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annexation. Since then it has been gradually lowered to Rs. 20,000,
at which it now stands. During the Afghan War the Khan's loyalty to
the British exceeded that of his people, who resented the forced labour
then imposed upon them by the Khan. Consequently at the close of
the war a veiled rebellion broke out in Teri. It was therefore decided
that the tract should be settled, and a settlement was carried out in
1891-4, the chief object being to place on a satisfactory footing the
relations between the Khan and the revenue-payers.

In 1900 the first regular settlement of Upper Miranzai and the
revision of settlement in the rest of the District was begun. This was
completed in 1905 and resulted in a net increase of Rs. 59,000 in the
revenue demand, which amounted to Rs. 1,28,000. The rates of the
new settlement per acre are : 'dry' land, maximum Rs. 1-12, minimum
3 annas; and 'wet' land, maximum Rs. 7-12, minimum R. 1.

The total collections of revenue and of land revenue alone have been
as follows, in thousands of rupees : —





1880-1.


1 890- 1.


1 900- 1.


1903-4.


Land revenue .
Total revenue .


90
93


79
90


85
94


74
83



The District contains only one municipality, Kohat Town. Outside

z 2



35 o KOHAT DISTRICT

this town, local affairs are managed by a District board, whose income
is mainly derived from cesses. In 1903-4 the income amounted to
Rs. 14,100, and the expenditure to Rs. 16,300, education forming the
largest individual charge.

The regular police force consists of 527 of all ranks, of whom 44
are municipal police. The village watchmen number 265. There are
12 police stations, 16 road-posts, and 4 out-posts. The border military
police, who are amalgamated with the local militia (the Samana Rifles),
are under a commandant, assisted by a British adjutant and quarter-
master, all of whom are officers of the regular police force. The
control of the commandant is exercised subject to the orders of the
Deputy-Commissioner. The force, which numbers 1,023 of all ranks,
garrisons 23 posts for maintaining watch and ward on the border.
The District jail at head-quarters can accommodate nearly 300
prisoners.

Only 4-2 per cent, of the population (7-2 males and 0-3 females)
could read and write in 1901. The proportion is markedly higher
amongst Sikhs (39-1 per cent.), and Hindus (29-5), than among the
agricultural Muhammadans (i-6 per cent.). Owing to the difficulties
of communication and the poverty of the District board, education con-
tinues to be very backward, and the percentage of literacy compares
unfavourably with that of the Province generally. The number of
pupils under instruction was 375 in 1880-1, 536 in 1890-1, 908 in
1 900-1, and 1,260 in 1903-4. In the last year there were 2 secondary
and 28 primary (public) schools, and 55 elementary (private) schools,
the number of girls being 90 in the public and 230 in the private
schools. The total expenditure was Rs. 16,000, of which fees brought
in Rs. 2,400, the District fund contributed Rs. 5,000, the municipality
Rs. 6,800, and Imperial revenues Rs. 2,600.

Besides the civil hospital at Kohat, and a branch in the town for
females, the District possesses two dispensaries, at Hangu and Teri.
The hospitals and dispensaries contain 57 beds. In 1904 the number
of cases treated was 53,499, including 1,106 in-patients, and 2,100
operations were performed. The income was Rs. 10,800, Government
contributing Rs. 3,800 and municipal and District funds Rs. 7,000.

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 951, repre-
senting 44 per 1,000 of the population. The Vaccination Act has
been in force in Kohat since 1903.

{District Gazetteer, 1879 (under revision).]

Kohat Tahsil.— Tahsil of Kohat District, North- West Frontier
Province, lying in two portions between if 22' and if 45' N. and
71 5' and 71 40' E., and between 33 3' and 33 20' N. and 71 27'
and 71 46' E., with a total area of 811 square miles. The tahsil
is divided into two parts, separated by an extension of the Teri tahsil



KOHAT TOWN 351

reaching to the foot of the Afridi hills, by which the District is
bounded on the north. The western portion, which contains the
town and cantonment of Kohat, consists of the valley of the Kohat
Toi, after its issue from Lower Mlranzai and the adjacent hills. The
other part is a strip of barren and fairly level country along the right
bank of the Indus north of Khushalgarh. The population in 1901
was 79,601, compared with 69,984 in 1891. It contains the town of
Kohat (30,762), the District and tahsil head-quarters ; and 89 villages.
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 90,000.

Kohat Salt Quarries. — The Kohat District of the North-West
Frontier Province possesses important salt quarries at Jatta (or Jatta
Ismail Khel), MalgTn, Kharak, and Bahadur Khel, lying in the east
and centre of the District. Bahadur Khel, on the Bannu border, con
tains about forty quarries and Jatta sixteen. At the former place a mass
of rock-salt crops out between two hills, 8 miles long by \ mile
broad, the quarries worked lying in a small part of this area. Kohat
salt is grey to black in colour, and less esteemed than that of the
Salt Range, though analysis shows it to be of good quality. It is
purchased by traders direct from the miners under the supervision
of the preventive establishment, which consists of two superintendents
at Bahadur Khel and Jatta, an assistant superintendent at MalgTn,
5 inspectors, and 334 subordinates. Numerous outcrops have to be
watched. The quantity excavated in 1903-4 was 16,493 tons, paying
a duty of Rs. 6,73,961. The gross income during the six years ending
1902-3 averaged Rs. 6,63,825. The salt is largely exported beyond
the border and to Afghanistan, but it also supplies the four Districts
of the Province which lie west of the Indus. The export trade is
chiefly in the hands of Ghilzai, Mohmand, Afridi, and other trans-
border traders.

Kohat Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of the
same name, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 33 35' N. and
71 26' E., on the Khushalgarh-Thal branch of the North- Western
Railway, 30 miles from Khushalgarh. Population (1901), 30,762, of
whom 19,807 are Muhammadans, 7,833 Hindus, and 2,832 Sikhs.
The population in the cantonment, included in the above total, was
12,670. The present town of Kohat has sprung up since annexation.
It lies in an amphitheatre of hills at some distance from the site of
the old town, which is said to have been founded by the Bangash
in the fourteenth century. It is built on undulating ground with
excellent natural drainage. The cantonment and civil station stand
on high ground to the east and north-east of the native town. The gar-
rison consists ordinarily of a mountain battery, some frontier garrison
artillery, one native cavalry regiment, and three native infantry regi-
ments. The municipality was constituted in 1873. The income



3 5 2 KOH AT TOWN

during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 40,700, and the
expenditure Rs. 36,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 50,500,
chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 83,400. This
sum includes an investment of Rs. 30,000 in Government securities.
The receipts and expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,600 and Rs. 5,500 respectively.
The chief public institutions are the Anglo-vernacular high school
maintained by the municipality, a civil hospital, and a female hospital.
The town is of no commercial importance, but has a small manufacture
of lungls or turbans. Rifles used to be made at the neighbouring
village of Jangal Khel, but the industry is now quite extinct.

Koh-i-Baba. — A long mountain range stretching from east to west
(34 42' to 35 20' N. and 68° 15' to 6i° 10' E.) across the centre of
Afghanistan, and forming part of the great backbone of the country.
It is usually spoken of as a continuation of the Hindu Kush, and is
so in fact, though the ends of the ranges overlap and are united by
a flat, open watershed, known as the Shibar pass. From this point
the Koh-i-Baba runs in a westerly direction to the south of Yak
Walang, where it breaks into four branches. The southernmost,
which is known as the Band-i-Duakhwan, the Band-i-Baian, and by
other names, continues along the south of the Hari Rud valley to the
immediate neighbourhood of Herat, where it is known as the Band-i-
Bor. The next branch is called the Safed Koh. North of this, the
Siah-Bubak, Band-i-Baba, or Koh Siah runs along the north of the
Hari Rud valley, parallel to the Band-i-Baian, and forms the water-
shed between the Hari Rud and Murghab. The fourth branch strikes
north-west, enclosing the basin of the Upper Murghab, and dividing it
from the deep valley and gorges of the Rud-i-band-i-AmTr. Branching
right and left, it forms the mass of mountains which are the natural
boundary of this part of Afghan-Turkistan. The western half of these
mountains is called the Band-i-Turkistan ; the eastern half has no
special name.

In physical features the western portion of the range actually called
the Koh-i-Baba, of which the highest peaks rise to over 16,000 feet,
bears considerable resemblance to the Hindu Kush. To the south of
the Koh-i-Baba lies the Besud district of the Hazarajat, a hilly region
of great elevation. North is the great plateau of Afghanistan, extend-
ing for 140 miles in the direction of the Oxus. As to the many passes
which cross the Koh-i-Baba, there is no reliable information, with the
exception of the Irak (about 13,000 feet), the Hajigak (about 12,000),
and the Zard Sang (about 13,000).

Kohlma. Subdivision.— Subdivision of the Naga Hills District,
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 42' and 26 34' N. and
93 7' and 94 26' E., with an area of 2,337 square miles. The whole



KO HI STAN 353

of the subdivision consists of hilly country inhabited by various tribes
of Nagas, of whom the most numerous and important are the Angamls
and Lhotas. The average rainfall at Kohima is only 76 inches, but at
Wokha, farther north, it exceeds 100 inches. Population fell from
70,221 in 1891 to 68,619 m l 9 OI > giving a density of 29 persons per
square mile. The subdivision contained one town, Kohima (popula-
tion, 3,093), the District head-quarters; and 224 villages. A pecu-
liarity of the subdivision is the terraced cultivation of the AngamI
Nagas. This powerful and warlike tribe cut out the slopes of
the hill-side into terraces built up with stone retaining walls, which
are skilfully irrigated by channels distributing the water over the
whole series. This system enables them to grow good rice at an
elevation at which rice sown broadcast does not thrive. The principal
source of revenue is house tax, which in 1903-4 was assessed at
Rs. 34,000.

Kohima Town. — Head-quarters of the Naga Hills District, Eastern
Bengal and Assam, situated in 25 41' N. and 94 7' E., about 5,000 feet
above the level of the sea. The cart-road from Dimapur in the Brah-
maputra Valley to Manipur passes through the town. Population
(1901), 3,093. The rainfall averages 76 inches, and the climate is
cool and pleasant. The head-quarters of the District were first located
at this place in 1878, with the object of bringing the powerful tribe of
AngamI Nagas, in whose territory it is situated, more completely under
control. The station is situated on a spur of the hill near the large
Naga village from which it takes its name, and contains a small jail
with accommodation for 32 persons and a hospital with 10 beds. The
garrison consists of two companies of native infantry and a battalion
of military police.

Kohir. — Former taluk of Bidar District, Hyderabad State. See
BIdar Taluk.

Kohir. — Town in the District and taluk of Bidar, Hyderabad State,
situated in 17 36' N. and 77 43' E., 24 miles south-east of Bidar
town. Population (1901), 6,379. It contains the tombs of two well-
known Musalman saints, besides numerous mosques; the Jama Masjid,
erected during the reign of the Bahmani kings, is a building of note.
The town contains a middle and girls' school, a post office, and the
police inspector's office. Kohir is celebrated for its mangoes.

Kohistan. — The local name of a barren and hilly tract of country
in Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, composed of outlying spurs from
the Kirthar Range. The southern portion merges into extensive plains,
separated by low lines of hills, which afford abundant grazing for herds
of cattle after rain. The Kohistan is entirely dependent on rainfall,
and cultivation is possible only where the rainfall has been impounded,
or on one of the numerous watercourses. Some of these streams,



354 KOHISTAN

known as tiais, are of considerable size, the chief being the Baran,
which flows into the Indus below Kotri.

The Kohistan is a mahal or petty subdivision, with a population
(1901) of 12,877. The revenue is Rs. 3,900. The population is
nomadic and fluctuating, consisting chiefly of Sindis and Baluchis,
formerly given to internal feuds, but now content to earn a frugal living
by grazing herds of camels, cattle, sheep, and goats.

Kohlu. — Tahsil of the Sibi subdivision in the District of Sibi,
Baluchistan, lying between 29 43' and 30 2' N. and 68° 58' and
69 32' E. Its area is 362 square miles, and the population (1901),
1,743. It forms a triangular plateau about 3,900 feet above sea-level
and has a pleasant climate. The head-quarters bear the same name
as the tahsil. Villages number nine. The land revenue in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 14,154. On lands acquired by the Marris previous
to 1892 revenue at the rate of one-twelfth of the produce is taken,
an equal share being paid by the cultivator to the Marri chief. On
other lands revenue is levied at the rate of one-sixth.

Koil. — Name of the head-quarters town and tahsil of Allgarh
District, United Provinces, usually called AlIgarh Town or Tahsil
in official correspondence.

Koilkonda. — Former taluk in Mahbubnagar District, Hyderabad
State, with an area of 546 square miles. The population in 1901,
including jaglrs, was 58,031, compared with 54,802 in 1891. The
land revenue in 1901 was Rs. 64,000. In 1905 the taluk was divided
between Kodangal in Gulbarga District, and Pargi and Mahbubnagar
in Mahbubnagar District.

Koilkuntla. — Central taluk of Kurnool District, Madras, lying
between 14 57' and 15 29' N. and 77 59' and 78 ?>z' E., with an
area of 572 square miles. The population in 1901 was 88,147, com-
pared with 86,544 in 1891. Koilkuntla is more thickly populated than
any other taluk in the District except Ramallakota. It contains
85 villages, but no town. The demand for land revenue and cesses
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,10,000. The 'dry' lands of the villages
on both sides of the Kunderu river, which flows through the eastern
half of the taluk, are the richest in the District, consisting of fertile
black cotton soil. The annual rainfall is 22 inches, but the western
portion receives only 1 7 inches. The people are more prosperous and
robust than their neighbours, and are regarded as the most factious
and litigious in the District, land disputes often leading to riots
accompanied with bloodshed. The taluk is very badly provided with
communications.

Koilpatti. — Station on the South Indian Railway in the Sattur
taluk of Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated in 9 io' N. and 77
52' E. It is an inam village (that is, held on favourable tenure) and



KOI ABA DISTRICT 355

a Union, with a population (1901) of 3,415, and possesses a dry
healthy climate. There is a cotton-spinning mill under native manage-
ment, and a Government experimental farm has recently been opened.

Kol. — A generic name applied by Hindus to the Munda, Ho, and
Oraon tribes of Bengal.

Kolaba District. — District in the Southern Division of the Bombay
Presidency, lying between 17 51' and 19 8' N. and 72 51' and
73 45' E., with an area of 2,131 square miles. It is bounded on the
north by Bombay harbour and the Kalyan and Murbad tdlukas of
Thana District ; on the east by the Western Ghats, the Bhor State,
and the Districts of Poona and Satara ; on the south and south-west by
Ratnagiri ; and on the west by the Janjlra State and the Arabian Sea.

Kolaba District is a rugged belt of country from 15 to 30 miles
broad, stretching south from Thana and Bombay harbour to the foot
of the Mahabaleshwar hills, 75 miles south-east.
Situated between the Western Ghats and the sea, asnects

the District contains spurs of considerable regularity
and height, running westwards at right angles to the main range, as
well as isolated peaks or lofty detached ridges. A series of minor
ranges also run north and south between the main range and the sea.
The great wall of the Western Ghats forms the chief natural feature.
Of other ranges, the chief is the line of hills that from near the foot
of the Bor pass stretches north-west in the flat tops of Matheran and
Prabal. Running north and south through the centre of the Panvel
taluka is the broken spur which ends southwards in Karnala or Funnel
hill. Farther west is the lower line of the Parshik hills, and in the
south the long ridges that centre in the precipitous fortified peak of
Manikgarh (1,800 feet). South of Bombay harbour a well-marked
rugged belt rising in bare rocky slopes runs south and south-east, with
the two leading peaks of Kankeshwar (1,000 feet) in the extreme
north and Sagargarh (1,164 f eet ) about 6 miles farther south. The most
famous peak in the District is Raigarh, on a spur of the Western
Ghats, where Sivajl built his capital.

The sea frontage of the District throughout the greater part of its
length is fringed by a belt of coco-nut and areca-nut palms. Behind
this belt is situated a stretch of flat country devoted to rice cultivation.
In many places, along the banks of the salt-water creeks, there are
extensive tracts of salt marsh-land, some of them reclaimed, some still
subject to tidal inundation, and others set apart for the manufacture
of salt. A few small rivers, rising in the hills to the east of the
District, pass through it to the sea. The chief of these are the Ulhas,
Patalganga, Amba, Kundalika, Mandad, and Savitrl. Tidal inlets, of
which the principal are the Ulva or Panvel, the Patalganga or Apta,
the Amba or Nagothana, the Kundalika, Roha or Chaul, the Mandad,



356 KOLABA DISTRICT

and the Savitri or Bankot creek in the south, run inland for 25 or
30 miles, forming highways for a brisk trade in rice, salt, firewood, and
dried fish. These inlets have of late years silted up to a considerable
extent, and it seems possible that their value as highways may in future
decline on this account. The creek of the Pen river is navigable to
Antora, 2 miles from Pen, by boats of 7 tons during ordinary tides,
and by boats of 35 tons during spring-tides. Near the coast especially,
the District is well supplied with reservoirs. Some of these are hand-
somely built of cut stone, but of no great size, and only a few hold
water throughout the year.

The rock formation is trap. In the plains it is found in tabular
masses a few feet below the soil and sometimes standing out from the
surface. In the hills it is tabular and is also found in irregular masses
and shapeless boulders, varying from a few inches to several feet in
diameter. In many places the surface of the trap has a rusty hue
showing the presence of iron. Kolaba has three hot springs, at Unheri
near Nagothana and at Son and Kondivti in Mahad.

The forest areas of Kolaba contain a variety of trees, of which the
commonest are teak, mango, ain (Terminalia tomentosa), jdmba (Xylia
do7abrifomnis), and kinjal ( Terminalia paniculatd). The leaves of the
apta (Bauhinia racemosa), which is too small to yield timber, are used
in the manufacture of native cigarettes ; cart-wheels are made from the
timber of the khair {Acacia Catechu) ; and the fruit of the tamarind
(chinch) is largely utilized as medicine and spice. The gorak chinch
or baobab (Adansonia digitata), though growing to an enormous size,
is not utilized. Fuel is provided chiefly by the mangrove and tivar
(Sonneratia acida), which grow in the salt marshes, and by such
creepers and shrubs as the phalsi (Greivia asiaiica), kusar (Jasminum
latifolium), kaneri (Nerium odorum), and garudvel (Entada scandens).
Other creepers are the rantur (Atylosia lawii), matisul (leonotis
nepefifolia), and sdpsan {Aristolochia indica), which are used medici-
nally, and the shikakai (Acacia concinna), which bears a nut of cleansing
properties.

For a hilly and wooded District, Kolaba is poorly stocked with
game. Tigers and leopards are occasionally found, especially in the
Sagargarh range, and bears on the Western Ghats. Hyenas and jackals
abound. Bison, sdmbar, and chital have been shot, but are very rare.
Of game-birds, the chief is the snipe. Duck are neither common nor
of many kinds. The other game-birds are partridge, quail, plover,
lapwing, curlew, peafowl, grey jungle-fowl, red spur-fowl, and the
common rock and green pigeons. Snakes are numerous but of no
great variety, and the cobra, though common, does not cause any large
number of deaths. In the coast villages, the fishermen cure large
quantities of fish for export to Bombay by the inland creeks. The sea



HISTORY 357

fisheries, especially of the Allbng villages, are of considerable impor-
tance, affording a livelihood to 6,800 fishermen in the District ; but the
latter are gradually spoiling their own prospects by the use of nets so
constructed that small fry, as well as half-grown fish, are exterminated
before they attain a marketable size. The chief species caught, mostly
by means of stake-nets, are pomphlet, bamelo or bombil, and hahva.

There are four distinct climatic periods — the rains from June to
October ; the damp hot season in October and November on the
cessation of the rains ; the cold season from December to March ; and
the dry hot season from March to June. In the region about Allbag
there is always a sea-breeze. Mahad is almost entirely cut off from the
sea-breeze, and is subject to much greater changes of temperature than
most of the District. In the hot months the heat is very oppressive
in Karjat, except on the hill-tops. The temperature varies from 65 in
January to 92 in May, with an average of 8o°. The rainy season
is considered the healthy period of the year. The rainfall in the
inland subdivisions is much heavier than on the coast, amounting to
130 inches. The annual fall at the District head-quarters averages
S8 inches.

Hindu, Muhammadan, Maratha, and British rulers have, as through-
out most of the Peninsula, in turn administered the District of Kolaba.

But it is the rise, darin°;, and extinction of the pirate

c , a r - , - a •- 1 , ,_ • History.

power of the Maratha Angna that vests the history

of this part of the Konkan with a peculiar interest. The early rulers
were most probably local chiefs. Shortly after the beginning of the
Christian era, the Andhra dynasty, whose capital was Kolhapur, were
the overlords of Kolaba. About this time (a. d. 135 to 150), the
Greek geographer Ptolemy describes the region of Kolaba under the
name of Symulla or Timulla, probably the Chaul of later days. In
Ptolemy's time the Satavahanas or Andhras were ruling in the Kon-
kan as well as in the Deccan ; and for many years the ports on the
Kolaba seaboard were the emporia of a large traffic, not only inland,
over the Western Ghats across the Peninsula, but by way of the
Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Egypt, Arabia, and Abyssinia. In
the sixth century Kolaba, with all the Northern Konkan, came under
the sway of the Chalukyas, whose general, Chana-danda, sweeping the
Mauryas or local rulers before him ' like a great wave,' captured the
Maurya citadel Purl, ' the goddess of the fortunes of the western ocean.'
In the thirteenth century, by which time the rule of the Chalukyas had
passed away, the District was held by the Deogiri Yadavas.

Immediately prior to the appearance of the Muhammadans, tradition
assigns to Kolaba a dynasty of Kanarese kings, probably the rulers
of Vijayanagar. Nothing, however, is known about them. The
Bahmanis, who ruled from 1347 to 1489, reduced the whole Konkan



358 KOLABA DISTRICT

to obedience, and held Chaul as well as other posts in Kolaba District.
The Bahmani dynasty was followed by kings from Gujarat. A period
of Portuguese ascendancy established at Chaul (i 507-1 660) preceded
the rise of the Angrias, and was partly contemporaneous with the
conquest of all the rest of the District by the Mughals and Marathas.



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