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Kodinar. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name, Amreli
prant, Baroda State, situated in 20 47' N. and 70 42' E. Population
(1901), 6,664. It is a walled town, pleasantly situated on the south
bank of the Singavada river, about 3 miles from the sea. It is admin-
istered by a municipality, which receives an annual grant from the State
of Rs. 1,400 ; and it possesses Munsif's and magistrate's courts, a dis-
pensary, a vernacular school, and public offices. Trade is carried on
by sea with Bombay, Karachi, Porbandar, and Mangrol, the principal
exports being cotton, grain, and ghl. The imports are wheat, jowar,
clothes, spices, and dry goods.


Kohat District. — Central District of the North-West Frontier
Province, lying between 32 48' and 33 45' N. and 70 30' and 72 1' E.>
with an area of 2,973 square miles. The District has the shape of an
irregular rhomboid, with one arm stretching north-east towards the
Khwarra-Zira forest in Peshawar District. It is bounded on the north
by Peshawar District, and by the hills inhabited by the Jowaki and
Pass Afrldis ; on the north-west by Orakzai Tirah ; on the south-
west by Kabul Khel territory (Wazlristan) ; on the south-east by
Bannu and the Mianwali District of the Punjab ; and on the east
by the Indus. Its greatest length is 104 miles, and its greatest
width 50 miles.

The District consists of a succession of ranges of broken hills, whose
general trend is east and west, and between which lie open valleys,
seldom more than 4 or 5 miles in width. These


ranges are of no great height, though several peaks asDects

attain an altitude of 4,700 or 4,900 feet. As the
District is generally elevated, Hangu to the northward being 2,800 feet
and Kohat, its head-quarters, 1,700 feet above sea-level, the ranges rise
to only inconsiderable heights above the plain. The general slope is
to the east, towards the Indus, but on the south-west the fall is towards
the west into the Kurram river. The principal streams are the Kohat
and Teri Tois (' streams '), both tributaries of the Indus, and the Shkalai
which flows into the Kurram. The Kohat Toi rises in the Mamozai
hills. It has but a small perennial flow, which disappears before it
reaches the town of Kohat, but the stream reappears some miles lower
down and thence flows continuously to the Indus. The Teri Toi
has little or no perennial flow, and the Shkalai is also small, though
perennial. The most fertile part is the Hangu tahsll, which comprises
the valley of Lower and Upper Mlranzai. The rest of the District
consists of ranges of hills much broken into spurs, ravines, and valleys,
which are sometimes cultivated, but more often bare and sandy.

The rocks of the District belong chiefly to the Tertiary system, and
consist of a series of Upper and Middle Tertiary sandstones with inliers
of Nummulitic limestone. The limestones occur chiefly in the north,
while sandstone is more prominent to the south. Below the Num-
mulitic beds is found the most important mineral of the District,
namely, salt. It occurs, with bands of gypsum and red clay, below
the eocene rocks at various localities, but is found in greatest quantity
at Bahadur Khel, where rock-salt is seen for a distance of about 8 miles
and the thickness exposed exceeds 1,000 feet. The salt is very pure,
and differs remarkably in colour from that of the Salt Range, being
usually grey, while that of the latter area is red or pink. There is no
definite evidence as to its age, which is usually regarded as Lower
Tertiary ; but the underlying rocks are not exposed, and it has been


classed with the overlying eocene on account of the apparent absence
of any unconformity '.

The vegetation is composed chiefly of scrub jungle, with a secondary
element of trees and shrubs. The more common plants are : Flacourtia
sap/da, F. sepiaria, several species of Grewia, Zizyphus mtmmitlaria,
Acacia Jacquemontii, A. /ei/cop/i/oca, Alhagi camelorum, Crotalaria
Burhia, Prosopis spicigera, several species of Tamarix, Nerium odorum,
Rhazya stricta, Calotropis procera, Pei'iploca aphylla, Tecoma imdulata,
Lycium europaeum, Withania coagulans, IV. somnifera, Na?inorlwps
Ritc/iieana, Fagotu'a, Trilu/h/s, Peganum Ilarma/a, Calligomtm poly-
gonoides, Polygonum aviculare, P. plebejum, Rumex vesicarius, Chrozo-
phora plicafa, and species of A?'istida, A?it/u'stiria, Cenchrus, and

Game of all kinds is scarce : leopards are occasionally shot in the
hills, and twenty years ago were quite common. There are practically
no deer. Bears occasionally come down from the Samana range to
Miranzai when the corn is ripe. Chikor and partridges abound in
Miranzai and the Teri tahsl/, and fish are abundant in the Kurram and
the Indus.

The District as a whole lies high ; and the hot season, though oppres-
sive, is short, and the spring and autumn months are pleasant. The
winter is very cold, and a cutting west wind, known as the ' Hangu
breeze,' blows down the Miranzai valley to Kohat for weeks together.
Owing to the great extremes of heat and cold pneumonia is common,
but malarial fever is the chief cause of mortality.

The monsoon rains do not usually penetrate as far as Kohat, and the
rainfall is very capricious. The annual fall at Kohat averages 18 inches,
while the greatest fall since 1882 was 48 inches at Fort Lockhart on
the Samana in 1900-T, and the least 5 inches at Kohat in 1891-2.
The distribution of the rain is equally uncertain, villages within the
distance of a few miles suffering, some from drought and some from
floods, at the same time.

The first historical mention of the District occurs in the memoirs of
the emperor Babar. The District was then, as now, divided between
„. the Bangash and Khattak branches of the Pathan

race, the Bangash occupying the Miranzai valley,
with the western portion of Kohat proper, while the Khattaks held the
remainder of the eastern territory up to the bank of the Indus. Accord-
ing to tradition the Bangash were driven from Gardez in the Ghilzai
country, and settled in the Kurram valley about the fourteenth century.
Thence they spread eastward, over the Miranzai and Kohat region,
fighting for the ground inch by inch with the Orakzai, whom they

1 Wynne, ' Trans-Indus Salt Region in the Kohat District,' Memoirs, Geological
Survey oj India, vol. xi, part ii.


cooped up at last in the frontier hills. The Khattaks are said to have
left their native home in the Sulaiman mountains about the thirteenth
century and settled in Bannu. Owing to a quarrel with the ancestors
of the Bannuchis, they migrated northward two hundred years later
and occupied their present domains.

Babar made a raid through the District in 1505, being attracted by
a false hope of plunder, and sacked Kohat and Hangu. The Mughal
emperors were unable to maintain more than a nominal control over
the tract. One of the Khattak chiefs, Malik Akor, agreed with Akbar
to protect the country south of the Kabul river from depredations, and
received in return a grant of territory with the right of levying tolls at
the Akora ferry. He was thus enabled to assume the chieftainship of
his tribe, and to hand down his authority to his descendants, who ruled
at Akora, among them being the warrior poet Khushhal Khan.

Kohat became part of the Durrani empire in 1747, but authority was
exercised only through the Bangash and Khattak chiefs. Early in the
nineteenth century, Kohat and Hangu formed a governorship under
Sardar Samad Khan, one of the Barakzai brotherhood, whose leader,
Dost Muhammad, usurped the throne of Afghanistan. The sons of
Sardar Samad Khan were driven out about 1828 by the Peshawar
Sardars, the principal of whom was Sultan Muhammad Khan. In the
Teri tahsll, shortly after the establishment of the power of Ahmad
Shah Durrani, it became the custom for a junior member of the Akora
family to rule as sub-chief at Teri. This office gradually became
hereditary, and sub-chiefs ruled the western Khattaks in complete
independence of Akora. The history of affairs becomes very confused :
the Akora chiefs were constantly interfering in Teri affairs ; there were
generally two or more rival claimants ; the chiefship was constantly
changing hands, and assassinations and rebellion were matters of every-
day occurrence.

The Sikhs, on occupying the country, found themselves unable to
levy revenue from the mountaineers. Ranjlt Singh placed Sultan
Muhammad Khan in a position of importance at Peshawar, and made
him a grant of Kohat, Hangu, and Teri. One Rasul Khan became
chief of Teri, and on his death in 1843 was succeeded by his adopted
son, Khwaja Muhammad Khan. Meanwhile, Sultan Muhammad Khan
continued to govern the rest of the District through his sons, though
the country was generally in a disturbed state, and the upper Miranzai
villages were practically independent. When the Sikh troops took up
arms at Peshawar on the outbreak of the second Sikh War, George
Lawrence, the British officer there, took refuge at Kohat ; but Sultan
Muhammad Khan played him false, and delivered him over as a
prisoner to the Sikhs. At the close of the campaign, Sultan Muham-
mad Khan and his adherents retired to Kabul, and the District with


the rest of the Punjab was annexed to the British dominions. Khwaja
Muhammad Khan had taken the British side and continued to manage
the tahsll, which was made a perpetual jaglr. In 1872 Khwaja Mu-
hammad obtained the title of Nawab and was made a K.C.S.I. He died
in 1889 and was succeeded by his son, Khan Bahadur Abdul Ghafur Khan.

At annexation the western boundary was left undefined ; but in
August, 185 1, Upper Miranzai was formally annexed by proclamation,
and an expedition was immediately dispatched up the valley to establish
our rule. There was no fighting, beyond a little skirmishing with the
Wazirs near Biland Khel. The lawless Miranzai tribes, however, had
no desire to be under either British or Afghan rule. They were most
insubordinate, paid no revenue and obeyed no orders, while incursions
from across the frontier continued to disturb the peace of the new
District. At last, in 1855, a force of 4,000 men marched into the
valley, enforced the revenue settlement, and punished a recusant vil-
lage at the foot of the Zaimukht hills. The people of Miranzai quickly
reconciled themselves to British rule; and during the Mutiny of 1857
no disturbance of any sort took place in the valley, or in any other part
of the District. In March, 1858, it was finally decided that the Kurram
river was to form the western boundary of the District, thus excluding
the Biland Khel on the opposite bank.

The construction of the road from Kohat to Peshawar was under-
taken immediately after annexation, and at once brought the British
into conflict with the border tribes, while the construction of the road
to Bannu by Bahadur Khel was also the occasion of outbreaks in which
the salt mines were seized by the insurgents.

Kohat District contains one town and 298 villages. The population
at the last three enumerations was: (1881) 174,762, (1891) 195,148,

Population. and ^ 9 °^ 2I 7> 86 5- Jt increased by 11-5 per cent,
during the last decade, the increase being greatest in
the Kohat tahsll and least in Teri. The increase, though partly due
to the presence of coolies, &c, employed in making the Khushalgarh-
Kohat Railway, was mainly the result of increased tranquillity on the
border. The District is divided into three tahslls, the chief statistics of
which, in [901, are shown in the table on the next page.

The head-quarters of these are at the places from which each is
named. The only town is Kohat, the administrative head-quarters of
the District. The District also contains the military outposts of Thal
and Fort Lock hart. The density of the population is low, and the
population is too small in some villages to cultivate all the land. Mu-
hammadans number 199,722, or more than 91 per cent, of the total;
Hindus, 14,480 ; and Sikhs, 3,344. The language commonly spoken is
Pashtu ; the Awans and Hindus talk Hindkl, a dialect of Punjabi,
among themselves, but know Pashtu as well.







Number of



Hangu .








43,9 QI




+ 13-7
+ 10.4
+ io-6

District total

2 ,973





+ 11.5


The most numerous tribe in the District are the Pathans, who num-
ber 134,000, or 61 per cent, of the total population. They are divided
into two main branches : the Bangash, who occupy the Miranzai valley
with the western portion of the Kohat tahsil; and the Khattaks, who
hold the eastern part of Kohat and the Teri tahsil up to the Indus.
The Khattaks are inferior as cultivators but make better soldiers than
the Bangash. Next in importance to the Pathans come the Awans
(22,000), who live along the banks of the Indus and are probably im-
migrants from Rawalpindi District. Saiyids number 8,000. Of the
commercial and money-lending classes, the Aroras (8,000) are the most
important, the Khattris numbering only 3,000, and Parachas (carriers
and pedlars) 2,000. The Shaikhs, who mostly live by trade, number
3,000. Of the artisan classes, the Tarkhans (carpenters, 4,000), Lohars
(blacksmiths, 4,000), and Mochls (shoemakers and leather-workers),
Kumhars (potters), and Julahas (weavers), each returning 2,000, are
the most important ; and of the menials, only the Nais (barbers, 3,000)
and Chuhras or Kutanas (sweepers, 2,000) appear in any numerical
strength. In 1901 the District contained 145 native Christians, but
no mission has been established. Agriculture supports 68 per cent,
of the population.

In the low-lying tracts along the bottom of the main valleys the
soil is generally a good loam, fertile and easily worked. The silt
brought down by the mountain torrents is poor
and thin, but the land is as a rule well manured.
In the western portion of the Hangu tahsil there are stretches of
a rich dark loam, which yields good autumn crops in years of
seasonable summer rains. But the predominant soil in the Dis-
trict is clay, varying from a soft and easily ploughed soil to a hard
one, which is useless without a great deal of water. The clay is often
brick-red in colour, and this, too, is found both soft and hard. The
soft red clay is an excellent soil, holding water well, and needing no
manure if cropped only once a year. Towards the Indus the level
land, which alone can be cultivated, has a thin sandy soil covered in
many places almost entirely with stones ; these help to keep the soil




cool, and without them crops could not live on the thin surface soil.
Agricultural conditions, however, depend chiefly on the presence or
absence of water. The spring crop, which in 1903-4 occupied 58 per
cent, of the area harvested, is sown from October to January ; the
autumn crop mainly in June, July, and August, though cotton and
great millet are often sown in May.

The following table shows the main statistics of cultivation accord-
ing to the revenue returns for 1903-4, the areas being in square
miles : —






Not available


Teri .



54 6

















The chief food-crops are wheat, covering 173 square miles, or 44 per
cent, of the cultivated area, and bajra, 102 square miles, or 26 per cent.
Smaller areas are occupied by gram (30), maize (24), barley, pulses, and
>oivar. Very little rice or cotton is produced.

The cultivated area has apparently decreased by 3 per cent, since
the previous settlement, as the lightness of the revenue demand afforded
no inducement for keeping the poorer soils under the plough, and no
improvements have been made in agricultural methods. There is,
however, room for expansion of cultivation, especially in Miranzai. Ad-
vances for the repair of embankments and watercourses are in some
demand, and Rs. 36,100 was lent during the five years ending 1903-4
under the Land Improvement Loans Act. During the same period
Rs. 31,500 was advanced under the Agriculturists' Loans Act for the
purchase of seed and bullocks.

The cattle bred locally are of poor quality, and animals are largely
imported from the Punjab. Camels are bred in large numbers. Both
the fat-tailed and ordinary breeds of sheep are found, and large flocks
ot goats are kept. The local breed of horses is fair. Two puny
and two donkey stallions are maintained by the municipality and the
District board.

Out of the total cultivated area of 461 square miles, only 61 square
miles, or 1 2 per cent., were irrigated in 1903-4. Of this area, 3-4 square
miles were supplied by wells and 53-8 square miles by streams and
tanks, in addition to which 4 square miles are subject to inundation
from the Indus. There were 413 masonry wells worked by bullocks
with Persian wheels, and 175 unbricked wells and water-lifts. The
most effective irrigation is from perennial streams ; but agriculture,


especially in Mlranzai, is much benefited by the building of tanks and
embankments to hold up rain-water.

The District contains 74 square miles of unclassed forest and Gov-
ernment waste under the management of the Deputy-Commissioner.
Parts of the hill tracts are covered with dwarf-palm (mazri). The
District as a whole is not well wooded, though where water is obtain-
able roadside avenues have been planted, in which the mulberry, Per-
sian lilac {bakain), willow, and shisham are preponderant. Elsewhere
the palosi {Acacia modes/a) and other species of acacia, and the wild
olive, are the commonest trees. The summit of the Samana has been
almost denuded of trees, but in sheltered places ilex, walnut, and Scotch
fir are found.

The salt-producing areas, from which salt has been excavated from
time immemorial, occupy a tract about 50 miles long with a nearly
uniform width of 20 miles. The Kohat Salt Quarries at present
worked are at Jatta, Malgln, Kharak, and Bahadur Khel, of which the
last presents perhaps the greatest amount of exposed rock-salt to be
seen in the world. The average sales of salt for the three years ending
1903-4 exceeded 15,307 tons. The District contains three petroleum
springs, which would yield perhaps half a gallon a day if the oil was
gathered daily, but it is only occasionally taken. Sulphur is found in
the hills to the south of the Kohat Toi, and limestone and sandstone
all over the District, but they are not regularly quarried.

The District possesses very few handicrafts and no manufactures.
Kohat used to be celebrated for its rifles, in which a high degree of
excellence was attained, considering the rude nature
of the appliances; but the industry not being en- co J^ e ic "f ons .
couraged has now departed to the independent
villages of the Kohat pass, where it flourishes. Coarse cotton cloth is
made throughout the District, but not in sufficient quantities to supply
even the local demand. Turbans of excellent texture and colour are
woven of both silk and cotton at Kohat and the adjoining villages, and
coloured felt mats are made ; woollen camel-bags and leathern sandals
are also produced. The dwarf-palm is used to a very large extent for
the manufacture of sandals, ropes, mats, matting, and baskets.

A large and increasing trade with Tlrah and Kabul passes through
the District by the Khushalgarh-Kohat-Thal Railway, but the imports
and exports apart from this through traffic are not large. Salt, agricul-
tural produce, and articles made of the dwarf-palm, which grows
plentifully throughout the District, are the principal exports; and
piece-goods and iron are the principal imports. Kohat, Thai, and
Naryab are the chief trade centres.

The District is traversed by the 2 feet 6 inches gauge railway from
Khushalgarh to Thai, opened in 1903. The line at once came into

vol. xv. z


universal use for the conveyance of passengers and goods, and has
proved an unexpected commercial success. It is being converted to
the broad gauge, which will be opened on the completion of the bridge
over the Indus at Khushalgarh. Mails and passengers are conveyed
by tonga from Peshawar to Kohat over the Kohat pass and on to
Bannu. There are 179 miles of Imperial metalled roads, and 509
miles of unmetalled roads. Of the latter, 131 miles are Imperial, and
378 belong to the District board. Besides the Peshawar-Kohat-Bannu
road, the most important routes are those from Khushalgarh through
Kohat to the Knrram at Thai and from Khushalgarh to Attock. There
is little traffic on the Indus, which has a very swift current in this
District ; it is crossed by a bridge of boats at Khushalgarh, now being
replaced by a bridge which both road and rail will cross.

The District was classed by the Irrigation Commission as one of
. those secure from famine. The crops that matured

in the famine year of 1 899-1 900 amounted to as
much as 77 per cent, of the normal out-turn.

The District is divided for administrative purposes into three tahslls,

each under a tahsildar and ?iaib-tahsildar. The Deputy-Commissioner

. , . . . has political control over the trans-border tribes in
Administration. ,. . . , . _

adjoining territory : namely, the Jowaki and Pass

Afrldis, the Sepaiah Afrldis (Sipahs), the Orakzai Zaimukhts, the Biland
Khel and Kabul Khel Wazlrs. Under him are two Assistant Com-
missioners, one of whom is in charge of the Thai subdivision and
exercises political control, supervised by the Deputy-Commissioner,
over the tribes whose territories lie west of Fort Lockhart on the
Samana range. Two Extra-Assistant Commissioners, one of whom
is in charge of the District treasury, complete the District staff. One
member of the staff is sometimes invested with the powers of an
Additional District Magistrate.

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for
criminal justice, and in his capacity of District Judge has charge of the
civil judicial work. He is supervised by the Divisional Judge of
the Derajat Civil Division, and has under him a Subordinate Judge,
whose appellate powers relieve him of most of the civil work, a Munsif
at head-quarters, and an honorary civil judge at Teri. Crime is still
very frequent and serious offences preponderate; but the advance in
law and order during late years, especially since the Miranzai expedition
of 1891, has been considerable.

The early history of Kohat, fiscal as well as political, is vague and
uncertain. Under the Mughals and Afghans leases were granted in
favour of the Khans, but few records remain to show even the nominal
revenue. In 1700 the emperor Aurangzeb leased Upper and Lower
Miranzai to the Khan of Hangu for Rs. 12,000. In 1810 the Kohat



tahsll was leased for Rs. 33,000. In 1836 Ranjit Singh assigned the
revenue of the whole of the present District to Sultan Muhammad
Khan, Barakzai, in return for service. This revenue was estimated at
\\ lakhs.

After annexation four summary settlements were made of the Kohat
and Hangu tahslls, which reduced the demand from one lakh to Rs.
75,000. In 1874 a regular settlement of the Kohat and Hangu tahslls
was begun, excluding three tappas which were settled summarily. The
rates fixed per acre varied from Rs. 6-8 on the best irrigated land to
3 annas on the worst ' dry ' land ; and the total assessment was Rs.
1,08,000 gross, an increase of 18 per cent, on the previous demand.
So large a sum was granted in frontier remissions and other assign-
ments that the net result to Government was a loss of Rs. 5,000 in
land revenue realizations. The object of the settlement, however, was
not so much to increase the Government demand as to give the people
a fair record-of-rights. The increasing peace and security along this
part of the border, culminating in the complete tranquillity which has
characterized it since 1898, has worked an agricultural revolution in
Upper Miranzai.

The Teri tahsll, which forms half the District, has a distinct fiscal
history. The Khan of Teri has always paid a quit rent, which was
Rs. 40,000 under the Barakzai rulers, and was fixed at Rs. 31,000 on

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