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but as a rule this form of crime is unknown.

The District was first included in Ratnagiri and then in Thana. In
1853 it was made a sub-collectorate and in 1869 a separate District.
After annexation in 1818, the practice of paying revenue in grain was
for some time continued j and during the period of depressions in
prices, 1823-34, the District fared better than Thana, where money
payments were taken. From 1834 to 1854 the country improved,
population increased, and reductions were made in the Government
demand. Between 1854 and 1866 survey rates were introduced, and
as this occurred in some parts before the rapid rise of prices in that
period, the cultivators became extremely prosperous. Other parts
were settled under the influence of high prices, and for a time their
condition was depressed, but on the whole cultivation and revenue
have both advanced. The revision survey settlement was carried out



ADMINISTRA TION



367



in the whole of the District between 1889 and 1904. The revision
found an increase in the cultivated area of 0-3 per cent, and enhanced
the total revenue from 11 to 13 lakhs. The average assessment per
acre of 'dry' land is 5 annas, of rice land Rs. 4-1 1, of garden land
Rs. 9-8.

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources
have been, in thousands of rupees : —





1880-1.


1890-1.


1900-1.


1903-4.


Land revenue
Total revenue


7,28
10,44


i°,°3
20,79


13,9°
23,14


13,58
24, 6 3



A peculiarity of Kolaba District is the khoti tenure, which exists in
445 villages. The khot was originally a mere farmer of the revenue
from year to year, but this right to act as middleman became hereditary,
although there was no proprietary right. Under the settlement, the
khot, as peasant proprietor, pays the survey rates, while the actual
cultivators pay rent to the khot, not exceeding an excess of 50 per cent,
above the Government demand, which constitutes the profit of the khot.
Most of the present khots are representatives of the original farmers, but
in some cases they have sold or mortgaged their rights.

The District has seven municipalities : namely, Alibag, Pen, Roha
Ashtami, Mahad, Panvel, Uran, and Matheran. Outside their
limits, local affairs are managed by the District board and seven taluka
boards. The total receipts in 1903-4 were 1-33 lakhs and the expendi-
ture 1-44 lakhs. The principal source of income is the land cess.
Over Rs. 52,000 was devoted to the construction and maintenance of
roads and buildings.

The police force is under the control of the District Superintendent,
assisted by one inspector. There are twelve police stations, with a
total of 555 police, including 8 chief constables, 103 head constables,
and 444 constables. There are nine subsidiary jails and one lock-up
in the District, with accommodation for 230 prisoners. The daily aver-
age number of prisoners in 1904 was 24, of whom 2 were females.

Kolaba stands thirteenth among the 24 Districts of the Presidency
in regard to the literacy of its population, of whom 4-7 per cent. (9 males
and 0-3 females) could read and write in 1901. In 1881 the number
of schools was 76, with 4,520 pupils. The pupils increased to 9,481
(exclusive of 1,117 m 68 private schools) in 1 891, and further to 11,130
(including 1,256 in 85 private schools) in 1901. In 1903-4 there were
242 schools attended by 9,277 pupils, including 1,021 girls. Of the
193 institutions classed as public, one is a high school, 188 are primary,
and 4 middle schools ; 139 are managed by the District board, 24 by
municipalities, and 30 are aided. The total expenditure on education



;6S KOLABA DISTRICT

in 1903-4 was Rs. 87,000, of which Rs. 16,000 was derived from fees.
Of the total, 83 per cent, was devoted to primary schools.

The District contains 2 hospitals and 6 dispensaries, with accommo-
dation for 52 persons. In these institutions 62,000 cases, including
178 in-patients, were treated in 1904, and 902 operations were per-
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 18,500, of which nearly Rs. 9,300
was met from Local and municipal funds.

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 14,573,
representing a proportion of 24 per 1,000 of population, which is
slightly below the average of the Presidency.

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, vol. vi
(1883) ; Major J. Francis, Settlement Report of the Kolaba District
(1863).]

Kolachel. — Seaport in the Eraniel taluk of Travancore State,
Madras, situated in 8° n' N. and 77 18' E. Population (1901),
about 1,000. From 15 to 20 steamers and 40 to 50 native craft touch
here annually during the shipping season, September to April. The
principal exports are jaggery (coarse sugar), coffee, salted fish, palmyra
fibre, coir, and timber ; and the chief imports are rice, Bengal gram,
crockery, and iron. It was once the site of an indigo factory. The
place is referred to by Bartolomeo as a safe harbour well-known to
the ancients, and was occupied for a time by the Danes ; the Dutch
sustained a signal defeat here at the hands of Rama Ayyan Dalawa,
commander of the Travancore forces, in 1 740, from which date began
the decline of their power on the west coast.

Kolair. — Lake in Kistna District, Madras. See Colair.

Kolar District. — District in the east of the State of Mysore, lying
between 12 46' and 13 58' N. and 77 22' and 7 8° 35' E., with an
area of 3,180 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the
Anantapur and Cuddapah Districts of Madras ; on the east by the
Cuddapah and North Arcot Districts of Madras; on the south by
the Salem District of Madras; and on the west by Bangalore and
Tumkur Districts.

The District borders on the Eastern Ghats, but touches them only

pn the north-east and south, between these points receding to about

. 15 miles from the range. The main part comprises

aspects. tne nea d °f tne Palar river system on the south,

and that of the Penner on the north, separated

by an imaginary line from Chik-Ballapur to Srinivaspur. In and

around Nandidroog in the north-west are the sources of the following

rivers, radiating in all directions : the Arkavati, Penner, Chitravati,

Papaghni, Palar, and Ponnaiyar. The principal chain of mountains

is the range running north from Nandidroog (4,851 feet), the

highest point, to Penukonda. Through the middle of the District,



KOLAR DISTRICT 369

separated by intervals, the Tyakal and Vokkaleri hills, the Kolar hills
(highest point 4,026 feet\ Rahmangarh (4,227 feet) and Ambajidurga
(4,399 feet), with the Dokkalakonda, run north to the frontier. There
are other lines of low hills in the east, those in the north-east inclining
to a circular arrangement, enclosing elevated valleys, occupied by
villages. The central and eastern parts of the District, forming the
valley of the Palar, are undulating and well cultivated. A considerable
depression occurs in the valley of the Penner towards Goribidnur, in
the north-west. The outlying parts along the northern frontier mark
with alternate rise and fall the descent to the level of the Anantapur
country. On the east the Mugli and Naikaneri passes to the plains of
the Carnatic are some distance beyond the boundary.

The rocks of the District are for the most part similar to those of
the adjoining District of Bangalore, being composed of gneiss, but
with a smaller admixture of mica and a paler felspar. The rock of
Nandidroog is almost a solid monolithic mass of granite, rising 1,800
feet above the plain. The low hills which lie across the course of the
Palar and run south through the Bowringpet taluk are composed of
a soft ferruginous clay slate. They have flat tops and are mostly
barren, though the soil about them is composed of fine argillaceous
red earth. The Kolar auriferous band of schists runs north and south
for about 40 miles, with a maximum width of about 4 miles. In the
southern portion are situated the Kolar Gold Fields. The band is
composed essentially of hornblende rocks, usually schistose, and some
well-marked layers of ferruginous quartz rocks. Recent opinion favours
the view that the hornblende schists which form the main mass of the
band are metamorphosed basic lava-flows. There is evidence tending
to show that the surrounding granites and gneisses are largely intrusive
with regard to the schists.

The indigenous flora is similar to that of Bangalore District. The
numerous fine tanks are favourable to aquatic genera. Partly in and
partly out of the water are found many species of reeds. Clinging to
the tank embankments and upper level margins are Po?igamia glabra
and other moisture-loving plants. The hill flora is well represented on
the Nandidroog range. Nearly all the plants in the plain ascend the
slopes of the hill to varying heights, some to the very summit. These
are intermixed with species rarely or never found in the plain. The
plateau on the top, enclosed by the fort walls, contains a peculiarly
mixed flora of Maidan, Malnad, and domesticated plants. Quite the
commonest tree is Eugenia Jambola?ia, and there are some fine
specimens of Michelia Champaca. Eucalyptus and casuarina have
grown well. The Gold Fields are situated between low ranges of
stony hills, the valley being naturally bleak and dreary in appearance,
with the poorest vegetation. But since mining operations were started,



37 o KOLAR DISTRICT

avenues of trees, such as various species of Ficus, Melia, &c, have
been planted, and gardens well stocked with flowering plants usual
among English residents have sprung into existence. The most suc-
cessful, however, are those formed in soil laid down for the purpose.

The climate does not differ materially from that of Bangalore
District, but the rainfall is somewhat less, and depends more on the
north-east monsoon than on the south-west. The country is generally
healthy, remarkably so in the neighbourhood of Chik-Ballapur and
Kolar, but plague has been severe in the former. Cholera and other
epidemics which used frequently to prevail in the District, owing to
crowds of travellers and especially pilgrims to and from Tirupati
constantly passing through, have been reduced to a minimum by the
diversion of this traffic to the railway. The dangers arising from
the recent large influx of labourers to the gold-mines are kept well
under control by the Sanitary Board. The annual rainfall averages
nearly 29 inches, n inches of the total falling in September and
October. Chik-Ballapur and Mulbagal get more than the average,
and Bagepalli less. The mean annual temperature is about 75 , with
a maximum of 95 in April and May, and a minimum of 57 in
February.

The earliest rulers of whom there is an authentic account were the
Mahavalis or Banas, who held the east of the District. They claim
descent from Maha Bali, or ' Bali the Great,' a Daitya
king who by his penance had acquired such power
that he defeated Indra and dominated the world. In order to put him
down Vishnu assumed the Vamana or Dwarf incarnation. Bana, or
Banasura, was Bali's son, and had a thousand arms. His daughter
was seduced by Krishna's grandson, and a war ensued. Siva guarded
the gates and fought for Banasura, who worshipped him with his
thousand hands. But Krishna found means to overthrow Siva, and
having taken the city, cut off Banasura's hands, except two, with which
he obliged him to do homage. The Mahavalis may have been con-
nected with Mahabalipur, known as the Seven Pagodas, on the coast
south of Madras. They continued in power, being also called Banas,
till the tenth century, but for a long time had the Pallavas as over-
lords. Their later capital was Paduvipuri (perhaps Padavedu in North
Arcot). During their time Avani was an important sacred place, the
seat of a Brahman community. The Vaidumbas also appear in a few
inscriptions in the north. The Pallavas were rulers over the whole of
the Telugu country and over the Tamil country as far as Trichinopoly.
Their capital was originally at Vengi, but from an early period was
established at Kanchi (Conjeeveram). From the second to the
eleventh century all the west of the District was included in the
kingdom of the Gangas, who had the titles ' Lord of Kuvalala-pura '



HISTORY 371

(Kolar) and ' Lord of Nandagiri ' (Nandidroog). They were suc-
ceeded about 998 by the Cholas, who gave the District the name of
Nikarilichola-mandala. About 11 16 the Cholas were driven out of
the Mysore country by the Hoysalas, the eastern boundary of whose
kingdom was at Nangali. When in 1254 a partition of the Hoysala
territories took place between the two sons of Somesvara, Kolar
District went with the Tamil country to Ramanatha. But the kingdom
was again united in the next reign under the Hoysala king, Ballala III.
During the Vijayanagar dominion Mulbagal was the seat of government
for the District. At the close of the fifteenth century Saluva Narasimha,
a powerful chief of Karnata and Telingana, and general of the Vijaya-
nagar forces, stopped in Kolar District the invasion of the Bahmani
Sultan, who was overrunning the whole of the Vijayanagar territories.
Narasimha himself then usurped the throne of Vijayanagar. Under
the later Vijayanagar kings, Tamme Gauda, one of the chiefs of the
Avati family, established himself at Sugatur, and for his military
services gained the title of Chikka Rayal and the possession of the
east of the District. Another of these chiefs in 1476 founded the
Chik-Ballapur State in the west, which was supported in the eighteenth
century by Morari Rao, the Maratha chief of Gooty. In the seven-
teenth century the District was subdued by Bijapur, and made part of
the jaglr of ShahjT. The Mughals afterwards held it for seventy years,
attaching it to the province of Slra. During this period Fateh Muham-
mad, the father of Haidar All, became Faujdar of Kolar. It next
passed into the hands of the Marathas, of the Nawab of Cuddapah,
and then of Basalat Jang, chief of Adoni and brother of the Nizam.
He in 1761 ceded Kolar and Hoskote to Haidar All. Mulbagal and
Kolar were held for a time by the British in 1768. In 1770 the
Marathas again seized the District, but it was recovered by Haidar.
In 1 791 it was a second time taken by the British, but restored to
Mysore at the peace of 1792.

Avani, Betmangala, and Tekal contain memorials of antiquity. At
Nonamangala, south of Malur, were discovered in 1897 the foundations
of a Jain temple, with inscribed plates of the fourth and fifth centuries,
and a number of images, musical instruments, and other articles. The
ancient temples of NandTsvara at Nandi and Kolaramma at Kolar are
of interest. There is some fine carving in the former. In their present
form they are of the Chola period, dating from early in the eleventh
century. At Kolar is also the Imambara or mausoleum of Haidar
All's family. The numerous inscriptions of the District have been
translated and published.

The population was 646,837 in 1871, 481,191 in 1881, 591,113 in
1 89 1, and 723,600 in 1901. The fall in 1881 was due to the famine of
1876-8. By religion, in 1901, there were 663,940 Hindus, 43,149 Musal-



372



KOLAR DISTRICT



mans, 9,605 Christians, 6,019 Animists, 880 Jains, and 7 'others.' The

density of population was 228 per square mile, that
Population. for the whole gtate being ig5 _ The KqlXr q old

Fields (population, 38,204) is the only place with more than 20,000
inhabitants. The head-quarters of the District are at Kolar Town.
The following are the principal statistics of population in 1901 : —



Taluk.



Kolar

Mulbagal .

Bowringpet

Malur

Sidlagliatta

Chik-Ballapur

Goribidnur

Bagepalli .

Chintamani

Srinivaspur

District total



V

5
3


Numberof






01 1)

-a

V

i-


B




>


283


1


334


3 2 7


I


35i


337


2


409


267


I


374


3 2 9

250


I
I


353
266


343


I


268


447


2


372


272


I


34'


325


I


34'
3,409


3,180


12



75.648

66,899

128,193
61,908
70,022

56,057
83,296

65.621

57, 144

5S,8i2

723,600



u

CI V


'ScS.


2


g'e


rt -


5 a a v


8-sr

Ph


Percent
variat

populati
tween

and 1


Numb

persons

read

wri


267


+ 4.1


4,747


205


+ 17-6


3,112


381


+ 8o-6


9,532


232


+ M-3


2,59 8


213


+ 176


3,074


224


+ 8.7


2,697


243


+ '5-7


3,73i


147


+ '3-o


2,169


2 10


+ 19.9


2,724


l8l


+ 23-8


2,5 21


2 28


+ 22-4


36,905



The Wokkaligas or cultivators, 181,000, are the most numerous
caste; the outcaste Holeyas and Madigas number 91,000 and 48,000 ;
Bedas, variously employed, 56,000 ; Banajigas or traders, 46,000 ;
Kurubas or shepherds, 39,000 ; and Woddas or stonemasons, 30,000.
Brahmans number 26,000, and Lingayats 11,000. Of Musalmans,
26,000 are Shaikhs, 7,300 Saiyids, and 6,000 Pathans. Nomad
Koracha and Korama number 3,700, and Lambanis 1,000. Accord-
ing to occupations, 13 per cent, of the population are engaged in
unskilled labour not agricultural, nearly a third of them at the Gold
Fields ; 1 1 per cent, are engaged in the preparation and supply of
material substances ; and 62 per cent, in agriculture and pasture.

The number of Christians is 9,600, of whom 7,000 are at the Gold
Fields. French Jesuits opened a Telugu mission in Chik-Ballapur
and other places in 1702, and the Italian miners at the Gold Fields
are mostly Roman Catholics. There are also Anglican and Wesleyan
churches for the mining population. Of Protestant missions, the
London Mission has stations at Chik-Ballapur, Malur, and other
places; and the American Methodist Episcopal Mission has a station
at Kolar town, where they have a large industrial school.

The soil on the high grounds is red and gravelly, with rocks of gneiss

. . . or granite, of little cohesion, very often appearing on

the surface. The lower parts of these high grounds

are intersected by nullahs or deep ravines, torn by the torrents of



AGRICULTURE



373



water precipitated from the heights in the rainy season. The tops
of the ridges are usually very barren, producing nothing but small
jungle. The soil in the valleys is a good loamy mixture, formed of
the finer particles of the decomposed rocks, washed down and deposited
during the rains. On the first ascent from the valley the soil is of
a middling quality, suited for ' dry crops,' being a mixture of loam,
sand, and oxide of iron, with a proportion of vegetable and animal
matter. Higher up, towards the top of the ridge, a siliceous sand
prevails in the soil, which is on that account adapted only for horse-
gram. Below the superficial soil there is commonly a bed of gravel,
which immediately covers a gneissic or granitic rock, very often in
a state of disintegration considerably advanced.

The following table gives statistics of cultivation in 1903-4, in square
miles :—




The cultivated products are similar to those of Bangalore District,
but owing to the large number of tanks there is a greater proportion of
' wet ' and garden cultivation. The following are the areas, in square
miles, occupied by the principal crops in 1903-4: ragi, 4303 rice,
96; gram, 83; other food-grains, 170; oilseeds, 38; sugar-cane, 18.
Potatoes are extensively cultivated in the rich valleys of the Chik-
Ballapur and Sidlaghatta taluks. Poppy cultivation, now prohibited,
was formerly a source of great profit to the ryots. A little coffee is
grown at Nandidroog, and mulberry in the Chik-Ballapur, Sidlaghatta,
and Kolar taluks.

During the twelve years ending 1904 loans for land improvement
amounted to Rs. 9,500. For irrigation wells 1-85 lakhs was advanced,
and Rs. 8,500 for field embankments.

There are 3 square miles supplied by channels, 171 by tanks and
wells, and 60 irrigated from other sources. The number of tanks is
3,861, of which 483 are 'major.'



374 KOLAR DISTRICT

The area occupied by State forests in 1903-4 was 135 square miles,
by ' reserved ' lands 80, and by plantations 1 8. The forest receipts
amounted to Rs. 47,000, the principal items being firewood and
charcoal.

The gold-mines in the Bowringpet taluk of Kolar District yield
nearly all the gold produced in India. There were 1 1 mines in opera-
tion in 1904, the produce for the year being 607,500 ounces, valued
at more than 2\ millions sterling. The prevailing gneissose stone is
quarried for building, and for road metal. Near Sidlaghatta is a special
kind of laterite. At Rahman Garh there is an exudation of earth-oil at
a certain season.

Apart from industries connected with the gold-mines, there is a sugar

factory at Goribidnur, and a good industrial school with workshops at

Kolar, belonging to the American Methodist Epis-

con^m^cTtions. co P al Mission - The silk industry is general among
Muhammadans in the Kolar, Sidlaghatta, and Chik-
Ballapur taluks. There are reported to be 248 small works for reeling
silk, 2,192 looms for cotton cloth, 1,421 for blankets, and 61 for other
fibres. Wood-works number 242, iron-works 174, brass and copper
48. There are also 293 oil-mills, and 209 sugar and jaggery mills.
Mulbagal is noted for the excellence of its sugar.

The greatest commercial centres are the Gold Fields, and Bowringpet
connected with them. Their large population, both European and
native, gives rise to considerable trade. Next to gold, the most valuable
articles of export are sugar, sugar-candy, jaggery, and molasses ; then
cotton cloths and native blankets. Apart from machinery and articles
for the gold-mines, the principal imports are salt, ropes, baskets, and
paper.

The Bangalore branch of the Madras Railway runs through the Dis-
trict from west to east to Bowringpet, and then south-east, with a length
of 56 miles. From Bowringpet the Gold Fields Railway runs for 10
miles east and south through the mining properties. A light railway
has been projected from Bangalore to Chik-Ballapur. The length of
Provincial roads is 193 miles, and of District fund roads 385 miles.

Since the great famine of 1876-8 scarcity has prevailed on various
occasions, as in 1884-5 ar >d 1891-2. In 1896-7 prices of food-grains
. rose abnormally high, owing to large exports to the

neighbouring British Districts where there was wide-
spread distress. Half the assessment on waste 'wet' lands was re-
mitted as a measure of relief. In 1900 test works were started in the
Bagepalli taluk, but the necessity for them soon disappeared. The
south-east taluks and Bagepalli were affected by drought in 1905,
the cattle suffering most.

The District is divided into ten taluks : Bagepalli, Bowringpet,



ADMINISTRA TION



375



Administration.



Chik-Ballapur, Chintamani, Goribidnur, Kolar, Malur, Mulba-
gal, Sidlaghatta, and Srinivaspur. The Deputy-
Commissioner is the head of the District, and under
him the following three groups of taluks, in charge of Assistant Com-
missioners, were formed in 1903 : Kolar, Chintamani, and Srinivaspur,
with head-quarters at Kolar ; Chik-Ballapur, Goribidnur, Bagepalli, and
Sidlaghatta, with head-quarters at Chik-Ballapur ; Bowringpet, Malur,
and Mulbagal, with head-quarters at Kolar.

The District and Subordinate Judge's courts at Bangalore have juris-
diction over Kolar District, and there are Munsifs' courts at Kolar, at
the Gold Fields, and at Chik-Ballapur. The District is comparatively
free from serious crime.

The land revenue and total revenue are shown below, in thousands
of rupees : —





1880-1.


1 890-1.


1900-1.


1903-4.


Land revenue
Total revenue


8,63
9,69


11,02

'5,47


13,4.5
22,92


14,16

24,38



The revenue survey and settlement were introduced in the west and
north between 1880 and 1885, and in the east and south between 1887
and 1890. The incidence of land revenue per acre of cultivated area
in 1903-4 was Rs. 2-1-11. The average assessment per acre on
'dry' land is Rs. 1-5-5 (maximum scale Rs. 2-12-0, minimum scale
Rs. 1-1-0) ; on 'wet' land, Rs. 5-10-10 (maximum scale Rs. 9, mini-
mum scale Rs. 8); and on garden land, Rs. 5-12-9 (maximum scale
Rs. 16, minimum scale Rs. 2).

In 1903-4 there were eleven municipalities — namely, Kolar, Sidla-
ghatta, Mulbagal, Chik-Ballapur, Malur, Srinivaspur, Bowringpet,
Goribidnur, Chintamani, Gudibanda, and Bagepalli— with a total income
of Rs. 54,000 and an expenditure of Rs. 51,000, besides the Special Sani-
tary Board for the Gold Fields. Outside the areas administered by
these, local affairs are managed by the District and taluk boards, which
had an income of Rs. 82,000 in 1903-4, chiefly derived from a share of
the Local fund cess, and which spent Rs. 75,000, including Rs. 47,000



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