and on the north and south

by the Districts of Godavari and Nellore respectively. It is named after

the great river which flows along much of its western boundary, and

then, turning sharply, runs right across it from north-

• Physical

west to south-east, and forms its most striking natural as oects

feature. On the extreme west the District consists

of stony uplands, dotted with rocky hills or crossed by low ranges ; the

centre and north are a level plain of black cotton soil ; but the eastern

portion is made up of the wide alluvial delta of the Kistna river, an

almost flat expanse, covered with irrigated rice-fields, and containing

some of the most fertile land in the Presidency. These three tracts

form three sharply differentiated natural divisions. The coast is fringed

with a wide belt of blown sand, sometimes extending inland for several

miles. Along the shore the dunes rise to the height of from 30 to 50

feet. The only hills of any note are those in the west of the District.

They are outliers of the great chain of the Eastern Ghats, and the

Palnad taluk is almost surrounded by them. Besides the Kistna, there

are no rivers, except a few fitful hill torrents and three or four minor

tributaries of the great river. The Gundlakamma, which rises in

Kurnool, traverses a corner of the Vinukonda taluk from west to east

and then passes into Nellore. The Colair Lake (Kolleru) lies within

the District.

The broad central belt of low-lying country, situated at the foot of

the Eastern Ghats and sloping towards the sea, is covered by Archaean

gneisses. These consist of a thinner-bedded schistose series (which

1 While this work was under preparation the area ol the District was changed, the
taluks of Ellore, Yernagfidem, Tanuku, BhTmavaram, and Narasapur (excluding
Nagaram Island) being added to it from Godavari District, and those of Tenali,
Guntur, Sattanapalle, Palnad, Bapatla, Narasaraopet, and Vinukonda being formed
(with the Ongole taluk of Nellore) into a new Guntur District. The present article
refers to the District as it stood before these alterations.



3 no KISTNA DISTRICT

includes mica and chloride schists with quartzites), and of more massive
granitoid gneisses, all much interbanded and disturbed. They are also
pierced by occasional younger dioritic dikes, granite, felsite, and quartz
veins. North-west of this Archaean belt comes the more elevated,
often plateau-like, country of the Cuddapah and Kurnool series of the
Purana group. This is an enormous series (aggregating over 20,000
feet thick) of unfossiliferous, but little altered, sedimentary strata,
gently inclined as a whole. They comprise repetitions of quartzitic
and shaly sub-series, with occasional conglomerates and limestones,
and interbedded traps near the base. The Kurnools overlie the
Cuddapahs unconformably, forming numerous plateaux, and possess
a basal diamantiferous conglomerate. South-east of the Archaean
band are a few scattered outliers of the much younger Upper Gond-
wanas, with plant-beds and Jurassic marine shells, a double sandstone
series with shales between ; and these in turn underlie a little sub-
recent Cuddalore sandstone, and great stretches of coastal and deltaic
alluvium with a few patches of lateritic rock.

The flora of the District presents no special characteristics, the
plants being mainly the usual cultivation weeds of the Coromandel
coast. Along the sandy shore are found the usual sand-binders,
Spinifex squarrosus and Ipomoea ; and cashew-nut trees (Anacardium
occidentale) occur in scattered nooks. The principal crops and forest
trees are referred to later. Generally speaking, the District is very
bare of tree-growth.

Wild animals are far from plentiful. Tigers and sambar are found
in the Palnad and Vinukonda jungles, on the Medasala Durga ridge,
and on the Kondapalli and Kondavid hills. Leopards and an occa-
sional bear lurk in the rocky eminences of some of the inland taluks.
A few antelope are to be seen in the Bapatla taluk, and wild hog are
not uncommon in various parts. Bird life is more prominent. Almost
every species of South Indian feathered game, except the woodcock
and hill partridge, is to be found in the District. Snipe, duck, and
teal abound in the season ; and the Colair Lake is the home of almost
all the known inland aquatic birds. It is also fairly stocked with fish.

The climate of the District, although in parts trying owing to the
great heat, may be set down as healthy. Fever is on the whole
uncommon. Masulipatam (the head-quarters), with a mean tempera-
ture of 82", a recorded maximum of 117 , and a minimum of 58 ,
jses perhaps the most equable climate; and on the coast gener-
ally, except for a short time in the month of May, the heat is never
unbearable. The temperature of the Palnad, Sattanapalle, Nandigama,
and Tiruvur taluks during November, December, and January resembles
that of the Mysore plateau, the thermometer falling to 65 ; but the
temperature becomes extremely high during May and June.



HISTORY 321

Of the rainfall, nearly two-thirds is usually registered during the
south-west monsoon, the first showers of which begin to fall in May.
The remainder of the supply is received in the three last months of
the year, but the fall in October and November is as a rule much more
irregular than in the earlier months. It is at times exceedingly heavy,
owing to the cyclones that often visit the coast. The annual rainfall
for the District as a whole during the thirty years from 1870 to 1899
averaged 2>Z inches. But this is not evenly distributed ; as elsewhere
along this coast, the fall in the coast tracts, such as Masulipatam,
Tenali, and Bapatla, is considerably heavier than that in the inland
taluks of Palnad, Sattanapalle, and Narasaraopet. Scarcity has been
known in one or two bad years, but the pinch of real famine has not
been felt since the Kistna irrigation system was completed. Floods,
however, are frequent. In 1874, 1875, 1S82, 1895, 1896, and 1903
they did damage which was sometimes very great. All of them were
due to the Kistna overflowing its banks. The highest flood on record
in the river was in 1903, when the water breached the bank of the
main canal and submerged much of the delta. Masulipatam, the
District head-quarters, has twice been visited by disastrous tidal waves.
In 1779 the sea flowed 12 feet deep through the Dutch factory, a great
part of the town was washed away, and at least 20,000 persons were
drowned and lay unburied in the streets. In 1864 an even worse
wave inundated the place. The sea penetrated 17 miles inland, sub-
merging 780 square miles and drowning as many as 30,000 people.

The earliest known rulers of the District were the Buddhist dynasty
of the Andhras, who built the stupa at Amaravati and whose curious
leaden coins are still occasionally found. Following
them came, about the beginning of the seventh
century a. d., the Brahmanical Eastern Chalukyas, the excavators of
the cave temple at Undavalle and other rock-cut shrines. About
999 they in their turn were supplanted by the Cholas. The latter
some two centuries later gave place to the Ganpatis of Warangal,
during whose rule Marco Polo landed in the District at Motupalle,
now an obscure fishing village in the Bapatla taluk. The District then
came under a dual sway, the kings of Orissa ruling the northern part,
while the south fell into the hands of a line of cultivators who rose to
considerable power and are known to history as the Reddi kings. The
ruins of their fortresses at Kondavid, Bellamkonda, and Kondapalli
are still to be seen. In 15 15 king Krishna Deva of Vijayanagar
wrested the north of the District from the Gajapati kings of Orissa ;
and it passed, on the fall of the Vijayanagar empire in 1565, to the
Kutb Shahi line of Golconda, and was eventually absorbed (on the
destruction of that dynasty in 1687) in the empire of Aurangzeb.

In 161 1 the English founded their second settlement in India at



322 KISTNA DISTRICT

Masulipatam, which continued to be their head-quarters until these
were finally removed to Madras in 1641. Three years after the found-
ing of the English settlement came the Dutch, and in 1669 the French
followed. It was not, however, till the year 1750 that any of the
European powers exerted any political influence in the District. Two
years after that date the Subahdar of the Deccan granted the whole of
the Northern Circars to the French, and it was from them that this
tract finally passed to the English. On the outbreak of hostilities in
1758, Colonel Forde, who was sent by Clive from Bengal to attack
the French in the Northern Circars, defeated them at Condore in
Godavari District, and following them to Masulipatam besieged them
there. Faced by a strong garrison in front and hemmed in behind by
the Subahdar of the Deccan, the ally of the French, his ranks rapidly
thinning with disease, Forde, as a counsel of despair, at length made
an almost desperate night attack upon the Masulipatam fort and
captured it. As a consequence of this victory, first the divisions of
Masulipatam, Nizampatam, and part of Kondavld, and later the whole
of the Circars, passed, by a grant from the Subahdar of the Deccan
(confirmed by the emperor Shah Alam in 1765), to the Company.
With the cession of the Palnad in 1801 by the Nawab of Arcot,
the entire District finally became British territory. At first it was
administered by a Chief and Council at Masulipatam, but in 1794
Collectors directly responsible to the Board of Revenue were
appointed at Guntur and Masulipatam. In 1859 these two Collec-
torates (except two taluks of the latter) were amalgamated into one
District.

The most interesting archaeological remains in the District are its
Buddhist antiquities, and the chief of these is the great stupa at Ama-
ravati in the Sattanapalle taluk. This was discovered in 1796, and a
portion of the sculptured marble rails of the processional circle was sent
by Sir Walter Elliot to England, where it now lines one of the staircase
walls in the British Museum. The Government Museums at Madras
and Calcutta contain other pieces of the work. From inscriptions it is
evident that the temple of Amareswara in the same village was origin-
ally a Buddhist or Jain sanctuary, and in the neighbourhood are several
mounds which may perhaps contain other relics of these faiths. In
the Tenali taluk are the ruins of Chandavolu, a place of great antiquity
containing a temple and Buddhist mound; and Buddhist stufias exist
at JAGGAYYAPETA and GUDIVADA. Gold coins have been found at
Chandavolu, and in 1874 some workmen came upon several masses of
molten gold as large as bricks. There was formerly a fine Buddhist
stupa at Bhattiprolu. Here a curious relic, consisting of a piece of
bone (supposed to have been one of Buddha's bones) enclosed in
a crystal casket lodged in a soapstone outer case, was found a few



POPULA TION



323



years ago. In the Vinukonda taluk stone circles (dolmens) abound
and inscriptions are numerous.

Kistna comprises the thirteen taluks and tahsils of
which statistical particulars are given below : —



Population.




The area of the new Kistna District is 5,899 square miles, and its population 1,744,1



The head-quarters of the Bandar taluk are at Masulipatam, of
Nuzvid at Gannavaram, and of Palnad at Guruzala. Those of the
other ten taluks are at the places from which they are named. The
population of the District in 1871 was 1,452,374; in 1881, 1,548,480;
in 1891, 1,855,582 ; and in 1901, 2,154,803. During the last thirty
years it has increased by 48 per cent., which, excluding the exceptional
case of the Nilgiris, is the highest rate for any District in the Presidency ;
and in the decade ending 1901 its growth was at the rate of 16 per cent.,
which was more rapid than in any other District. Of the nine taluks
in the Presidency which showed the highest rates of increase in that



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