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under the permanent settlement. The Palnad taluk, which, as has
been mentioned above, was not acquired till later, was treated
differently, the villages being rented out for terms of years until 1820,
when this system gave place to a partial ryotwari settlement.

The zamindari system proved an utter failure ; extravagance and

litigation on the part of the zamlndars, and in some cases the fixing

of the peshkash at too high a figure, led first to the Collector being

compelled to assume the management of many of the estates, and

then to these being sold and bought in by Government. By 1850 the

greater portion of the country was no longer under zamindari tenure.

In the estates in the south of the District four different revenue systems

obtained: namely, (1) ijara, or rent by auction; (2) makta, or fixed

village rents ; (3) the sharing system ; and (4) a system partly makta

and partly sharing. The endeavours of Government were directed

towards the extension to all parts of the makta system, by which the

village demand was fixed on a consideration of the average collections

of former years, the ryots themselves arranging the proportion of the

total demand that each should bear. The result, as might have been

expected, was unsatisfactory and the country deteriorated. In 1857

the ryotwari system, which had already been adopted in Palnad, was

introduced in a partial fashion for the 'dry' lands in the southern

portion of the District. Between 1866 and 1874 a systematic survey

and a settlement were made, and the ryotwari tenure brought into

force in all Government land. The survey showed that the areas of

the holdings were understated in the accounts by 7 per cent., and the

settlement enhanced the revenue by 16 per cent. The settlement in

the southern half of the District is now under revision. In this the

1 dry ' rates vary at present from 4 annas to Rs. 4-4 per acre, and the

'wet' rates from Rs. 1-12 to Rs. 7-8, a uniform water rate of Rs. 5

per acre being charged in addition. The average assessment here on

' dry ' land is Rs. 2 and on ' wet ' land Rs. 5 per acre. In the northern



half of the District the average assessments are respectively Rs. 1-4
and Rs. 4 per acre.

The revenue from land and the total revenue in recent years are
given below, in thousands of rupees : —


1 890- 1.

1 900-1.



Land revenue .
Total revenue .





Owing to territorial changes, the land revenue demand is now about
Rs. 65,70,000.

There are three municipalities in the District : namely, Guntur and
Masulipatam, both established in 1866, and Bezwada, in 1888. Out-
side these towns local affairs are managed by the District board
and the four taluk boards of Masulipatam, Guntur, Bezwada, and
Narasaraopet, the areas in charge of which correspond with the
revenue subdivisions above mentioned. The total expenditure of these
bodies in 1903-4 was Rs. 7,81,000, much of which was devoted to the
maintenance and construction of roads and buildings. The chief source
of income is the land cess. The local affairs of twenty-five smaller
towns are managed by Unions established under Act V of 1884. Ten
of these Unions are within the limits of the Guntur subdivision, while
Bezwada contains six, Masulipatam five, and Narasaraopet four.

The District Superintendent of police has his head-quarters at
Masulipatam, and an Assistant Superintendent is stationed at Guntur.
There are 84 police stations, and the number of constables is 970,
working under 16 inspectors. The reserve police at Masulipatam con-
sists of 85 constables and 9 head constables. The total strength of the
force is 1,107. The number of talaiyaris, or rural police, is now 1,628 ;
but it is proposed to reduce them to 1,478 at the forthcoming revision
of the village establishments.

Kistna contains no District jail, convicts being sent to the Central
jail at Rajahmundry ; but there are twenty subsidiary jails, with accom-
modation for 341 prisoners.

The Census of 1901 showed that 9-2 per cent, of the males and
o-'7 per cent, of the females of Kistna were able to read and write.
Of the total population, 5 per cent, possessed this accomplishment, and
the District takes the thirteenth place in the Presidency in the literacy
of its people. Education is most widely diffused in Bandar, the head-
quarters taluk, and in Guntur. The actual number of educated persons
in Vinukonda and Tiruvur is small, but in proportion to the population
the proportion is not lower than in the other taluks. In 1 880-1 the
total number of pupils under instruction in the District was 16,5363 in
1890-1, 36,735; in 1900-1, 46,837; and in 1903-4, 54,181, of whom

Y 2


10,346 were girls. On March 31, 1904, there were in the District 1,895
educational institutions, of which 1,628 were classed as public and 267
as private. Of the former, 1,586 were primary schools, secondary schools
numbering 31, and training and other special schools 9. There was an
Arts college at Masulipatam and another at Guntur. Nineteen schools
were under the control of Government, the municipalities and the local
boards managing respectively 22 and 242. Aid from public funds was
granted to 817 schools, while 528 were unaided but conformed to the
rules of the department. Of the boys of school-going age on March 31,
1904, 22 per cent, were receiving primary instruction; and of the girls
of similar age, 6 per cent. For Musalmans alone the corresponding
percentages were 42 and 12 respectively. In the same year 5,309 Pan-
chama scholars were receiving instruction in 584 schools specially kept
up for them. The total expenditure on education in the District in
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,36,000, of which Rs. 1,14,000 was derived
from fees. Of the total, Rs. 2,07,000 was devoted to primary instruc-

Kistna possesses 14 hospitals and 8 dispensaries. With the excep-
tion of the hospitals at Bezwada, Musulipatam, and Guntur, and the
dispensary for women and children at Masulipatam, which are municipal
undertakings, all these institutions are supported from Local funds.
Accommodation is provided for 148 in-patients, and in 1903 there were
1,793 sucn cases, the average daily number in hospital being 80.
Counting both in- and out-patients, the number of persons treated was
2 5 7)494) an d the number of operations performed was 6,990. The
total expenditure was Rs. 56,000, of which practically the whole was
defrayed from Local and municipal funds.

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 23 per
1,000 of the population, the mean for the Presidency being 30. Vacci-
nation is compulsory in the three municipalities, and has been made so
in seven Unions since the beginning of 1903.

[For further particulars see the Manual of the Kistna District, by
Gordon Mackenzie (1883).]

Kistna River (Sanskrit, Krishna, ' the black ')•— A great river of
Southern India, which, like the Godavari and Cauvery, flows almost
across the Peninsula from west to east. In traditional sanctity it is
surpassed by both these rivers, and in actual length by the Godavari ;
but the area of its drainage, including its two great tributaries, the
Bhima and Tungabhadra, is the largest of the three. Its total length
is about 800 miles, and the total area of its catchment basin about
97,000 square miles.

The Kistna rises about 40 miles from the Arabian Sea(i7° 59' N.
and 73° 38' E.) in the Western Ghats just north of the hill station of
Mahabaleshwar, and flows southwards, skirting the eastern spurs of the


hills, past Karad (Satara District), where it receives on the right bank
the Koyna from the western side of the Mahabaleshwar hills, and
Sangli, where it receives the waters of the Varna, also from the west,
until it reaches Kurundvad, when the Panchganga joins it, again on the
right bank. The river then turns eastward and flows through Belgaum
District, the States of the Southern Maratha Agency, and Bijapur, into
the Nizam's Dominions, after a course of about 300 miles in the
Bombay Presidency. In Bijapur District it is joined on the right bank
by the Ghatprabha and Malprabha from the Western Ghats. Near
the hills the channel is too rocky and the stream too swift for naviga-
tion, but its waters are largely used for irrigation in Satara District and
in the more open country to the south-east. In Belgaum and Bijapur
its banks of black soil or laterite are 20 to 50 feet high, especially
on the south side, and the stream forms many islands covered with
babul bushes.

On entering the Nizam's Dominions (at Echampet in Raichur
District) the Kistna drops from the table-land of the Deccan proper
down to the alluvial doabs of Shorapur and Raichur. The fall is as
much as 408 feet in about 3 miles. In time of flood a mighty volume
of water rushes with a great roar over a succession of broken ledges
of granite, dashing up a lofty column of spray. The first of the doabs
mentioned above is formed by the confluence of the BhIma, which
brings down the drainage of Ahmadnagar, Poona, and Sholapur ; the
second by the confluence of the Tungabhadra, which drains the north
of Mysore and the ' Ceded Districts ' of Bellary and Kurnool. At the
point of junction with the Tungabhadra in the eastern corner of Raichur
District, the Kistna again strikes upon British territory, and forms for
a considerable distance the boundary between the eastern portion of
Hyderabad and the Kurnool and Guntur Districts of Madras. Its bed
is here for many miles a deep, rocky channel, with a rapid fall, winding
in a north-easterly direction through the spurs of the Nallamalai range
and other smaller hills. At Wazlrabad in Nalgonda District it receives
its last important tributary, the Musi, on whose banks stands the city
of Hyderabad. The total course of the river within and along the
State of Hyderabad is about 400 miles.

On reaching the chain of the Eastern Ghats, the river turns sharply
south-eastwards and flows for about roo miles between the Kistna and
Guntur Districts (formerly the Kistna District) of Madras direct to the
sea, which it enters by two principal mouths. It is in this last part of
its course that the Kistna is for the first time largely utilized for
irrigation. From the point where it turns southwards the rate of fall of
its channel drops rapidly from an average of -x>\ feet a mile to x\ feet,
and eventually, as it nears the sea, to as little as from 7 to 9 inches.
The enormous mass of silt it carries — which has been estimated to be


sufficient in flood-time to cover daily an area of 5 square miles to a
depth of 1 foot — has consequently in the course of ages been deposited
in the form of a wide alluvial delta which runs far out into the sea and
slopes gradually away from either bank of the river, with an average fall
of 18 inches to the mile. At Bezwada, at the head of this delta, the
Kistna runs through a gap 1,300 yards in width in a low range of
gneissic hills, and here a great masonry dam has been thrown across
the river and turns its waters into a network of irrigation channels which
spread throughout the delta. (See Kistna Canals.) Immediately
below the dam the river is also crossed by the East Coast line of the
Madras Railway on a girder-bridge of twelve spans of 300 feet. The
flood velocity of the Kistna at this point is about 6-|- miles an hour, and
the flood discharge has been estimated to reach the enormous figure
of 761,000 cubic feet a second.

The Kistna is too rapid for navigation above the dam, but between
Bezwada and its mouth sea-going native craft ply upon it for about six
months in the year. The main irrigation canals are also navigable,
and connect Kistna District with its northern neighbour Godavari,
and, by means of the Buckingham Canal, with the country to the
southwards and the city of Madras.

Kistna Canals. — The canal system of the Kistna delta depends
upon the masonry dam which has been thrown across the river at the
head of the delta at Bezwada in Kistna District, Madras, where the
stream flows through a gap 1,300 yards wide in a low range of hills.
This point is about 45 miles from the sea in a direct line, and below it
the river flows in a channel which is at a somewhat higher level than the
surrounding country. The dam was begun in 1853, subsequent to that
across the Godavari, and was finished in 1854. Its length from wing
to wing is 3,714. feet, or between 5 and 6 furlongs, and it rises 20 feet
above the bed of the river. It is built on masonry wells, is vertical on
the down-stream side and slopes gradually upwards on the other. At
the top it is 6 feet wide and has a coping of cut stone. Below it is an
apron of rough stone 250 feet wide, part of which is held in place by
a retaining wall built right across the stream. On either flank are
scouring sluices to keep free from silt the heads of the canals which
take off from the dam. The system includes ten principal canals, and
they and their branches lead to every part of the delta, and connect on
the north with the Godavari Canals and on the south with the
Buckingham Canal. There are 372 miles of main canal, 307 of which
are navigable, and 1,630 miles of smaller distributaries. In 1903-4
616,760 acres, or 964 square miles, of Government land (in addition to
a large area in zamindaris, for which there are no accurate statistics)
were irrigated by this system. The total capital cost amounted to 149
lakhs and the net revenue was 19 lakhs, representing an interest on

KOD 337

the capital of nearly 13 per cent. Full particulars will be found
in Mr. G. T. Walch's Engineeritig Works of the Kistna Delta (Madras,

Kittur. — Village and fort in the Sampgaon tclluka of Belgaum
District, Bombay, situated in 15 36' N. and 74 48' E., 26 miles south-
east of Belgaum town. Population (1901), 4,922. A stone in a temple
at this place preserves an interesting record of a trial by ordeal in 11 88.
The Desais of Kittur were descended from two brothers who acted
as bankers with the Bijapur army towards the close of the sixteenth
century. For their services they obtained a grant of Hubli, and their
fifth successor established himself at Kittur. On the fall of the Peshwa,
the place passed into the hands of the British. But in 181 8, when
General Munro was besieging the fort of Belgaum, the Desai of Kittur
gave great assistance, and in return was allowed to retain possession of
the village. The Desai died in 1824 without issue. An attempt was
subsequently made to prepare a forged deed of adoption, which led to
an outbreak, in which the Political Agent and Collector, Mr. Thackeray,
was killed and his two Assistants imprisoned. The prisoners were
afterwards released, but the fort was not surrendered until it had been
attacked and breached, with a loss of 3 killed and 25 wounded.
Among the killed was Mr. Munro, Sub-Collector of Sholapur, and
a nephew of Sir Thomas Munro. Kittur then finally passed into the
hands of the British, although another rising occurred in 1829, which
was not suppressed without difficulty. Bi-weekly markets are held here,
at which cotton, cloth, and grain are sold. Weaving and glass bangle
making are the sole industries. The fort is still standing, though in
a ruined condition. Kittur contains 3 boys' schools with 222 pupils
and 2 girls' schools with 104.

Kiunthal. — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab. See Keonthal.

Klangdong. — Upper reaches of the Dhaleswari river, in Assam.

Koch. — Tribe in Cooch Behar State, Bengal. See Cooch Behar.

Kod. — Southernmost taluka of Dharwar District, Bombay, lying be-
tween 14 17' and i4°43' N. and 75 io' and 75 38" E., with an area
of 400 square miles. There are 176 villages, but no town. The popu-
lation in 1901 was 96,245, compared with 84,427 in 1891. The density,
241 persons per square mile, is almost equal to the District average.
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2-03 lakhs, and for cesses
Rs. 15,000. The head-quarters are at Hirekerur. The taluka is dotted
with small hills and ponds. A considerable portion is well watered,
and covered with sugar-cane fields and areca palms. The soil is chiefly
red, black soil occurring in a few villages in the east. The north and
west are studded with small hills and knolls, and the south is also hilly.
The Tungabhadra touches a few villages in the south-east corner; the
Kumadvati, rising in Mysore, flows east across the taluka. Kod is cool

338 KOD

and healthy in the hot months, but very malarious during the cold
season. The Madag tank, fed by the waters of the Kumadvati river,
once a work of first-class importance but now fallen into disrepair,
irrigates 922 acres.

Kodachadri. — Mountain in the Nagar taluk of Shimoga District,
Mysore, situated in 13 51' N. and 74 52' E., 4,411 feet high. It
rises more than 2,000 feet above the villages below, and is clothed with
splendid forests. The top of the hill is a narrow ridge, only 12 feet
across in many places, and with a precipice on either side. On the west
the hill descends almost perpendicularly for 4,000 feet, with the Kanara
forests spread out below. The sea appears quite close, and the bay
and town of Coondapoor lie opposite. On the hill is a temple to the
Huli Deva or ' tiger-god,' whose image is provided with thirty-two arms.

Kodagu. — Vernacular name of Coorg.

Kodaikanal Taluk. — Minor taluk in the Dindigul subdivision
of Madura District, Madras. Its limits correspond roughly with the
Palni Hills, but their exact area has not been ascertained. The
head-quarters are the hill station of Kodaikanal (population, 1,912),
and the taluk contains, in addition, 15 small hill villages. The popu-
lation in 1901 was 19,677, compared with 18,380 in 1891. The
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs-
42,000. Cultivation is carried on along the sides of the valleys, and
in some places presents a most picturesque appearance, owing to the
numerous terraces which have been formed down the slopes of the
hills, either to obtain sufficiently level ground or to render the hill
torrents available for irrigation. Among special products may be
mentioned wheat, garlic, coffee, and cardamoms. The rice produced
is of a coarse quality and takes between eight and ten months to ripen.
Plantains are largely cultivated in the villages among the lower Palnis,
and numerous herds of cattle are tended by the villagers of the upper
part of the range. Education is backward among the people, and is
promoted almost entirely by the Jesuit and American Missions. The
sanitation of the villages is more than usually defective.

Kodaikanal Town ('Forest of creepers'). — Head-quarters ot the
taluk of the same name in Madura District, Madras, situated in
io° 14' N. and 77 29' E., on the Palni Hills. Formerly an insig-
nificant hamlet of Vilpatti village, it is now one of the largest sanitaria
in the Presidency. The population according to the Census of 1901
was only 1,912 ; but this enumeration was made in the cold season,
before the influx of the numerous hot-season visitors and their following
had begun. Kodaikanal was constituted a municipality in 1899. The
municipal receipts and expenditure in 1903-4 were Rs. 10,700 and
Rs. 9,900 respectively, most of the former being derived from the taxes
on land and houses. A scheme for supplying the place with water, at


a cost of Rs. 63,000, is under consideration. The station contains
three churches, a school for European boys and girls managed by the
American Mission, and a municipal hospital.

The sanitarium stands about 7,000 feet above sea-level. The houses
of the European residents are picturesquely grouped about a natural
theatre of hills surrounding an artificial lake which has been constructed
at the bottom of a beautiful little valley, or on the cliff which overhangs
the ghat road leading up from the low country from Periyakulam.
The temperature of the station is similar to that of Ootacamund, but
somewhat milder ; and, as the rainfall is lighter and the atmospheric
conditions more equable than those of the Nilgiris, the climate of the
place may be said to be one of the best in India. Round about
Kodaikanal are grassy rolling downs, with beautiful little woods nestling
in their hollows and perennial streams flowing through them, very
similar to, though somewhat steeper than, those about Ootacamund.
The place is thus capable of considerable extension, and its develop-
ment is at present mainly retarded by the lack of easy means of
communication with the low country and the railway. The journey
from the nearest railway station, Ammayanayakkanur on the South
Indian line, to the foot of the hill where the bridle-path up the ghat
begins, a distance of 33 miles, is made in bullock-carts. The bridle-
path makes an ascent of about 6,000 feet in n miles, and is quite
impracticable for any wheeled vehicles. Visitors have either to ride
or be carried up in chairs. The want of a cart-road also occasions
difficulties in bringing up articles from the low country. A driving
road through the lower Palnis and a light railway through the
Periyakulam valley have been suggested as means of improving these
communications, and a trace for a ghat road from the Palni side has
been made out. Want of funds has prevented its execution.

Near the station is the Kodaikanal Observatory, which is placed
7,700 feet above sea-level. Under the scheme for the reorganization of
Indian observatories which came into operation in 1889, the chief part
of the Madras Observatory was transferred to Kodaikanal, the place
being preferred to Ootacamund on account of its greater freedom from
mist and cloud, and the former Government Astronomer became
Director of the Kodaikanal and Madras Observatories. The appliances
and powers of this observatory are now directed to the prosecution
of inquiry in the sciences of terrestrial magnetism, meteorology, and
seismology, and to astronomical observations for the purpose of time-
keeping, but chiefly to the important subject of solar physics.

About 1,000 feet below Kodaikanal, at Shembaganiir, is a Jesuit
college containing 65 students, who undergo a course of training for
seven years in preparation for the priesthood.

Kodangal Taluk. — Eastern taluk of Gulbarga District, Hyderabad


State, with an area of 211 square miles and population in 1901 of
62,091, including jagirs, compared with 67,983 in 1891. It had
three towns, Kodangal (population, 5,099), the head -quarters, Tandur
(5,930), and Kosgi (8,228); and 95 villages, of which 35 are jdglr.
The land revenue in 1901 was 11 lakhs. In 1905 the taluk was
enlarged by the addition of 59 villages from Gurmatkal and 15 from
Koilkonda in Mahbubnagar, while it lost 21 villages to Chincholi.
Rice is grown largely by tank-irrigation. The two jagir taluks, Tandur
and Kosgi, with 62 and n villages, and 23,725 and 15,344 inhabitants
respectively, lie to the north and south-east. Tandur and Kosgi are
their head-quarter towns, while their areas are 202 and 25 square miles

Kodangal Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name
in Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, situated in 17 7' N. and
77 38' E., 12 miles south of Tandur station on the Nizam's State
Railway. Population (1901), 5,099. Besides the tahsll office, the
office of the police inspector, a taluk post office, and a vernacular upper
primary school with 232 pupils are located here. Kodangal has a
mosque said to be 300 years old.

Kodangibetta (' Elk hill '). — Peak in the east of the Yedenalknad
taluk of Coorg, Southern India, situated in 12 16' N. and 75 58' E.

Kodaung. — A hilly tract in the north-east of the Mongmit State, at
present administered by a civil officer under the control of the Deputy-
Commissioner as a township of the Ruby Mines District, Upper Burma.
It lies between 23 5' and 23 49' N. and 96 49' and 97 38" E., with
an area of 760 square miles. It is a mass of hills rising in places to
a height of 7,000 feet above the sea ; but though the country is rugged,
communications are fairly good, for there are usually mule-tracks con-
necting the villages. At one time Kodaung was entirely populated by
Palaungs ; but the Kachins began to oust these hill people about a
hundred years ago, and of the total population (22,127) m I 9° I na h°
were Kachins and half Palaungs. There are 303 villages, the head-
quarters being at Molo, on the Shweli. The law in force is that of the
Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation, 1895.

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