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on roads and buildings.

The special police force for the Gold Fields is described under
Kolar Gold Fields. Its authority extends over the Mulbagal, Malur,
and Bowringpet taluks. The District police includes 2 superior officers,
18 subordinate officers, and 359 constables. There are 12 lock-ups,
containing a daily average of 41 prisoners.

In 1 90 1 the percentage of literate persons was 12-2 in the Gold
Fields and 4-7 in the District (9-3 males and 0-7 females). The
number of schools rose from 358 with 11,101 pupils in 1890-1



376 KOLAR DISTRICT

to 453 with 13,689 pupils in 1 900-1. In 1903-4 there were 413
schools (320 public and 93 private) with 12,046 pupils, of whom 1,853
were girls.

Besides the hospitals at Kolar town and the Gold Fields, there were
7 dispensaries in 1904, in which 126,000 patients were treated, in-
cluding 875 in-patients, there being 30 beds available for men and
28 for women. The total expenditure was Rs. 38,000.

The number of persons vaccinated in 1904 was 10,110, or 14 per
1,000 of the population.

Kolar Taluk. — Central taluk of Kolar District, Mysore, lying
between 13 2' and 13 18' N. and 77 56' and 78 17' E., with an area
of 283 square miles. The population in 1901 was 75,648, compared
with 72,543 in 1 89 1. The taluk contains one town, Kolar (popula-
tion, 12,210), the head-quarters; and 334 villages. The land revenue
demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,71,000. The Palar river runs along the
eastern border, while the west is occupied by the Kolar and Vokkaleri
hills. The taluk is generally well cultivated, even the table-land on
the Kolar hills. There are numerous large tanks and wells, especially
in the south. The 'dry-crop' soil is mostly red, mixed with sand. In
the north-east is some black soil. Silkworms are reared in many of
the villages.

Kolar Gold Fields.— City in the south-east of Kolar District,
Mysore State, situated on a branch railway (10 miles long) from
Bowringpet, between 12 50' and 13 o' N. and 78 18' and 78 21' E.,
to the east of a low ridge of hills, of which Betarayan (3,199 feet)
is the most conspicuous point. Area, 15 square miles; population
(1901), 38,204. In 1891 the population was only 7,085, and the entire
city has come into being since 1887.

The existence of gold in this region had long been known, and there
are traces of old workings. Mining was attempted, but without
success, in the time of Tipii Sultan, and in 1802 Lieut. Warren
examined and reported upon this gold tract. In 1873 Mr. M. F.
Lavelle obtained from the Mysore government exclusive mining rights
for twenty years, and sank a shaft near Urigam in 1875. But finding
that large capital was needed for carrying on the work, he transferred
his rights in 1876, with the approval of the government, to a syndicate
known as the Kolar Concessionaires, to whom 20 square miles were
leased for thirty years on more favourable terms. In 1881 the aid was
secured of Messrs. John Taylor & Sons, mining engineers in London ;
and Captain B. D. Plummer, a miner of great experience, commenced
operations at the Nundydroog mine. These came to an end for want
of funds in 1883, and the outlook for the whole field was of the
gloomiest. The Mysore mine still had £13,000 left. On the strong
advice of Mr. John Taylor, Captain Plummer was sent out as a forlorn



KOLAR GOLD FIELDS 377

hope in December, 1883, to do the best he could with this amount.
Before long he had the good fortune to discover the Champion lode,
and by 1885 the success of the Kolar gold-field had been established.
Many changes had meanwhile been made in the terms of leases, which
had the effect of both encouraging the industry and giving the State
a legitimate share in the profits. The Kolar Gold Fields now yield
nearly all the gold produced in India, and some of the mines are
among the richest in the world. To the end of 1904 the total value
of gold produced was 21 millions sterling, and there had been paid in
dividends 9 millions, and in royalty to the Mysore*. State one million.
The nominal capital of the eleven companies at work at the end of
1904 was 2 1 millions sterling, valued in the London market at about
f)\ millions. Of these companies, five (Mysore, Champion Reef
Ooregum, Nundydroog, and Balaghat) paid dividends, and five pro-
duced gold but paid no dividends. The dividends paid by the first
five averaged 74 per cent, on their paid-up capital, but for individual
companies it came to 145 per cent, for the first and 169 for the second.
The number of persons employed in 1904 was 510 Europeans, 415
Eurasians, and 27,000 natives. The wages paid in the year amounted
to 70^ lakhs or £470,000.

The following improvements have been carried out by the State for
the promotion of the Gold Fields. In 1894 was opened the branch
railway from Bowringpet junction, passing through the mines. In 1899
a Sanitary Board was formed, composed of three ex-officio and four
non-official members, the latter nominated by the Mining Board and
approved by the State. The Special Magistrate is ex-officio president.
In 1900 the Gold Fields were formed into a separate police district,
together with the Bowringpet, Maldr, and Mulbagal taluks. A number
of Sikhs and Punjabis have been recruited, and in 1904 the force con-
sisted of a European Superintendent, 50 subordinate officers, and 726
constables. The number of grave crimes reported was 488, of which
70 per cent, were detected. Co-operating with this force, especially for
prevention of gold thefts, are also 6 European supervisors, with 315
native watchmen under them, and 4 Punjabi jemadars, with 125 Pun-
jabi watchmen. In the middle of 1902 the Cauvery power scheme
commenced supplying electric power to the mines from the Cauvery
Falls at Sivasamudram,' 92 miles distant. Since August, 1902, there
has been uninterrupted transmission of 4,185 horse-power. So satis-
factory have been the results that a further supply of 2,500 horse-
power, applied for by the mining companies, was installed in 1905,
and 2,000 additional to this is being arranged for. The power is also
being applied to the working of saw-mills at the mines. A scheme
for an efficient water-supply, drawn from the Betmangala tank on the
Palar river, 6 miles to the east, was finished in 1905. The water,



378 KOLAR GOLD FIELDS

filtered by the Jewel system, is pumped to a reservoir at the new town,
and each mine can draw its supply from the main laid through the
fields. The State undertakes to supply a million gallons a day to
the mines, and an additional half-million if found necessary. Churches,
a club, an hotel, large shops, &c, had been erected at various times,
but since 1895 the necessity of laying out a new town for the popula-
tion of the Gold Fields was recognized. Roads and wells were
gradually made, and land acquired. In 1901 a final plan was adopted
for the town (since named Robertsonpet, after a former Resident),
which extends north and south to the east of the Gold Fields. Con-
nected with it are cooly colonies, providing sanitary dwellings for the
workpeople. Between the residential and bazar sites has been reserved
an open space for a park or public garden.

Kolar Town. — Head-quarters of the District and taluk of Kolar,
Mysore, situated in 13 8' N. and 78 8' E., n miles north of Bowring-
pet railway station. Population (1901), 12,210. Kolar is a place of
great antiquity, but little now remains in it that is" ancient. The
original form of the name was Kuvalala, contracting to Kolala. The
Gangas from early in the Christian era bore the title 'Lord of
Kuvalala.' The present Kolaramma temple was erected by Rajendra
Chola in the beginning of the eleventh century, when the Cholas over-
threw the Ganga power. Early in the next century Kolala was taken
by the Hoysala king, who drove the Cholas out of Mysore. When the
Hoysala dominions were partitioned for a time in the second half of
the thirteenth century, Kolar went with the Tamil districts to Rama-
natha. In the fifteenth century, under Vijayanagar, Tamme Gauda,
with the title of Chikka Rayal, obtained authority to repair the fort.
The Sultan of Bijapur next subdued the place, and in 1639 it was a part
of the jagir given to Shahji, father of Sivajl. The Mughals took it
fifty years later, and about 1720 Fateh Muhammad, father of Haidar
All, became Faujdar of Kolar under the Subahdar of Slra. After
various fortunes, Kolar was ceded to Haidar All in 176 1. In 1768
it was taken by the British, in 1770 by the Marathas, in 1791 again
by the British, and at the peace of 1792 restored to Mysore. The
Makbara, or tomb of Haidar All's father, is one of the principal old
buildings, and is maintained by an endowment. The fort walls were
levelled some years ago and the ditch was filled up. Many new streets
were laid out at the same time. Before the opening of the railway
in 1864, Kolar was the great place of passage to and from Madras.
Scorpions abound, and a pit under the entrance to the Kolaramma
temple is kept full of them. A silver scorpion is one of the customary
offerings. Mulberry is grown for the rearing of silkworms. Turkeys
are reared in large numbers for export to Bangalore and other
European centres. Coarse woollen blankets are woven. The Methodist



KOI. /I AX 379

Episcopal Mission has an orphanage and industrial school. The
municipality dates from 1870. The receipts and expenditure during
the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 4,000. In 1903-4 they were
Rs. 12,000.

Kolhan. — Government estate in Singhbhum District, Bengal, lying
between 21 58' and 22 43' N. and 85 21' and 86° 3' E., with an
area of 1,955 square miles. The Kolhan is a low plateau, varying in
elevation from 750 feet above sea-level in the neighbourhood of Chai-
basa to upwards of 1,000 feet in the south. On the north, east, and
south, the country is for the greater part open and gently undulating ;
it is covered with prosperous villages and is well cultivated, the depres-
sions between the ridges being invariably sown with rice and some
portion of the uplands with cereals, pulses, or oilseeds. In the south-
east the surface is very rocky and covered with jungle ; and in the west
and south-west are mountainous tracts thickly covered with jungle and
very sparsely inhabited. The villages here are mere hamlets scattered
on the hill slopes, and an area of 529 square miles has been formed
into forest Reserves.

The majority of the inhabitants are Hos, and British relations with
them date from 1820. At that time the tract was a refuge for fugitive
offenders from Chota Nagpur, and plundering excursions were fre-
quently made by the Hos into the neighbouring territories. They thus
became a thorn in the side of the Raja of Porahat and of the other
chiefs in the north of Singhbhum. The British Government, wishing
to put an end to the plundering excursions, formed relations with the
Raja, of Porahat, and assisted him and the Saraikela and Kharsawan
chiefs in bringing the Hos into submission. The chiefs, however, were
unable to keep them in order, and in 1837 the British Government
resolved to take their territory under its direct control. Colonel
Richards entered the country with a strong force and secured their
submission, after which 23 Ho pirs or parganas were detached from
the control of the Singhbhum chiefs and 4 from Mayurbhanj and
formed into the Kolhan Government estate. There was no further
trouble until 1857, when the Hos joined the mutinous Raja of Porahat,
and a long and troublesome campaign took place, which terminated
with the surrender of the Raja in 1859.

The indigenous village-system of the Kols, based upon a federal
union of villages under a single divisional headman, which is gradually
dying out elsewhere in Chota. Nagpur, still survives in this tract. The
whole estate is divided into groups of from 5 to 20 villages. Each
village has its own munda or headman, all of whom are subject to
the authority of the mdnki or divisional headman. Every munda is re-
sponsible for the payment of the revenue, and for the detection and
arrest of criminals in his village, to the mdnki, who is in his turn

vol. xv. B b



3 8o KOLHAN

responsible to Government. For acting as revenue collectors, the
m d>ik is receive a commission of 10 per cent, and the mundas 16 per •
cent, of the revenue which passes through their hands. Besides these
duties, the mankis and nn/ndas, each in his degree, have certain informal
powers to decide village disputes and questions of tribal usage. Per-
sons other than Hos are not allowed to settle in the estate without
the permission of the Deputy-Commissioner. The last settlement was
effected in 1897, when the gross rental was fixed at Rs. 1,77,000, sub-
ject to a deduction of Rs. 49,000 on account of commission to mankis,
mundas, and tahsildars (as the village accountants are here called). A
uniform rate of 12 annas per acre was charged for embanked rice culti-
vation, and 2 annas for uplands. New dikkus or non-Hos were assessed
at double these rates. Of the total area, 525 square miles were culti-
vated, 450 square miles were cultivable, and 219 square miles unculti-
vable waste; 212 square miles were ' protected ' forest, 529 square miles
' reserved ' forest, and 20 square miles lakhiraj or revenue free. Chai-
basa, the head-quarters of Singhbhum District, which lies within the
estate, is assessed under a separate settlement.

[J. A. Craven, Final Report on the Settlement of the Kolhan Govern-
ment Estate (Calcutta, 1898).]

Kolhapur. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar. See Kholapur.

Kolhapur State (or Karavira, or Karvir). — State in the Kolhapur
and Southern Maratha. Political Agency, Bombay, lying between
15 50' and 17 11/ N. and 73 43' and 74 44' E. 1 , with an area of
3,165 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the river Varna,
which separates it from the District of Sa.ta.ra ; on the north-east by
the river Kistna, separating it from Sangli, Miraj, and Kurandvad ;
on the east and south by the District of Belgaum ; and on the west
by the Western Ghats, which divide it from Savantvadi on the south-
west and Ratnagiri on the west. Kolhapur comprises portions of the
two old Hindu divisions of Maharashtra and Carnatic, a distinction
which is still marked in the language of the people, part of whom speak
MarathI and the remainder Kanarese.

Subordinate to Kolhapur are nine feudatories, of which the following
five are important : Vishalgarh, Bavda, Kagal (senior), Kapsi, and Ichal-
karanjl. The general statistics of all of these are shown in the table
on the next page.

Stretching from the heart of the Western Ghats eastwards into the

plain of the Deccan, Kolhapur includes tracts of widely different cha-

. racter and appearance. In the west, along the spurs

aspects. °^ tne mam cna i n > are situated wild and picturesque

hill slopes and valleys, producing timber, myrabo-

lams, &c, and covered with forests. The central belt, which is open

1 These spherical values d not include certain outlying tracts, like Torgal.



KOLHAPUR STATE



38i



and fertile in parts, is crossed by several lines of low hills running
east and west at right angles to the main range. Farther east, the
land becomes more open, and presents the unpicturesque uniformity of
a well-cultivated and treeless plain, broken only by an occasional river.
Among the western hills are perched the forts of Panhala, Vishalgarh,
Bavda, Bhudhargarh, and Rangna, ancient strongholds of the Kolhapur
chieftains. The State is watered by eight streams of considerable size ;
but though navigable during the rainy months by trading boats of
2 tons, none is so large that it cannot be forded in the hot season.
The only lake of any importance is that of Rankala, near the city of
Kolhapur. It has lately been improved at a considerable cost. Its
circumference is about 3 miles, and its mean depth 3$ feet. Except
in the south, where there are some ridges of sandstone and quartzite
belonging to the Kaladgi (Cuddapah) formation, Kolhapur comes within
the area of the great Deccan trap fields.



Subdivisions and Feudatories.


Area in
square
miles.


Villages.


Population, i
1 901.


Revenue,

1 thousands

of rupees,

1903-4.


Kolhapur Proper.










Pet ha Karvlr ....


311


I42


164,351 %


i)


Petha Panhala, including Chan wad mahdt


468


202


11 3,085


A


Petha Alte


219


49


II 3»5 8 5




Petha Shirol, including Raybag mahal


328


64


88,828




Gad-Hinglaj, including Katkol mahal


487


166


I2 4,34 2




Petha Bhudhargarh

Tota
Feudatory Jaglrs.


489
2,302


193


94,761


£


8l6


698,952


43,91








Vishalgarh .....


235


66


35,258


2,02


Bavda .








243


69


44,400


i,44


Kapsi .








32


10


I 3,754


60


Kagal Senior








I 12


40


49, 2 33


3,26


Kagal Junior














67


IchalkaranjI .








24I


78


68,414


3,29


Torgal .














44


Himmat Bahadur .














85


Sarlashkar Bahadur














69


Tota


I 863


263


211,059


13,26




(


Jranc


tota


I 3,^5


1,079


910,011


57,17



The chief trees are the ain, nana, hirda, kinjal, jdmbul, and bava ;
minor products are bamboos, myrabolams, and grass. Tigers and
leopards are found in the hills. Bison, bears, and wild dogs are
occasionally met with.

At an elevation of about 1,800 feet above the sea, Kolhapur enjoys
on the whole a temperate climate. In the west, with its heavy rainfall

b b 2



3S2 KOLHAPUR STATE

and timber-covered hills and valleys, the air keeps cool throughout the
year ; but in the dry tracts below the hills, suffocating easterly winds
prevail from April to June. During the hot months the hill forts, rising
about 1,000 feet above the plain, afford a pleasant retreat. The annual
rainfall is heaviest at Bavda, where it reaches 207 inches, and least at
Shirol, where it is only 21 inches. Kolhapur and Ajra record an average
fall of 38 and 77 inches. Plague first appeared in the State in 1897,
and caused more than 62,000 deaths by the end of 1903-4.

The members of a branch of the Silahara family, which was settled
above the Western Ghats, possessed the territory lying round Kolhapur
and in the north-west of Belgaum District from about
the end of the tenth century to early in the thirteenth
century. About 1212 the country passed to the Deogiri Yadavas. The
ancient Hindu dynasty was subverted by the Bahmani kings of the
Deccan, and the country afterwards came under the rule of Bijapur.
In 1659 Sivaji obtained possession of the forts which, though taken and
retaken many times, finally remained with the Marathas on the death
of Aurangzeb.

The present Rajas of Kolhapur trace their descent from Raja Ram,
a younger son of Sivaji, the founder of the Maratha power. After the
death of Raja Ram in 1700, his widow placed her son Sivaji in power
at Kolhapur. But in 1707, when Sha.hu, the son of Sambhajl, Sivaji's
elder son, was released from captivity, he claimed the sovereignty over
all the possessions of his grandfather and fixed his capital at Satara.
Disputes between the two branches of the family continued for several
years, till in 1730 a treaty was concluded, under the terms of which the
younger branch agreed to yield precedence to Sha.hu, and to abandon all
claims to the country north of the Varna and east of the Kistna, and
Shahu of the elder branch recognized Kolhapur as an independent prin-
cipality. On the death of Raja Ram's younger son in 1 760, the direct
line of Sivaji became extinct ; and a member of the family of the
Bhonslas was adopted under the name of Sivaji III. The prevalence
of piracy from the Kolhapur port of Mai van compelled the Bombay
Government to send expeditions against Kolhapur in 1765, and again
in 1792, when the Raja, agreed to give compensation for the losses
which British merchants had sustained since 1785, and to permit the
establishment of factories at Malvan and Kolhapur. Internal dissen-
sions and wars with the neighbouring States of the Patvardhans,
Savantvadi, and Nipani, gradually weakened the power of Kolhapur.
In 181 2 a treaty was concluded with the British Government, by which,
in return for the cession of certain forts, the Kolhapur chief was
guaranteed against the attacks of foreign powers ; while on his part he
engaged to abstain from hostilities with other States, and to refer all
disputes to the arbitration of the British Government.



POPULATION 383

During the war with the Peshwa in 1817, the Raja of Kolhapur sided
with the British. In reward, the tracts of ( 'hikodi and Manoli, formerly
wrested from him by the chief of Nipani, were restored. But these
tracts did not long remain a part of the State. They were resumed by
the British Government in 1829, owing to the serious misconduct of
the Raja. Shahajl, alias Bava Sahib, who came to the throne in 1822,
had proved a quarrelsome and profligate ruler ; and, in consequence of
his aggressions between 1822 and 1829, the British were three times
obliged to move a force against him. On his death in 1837 a council
of regency was formed to govern during the minority of Sivaji IV.
Quarrels arose among the members of this council, and the consequent
anarchy led to the appointment by the British Government of a minister
of its own. The efforts, however, which he made to reform the adminis-
tration gave rise to a general rebellion, which extended to the neigh-
bouring State of Sa.vantva.di. After the suppression of this rising, all
the forts were dismantled, and the system of hereditary garrisons was
abolished. The military force of the State was disbanded and replaced
by a local corps. In 1862 a treaty was concluded with Sivaji IV, who
was bound in all matters of importance to be guided by the advice of
the British Government. In 1866, on his death-bed, Sivaji was allowed
to adopt a successor in his sister's son, Raja Ram. In 1870 Raja Ram
proceeded on a tour in Europe, and, while on his return journey to India,
died at Florence on November 30, 1870. Sivaji Maharaja Chhatra-
pati V succeeded Raja Ram by adoption. In 1882 he became insane,
and Government was compelled to appoint a council of regency, headed
by the chief of Kagal as regent. Sivaji V died on December 25, 1883,
and having no issue, was succeeded by adoption by Jaswant Rao, alias
Baba Sahib, under the name of Shahajl, who still rules. The Maharaja
of Kolhapur holds a patent authorizing adoption, and succession follows
the rule of primogeniture. He is entitled to a salute of 19 guns.

The population of Kolhapur and its feudatories was 804,103 in 1872,
800,189 in 1881, 903,131 in 1891, and 910,011 in 1901, residing in
9 towns and 1,070 villages. The towns are Kolha-
pur (population, 54,373), the capital, IchalkaranjI
(12,920), Shirol (7,864), Kagal (7,688), Gad-Hinglaj (6,373), Wad-
gaon (5,168), Hatkalangda (3,680), Katkol (4,562), and Malkapur
(3,307). The density is 319 persons per square mile. About 90
per cent, are Hindus ; and of the remainder, 38,533 are Musalmans,
50,924 Jains, and 2,517 Christians. The chief Hindu castes are
Brahmans (33,000), of whom two-thirds are Deshasths (22,000), while
Konkanasths number 5,000. Marathas (432,000) form the majority of
the Hindu population, and are largely cultivators, describing themselves
as KunbTs. The Dhangar or shepherd caste numbers 36,000, mostly
nomads. Lingayats, who are chiefly found in the south, number



384 KOLHAPUR STATE

79,000, largely traders and shopkeepers. Mahars (74,000), Mangs
(17,000), and Sutars or carpenters (15,000) are the remaining castes of
numerical importance. Kolhapur is remarkable for the large number
of Jain cultivators (36,000), who are evidence of the former predo-
minance of the Jain religion in the Southern Maratha country. They
are a peaceable and industrious peasantry. The Musalmans chiefly
describe themselves as Shaikhs (31,000). Native Christians numbered
2,462 in 1901 ; and of these 1,087 w ere Roman Catholics, 1,048 Pro-
testants, and 100 Presbyterians. Nearly 71 per cent, of the total
population are supported by agriculture, while 13 per cent, belong to
the industrial classes.

The soil is of four kinds : namely, kali or black, tCunbdi or red, malt
or malav, the alluvial land, and khciri or pandhari or white. Of these,
the black and red soils are the most valuable. About
one-third of the arable area is good soil yielding
garden crops ; but the remainder is mediocre, or, in the hilly parts,
poor. Of the 2,354 square miles of cultivable land, 2.019 square miles
have been brought under cultivation. In 1903-4 the area actually



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