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cultivated was 1,591 square miles, the remaining 428 square miles
being current fallows. Jowcir occupied 470 square miles, rice 262,
ndclini 171, and bajra 108 square miles. Other crops are sugar-cane,
tobacco, cotton, chillies, kusumba, and ground-nuts. A few coffee and
cardamom plantations yield a small out-turn. Irrigation is rare, and is
carried on chiefly from wells or pools dug in stream beds. The area of
'reserved' forest is 341 square miles, while 182 square miles are pro-
tected ; the forest products are teak, sandal, black-wood, myrabolams,
grass, and honey. The hollows of rocks and decayed trees contain the
comb of thepova bee, which is highly esteemed.

Iron ore of three varieties is found in Kolhapur territory. It is most
plentiful in Yishalgarh, Panhala, Bhudargarh, and Kolhapur proper,
near the main range of the Western Ghats. In these places it is gene-
rally found near the surface, in laterite. Formerly the smelting of iron
was an industry of some importance; but, owing to the cost of manual
labour, the increased price of fuel, and the low rates of freight from
England, the Kolhapur metal cannot compete with that imported
from Europe. Stone is the only other mineral product of the State.
There are several good quarries, especially one in a place known as
Jotiba's Hill, with a fine-grained basalt, that takes a polish like marble.

Rosha oil is manufactured in the State. Other manufactures are
pottery, hardware, coarse cotton, woollen cloth, felt, liquor, perfumes,

Trad and **^ ^ anC * glaSS ornaments - Coarse sugar, tobacco,

communications. cotton > and grain are the chief exports ; and refined

sugar, spices, coco-nuts, piece-goods, silk, salt, and

sulphur are the principal imports. The most noteworthy centres of


local trade with permanent markets are Kolhapur city, Shahupur,

Wadgaon, Ichalkaranji, and Kagal. 'The Southern Mahratta Railway

passes through the State, being connected with Kolhapur city by a

branch opened in 1891, the property of the State. Six principal lines

of road pass through Kolhapur territory, the most important being that

from Poona to Belgaum, which crosses the State from north to south.

The total number of post offices is 42, of which 9 are situated in the

feudatory jagirs.

Kolhapur, with its good rainfall and rich land, is less liable to famine

than the adjacent Deccan Districts. Distress occurred in the years

1876-7, 1 89 1-2, 1896-7, and 1 899-1 900, and relief

, . r „, Famine,

measures were necessary on each occasion. the

highest daily attendance of persons in receipt of relief was 164,344 in
1876-7, 6,200 in 1891-2, 61,616 in 1896-7, and 7,000 in 1899-1900.
About 3 lakhs were spent on relief in 1876-7, Rs. 40,000 in 1 891-2,
7 lakhs in 1896-7, and Rs. 51,000 in 1899-1900.

The nine feudatory estates are administered by their holders. Kolha-
pur proper is divided into six fie/has or talukas and . , . . . ..
,/-, j • ,,,,,,_-._., Administration,

three mahais, and is managed by the Maharaja with

the advice of the Political Agent, Kolhapur and Southern Maratha Jagirs.

The Maharaja exercises full powers in criminal and civil matters,
including the power of life and death ; but he cannot try British
subjects for capital offences without the permission of the Political
Agent. The State contains 64 criminal courts with varying powers
from Sessions Judge to third-class magistrate. The feudatory chiefs
have in most cases power to imprison up to seven years and the
civil powers of a District Judge. During their minority, their
karbharis exercise jurisdiction as magistrates and sub-judges. The
commonest forms of crime are theft and hurt.

There are municipalities at Kolhapur, Narsoba Vadi, Ichalkaranji,
Wadgaon, Hatkalangda, Shirol, Gad-Hinglaj, Katkol, and Malkapur.
The income of the Kolhapur municipality exceeds Rs. 60,000, while
that of the remaining eight amounts in all to about Rs. 23,000. The
Kolhapur municipality was suspended in 1904, owing to maladminis-

The land revenue administration is controlled by an officer styled the
Chief Revenue Officer, corresponding to the Commissioner of a British
Division. The Kolhapur land tenures belong to three main classes :
namely, alienated or inami, State or sheri, and personal or ryotwari.
Of these, the alienated are subdivided into personal, religious, and
political grants, and grants for non-military service, most of the aliena-
tions having been made between 16 18 and 1838. State or sheri lands
are the Maharaja's personal holdings, and are managed by the revenue
officers, who let them to the highest bidder for a term of years. The


chief varieties of the ryotwari tenure are : the mirdsi, under which the
payment of a fixed rental prevented the holder from eviction ; the upri,
under which land can be given to a fresh holder after one or two years ;
the dial khand, under which the holder pays a little more or less than
the fixed rate ; and the vataiii, under which hereditary village officers
hold lands for less than the usual assessment. The survey settlement,
first introduced in 1886, is at present under revision. The assessment
rates per acre in force are : ' dry crop,' from R. 1 to Rs. 4-4 ; rice land,
from Rs. 5-1 to Rs. 10; garden land, from Rs. 8 to Rs. 10. The
revision survey up to the end of 1903 enhanced the total assess-
ment by Rs. 91,77 r, or rii per cent.

The Kolhapur State proper had in 1903-4 a revenue of 44 lakhs,
chiefly derived from land (12 lakhs), excise (i| lakhs), and Local funds
(ii lakhs). The expenditure amounted to 43 lakhs, of which nearly
3 lakhs was devoted to the Maharaja's private expenses, 3 lakhs was
spent on public works, and 2 on the military department. The revenue
of the jdgirs is given in the table on p. 381. Opium, excise, and salt
are under the control of the State. Since 1839, when the Kolhapur
mint was abolished, the British rupee has been the only current coin.

The Maharaja maintains a military force of 710 men. The strength
of the police is 873 men, maintained at a cost of Rs. 80,000. The
Central jail at Kolhapur had an average daily population of 243 in
1903-4, the cost per prisoner being Rs. 74. There are seventeen
subordinate jails.

Of the total population 4 per cent. (7-7 males and 0-2 females) could
read and write in 1901. Excluding a few missionary institutions, there
were 250 schools in 1903-4, including a college, a high school, and
a technical school. The total number of pupils on the rolls was 8,823,
and the expenditure on education was about i| lakhs. The State
possesses 15 libraries, of which the largest is in Kolhapur city, and
8 local newspapers. It also contains a hospital and 15 dispensaries,
which treated nearly 168,000 patients in 1903-4, a lunatic asylum with
18 patients, and a leper asylum with 93 inmates. In the same year
21, 000 persons were vaccinated.

Kolhapur City (or Karavira, or Karvir). — Capital of Kolhapur
State, Bombay, situated in 16 42' N. and 74 16' E., opposite a gap in
the Western Ghats ; terminus of the Kolhapur State Railway, which
joins the Southern Mahratta Railway at Miraj. Population (1901),
54.373- Hindus number 47,140, Muhammadans 5,311, Jains 1,401,
and Christians 511. Much has recently been done to improve the
sanitation of the city and to adorn it with handsome edifices. Some of
the new public buildings challenge comparison with the most successful
efforts of modern Indian architecture. Among them may be mentioned
the college, the high school, the technical school, the hospital, and


a dispensary. The municipality, which has recently been suspended
for maladministration, had an income in 1903-4 of nearly Rs. 63,000.
The expenditure in the same year was Rs. 56,000, of which nearly
Rs. 37,000 was devoted to lighting and conservancy and Rs. 6,400 to
public works.

Kolhapur has long been held in high esteem for the antiquity of its
sacred shrines ; and all current legends state that the present capital
originally existed as a purely religious settlement, of which the great
temple dedicated to the goddess Mahalakshmi remains to mark the site.
The cloisters formerly surrounding this great temple now lie buried
many feet under the surface of the earth, which appears to have
undergone at no distant period a serious convulsion. The extreme
antiquity of Kolhapur is borne out by the numerous Buddhist remains
that have been discovered in the immediate neighbourhood, notably
a crystal relic casket found in a large stF/pa, about 1880, bearing on its
lid an inscription in Asoka characters of the third century B.C. Small
temples are frequently brought to light by excavations. It is believed
that Karavira is the older and more important capital of the State, and
that the transfer of the political capital from Karavira to the originally
religious settlement of Kolhapur was probably necessitated by some
convulsion of nature, of which there are so many evidences in the
neighbourhood of Kolhapur. The ancient Karavira is now a petty
village on the north side of Kolhapur city.

Kolkai (Korkhei, Kolchei, Kolchoi). — Village in the taluk of Srivai-
kuntam, in Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated in 8° 40" N. and 78
5' E., 12 miles east of Srivaikuntam town. Population (1901), 2,518.
Tradition asserts that it was the earliest seat of Dravidian civilization,
and the spot where Chera, Chola, and Pandya, the legendary pro-
genitors of the three famous South Indian dynasties, ruled in common
before the two first founded kingdoms of their own in the west and
north. It eventually became the capital of the Pandyan line, and was
known to the early European geographers as one of the most important
trading marts in India. It is mentioned by the author of the Periplus
(a.d. 80) as a celebrated place for pearl-fishing, and is also referred to
by Ptolemy (130). The sea gradually retired from Kolkai, owing to
the deposit of the silt of the Tambraparni on the shore in front, and
in consequence a new emporium (Kayal) arose between Kolkai and
the sea. This in its turn met with a similar fate, and is now a small
village 5 miles inland. Further interesting particulars about Kolkai are
given in Bishop Caldwell's History of Tinnevelly.

Kolis. — The various tribes that bear this name differ very greatly in
character and origin. They are chiefly found in the Bombay Presi-
dency, throughout Gujarat, and in the northern parts of the Deccan
and Konkan, and also in the States of Hyderabad, Rajputana, and


Central India. \\\ the Punjab and United Provinces large numbers of
Rons or Kolis are found, who are chiefly weavers or labourers. It is
doubtful whether these are connected in any way with the Kolis
of Western and Central* India. At the Bombay Census of 1901
1,714,921 persons returned themselves as Kolis, and many of the
castes that bear other names have a strain of Koli blood ; whereas
in Western Gujarat the Kolis have so strong an infusion of northern
blood as to be scarcely distinguishable from Rajputs. In the east of
Gujarat no very clear line can be drawn between them and the BhIls ;
and in the Konkan the Koli passes into the Kunbl by insensible
gradations. No satisfactory history or derivation of the name Koli has
yet been given. The Kolas or Kohsarpas of Sanskrit epic poetry are
probably the Kols of the eastern Vindhyas, and the Kaulika of the
Panchatantra is a weaver like the Koris of Northern India. The name
Koli does not seem to occur before the Musalman period, and is dis-
liked by the tribe in Rajputana and Northern Gujarat. These facts
lend colour to the suggestion that it is derived from the TurkI word
kulek, a 'slave.' But, whatever be the origin of the name, it seems
probable that the oldest element in the caste represents the aborigines
of the open country and the coast, as distinguished from the primi-
tive tribes of the hills and forests.

In Gujarat there are four leading divisions of Kolis, which do not as
a rule eat together or intermarry. Of these, the highest and most widely
spread are the Talabdas, also called Dharalas, who not infrequently
intermarry with Rajputs, and are reputed peaceable and skilful hus-
bandmen. Next to them come the Chunvaliyas of Viramgam, whose
leaders are sometimes recognized as Rajputs, while the rank and file
differ but little from BhIls. Though now mostly settled, they were
known down to 1825 as daring plunderers. The Khants also differ
little from BhIls, and had their first home in Rewa Kant ha, whence
a large body was transported to Girnar in the fourteenth century. The
Patanvadiyas of the district round Old Anhilvada are looked down
upon by the other sections because they eat buffalo meat, and closely
resemble BhIls and Vaghris. The strain of northern blood is strongest
in Kathiawar, where the Kolis differ hardly at all from the Babrias,
Mers, Ravalias, and Mahiyas, and join in the worship of the Baloch
goddess Hinglaj. There is a functional sub-caste of Koli fishers and
boatmen, settled all along the coasts of Kathiawar and Gujarat, which
is sometimes classed as separate from, and sometimes as a subdivision
of, the Machhis or the Kharvas. All these sections of Kolis are sub-
divided into exogamous clans, many of which bear Rajput names.
Gujarat Kolis eat fish, flesh, and opium, drink liquor, and smoke
tobacco. They worship chiefly the gods Indra and Hatmal and the
goddesses Hinglaj and Khodiar, and the river Mahl, and have a strong


belief in ghosts and omens. Children are not married before twelve
years of age. Marriages are arranged by the parents, who pay great
respect to certain omens. Widows may remarry, and so may un-
widowed wives with the first husband's consent. In some parts
marriage of a widow with her husband's younger brother is not un-
common. Divorce is allowed. The dead, except infants, are burnt,
and on the eleventh day after death worship is paid to a stone into
which the ghost is supposed to have entered.

The Marathl-speaking Kohs of the Konkan and Deccan also have
four endogamous divisions. Of these the Son-Kolls are confined to
the coast tract, and are fishermen and sailors. They are closely con-
nected with the Agrls, and have a sar pdtel or chief headman who lives
at Alibag. The men affect a cap of red cloth scalloped over the fore-
head, and the married women wear glass bangles on the left arm only,
those of the right arm being thrown into the sea at marriage to save
the husband from the dangers of the deep. The Malhari Kunam or
Panbhari Kolis are found in large numbers in Thana District, where
they are husbandmen, and more sparsely in the Deccan, where they
are boatmen, water-carriers, and ministers in the temples of Mahadeo.
They eat with Kunbis, from whom in the Konkan they can hardly
be distinguished. The Raj, Dongari, or Mahadeo Kolis claim to have
come about 1300 from the Nizam's country, where they are strong.
The chief of Jawhar in Thana belongs to this section, which is more
warlike than the others, and has often made itself notorious for turbu-
lence and gang-robberies. Above the Ghats their chief centre was
formerly at Junnar. They are now as a rule husbandmen. The Dhor
Kolis are looked down upon by the other sections because they eat
beef, and are altogether of a lower type. Each of the three higher
sections is divided into a number of exogamous family stocks {kill).
They claim descent from the sage Valmlki, who composed the Ram-
ayana. Infant marriage is practised chiefly by the Raj Kolis. All
sections allow the remarriage of widows, but only at night, and with
maimed rites. A widow must marry out of her first husband's
kul. Divorce is allowed only by Raj Kolis. All sections worship
various forms of Siva, and in the Konkan also the local gods and
ghosts known as Hirva, Chita, Vaghdeo, &c, with offerings of
fowls, goats, and liquor. They believe firmly in witchcraft and omens.
The marriage rites are conducted by Brahmans. The dead, except
in cases of cholera, are burnt, but the Raj Kolis sometimes bury,
and employ ravals in the funeral rites. Offerings are made to the
dead from eleven to thirteen days after death, and yearly in the month
of Bhadrapada.

In Central India the Kolis are almost entirely confined to the Malwa.
side. They live as a rule by agriculture and differ little from the


ordinary Kunbi. The Census of k)oi shows the following distribution
of the tribe throughout India: —

Bombay ...... 1,714,921

Baroda 281,326

Hyderabad 230,598

Central India ..... 32,268

Rajputana ...... 103,060

Other Provinces ..... 57, 301

Total 2,419,474

Kollaimalais. — Hill range in the Namakkal and Atiir taluks of Salem

District, Madras, lying between n° 10' and n° 27' N. and 78 18' and
78 30' E. Unlike the Shevaroys, the Kollaimalais rise abruptly from
the plains, and present the appearance of a flat-topped mass of moun-
tain. But far from being a level plateau, the upper surface is cut up
by numerous deep and narrow valleys, which render the scenery all
along the 17 miles of its length variegated and picturesque. From the
bold crag which rises on the north to a height of over 4,000 feet and
overlooks the fertile plains of Atur, the eye travels over long, gently-
sloping, sheltered glades down its north-east flank, and rests on the
concentric terraces of vivid green in the basin below. Farther south,
across ridges whose sides are furrowed by deep ravines, by grassy
meadows dotted with the glossy jack and the tall sago, along rocky
passes and narrow defiles and wooded glens, is seen the great gorge
which opens from the central basin towards the Turaiyur valley, and
at its head the shrine in Valapurnad where Arapileswaran presides
over the clear waters of the Aiyar before they descend precipitously into
the low country at Puliyanjolai. Near the high ridge at the southern
extremity, commanding a vast view of the Cauvery in the foreground,
and of the distant Anaimalais and the Palnis beyond, are the ruins of
an old bungalow, testifying to the evil reputation for malaria which the
Kollaimalais have long (perhaps not altogether deservedly) enjoyed
among European settlers. The population of the hills consists chiefly
of the same Malaiyalis who are found on the Shevaroys, the Pachai-
malais, and the Kalrayans. They cultivate considerable areas, but have
ruined the forests, which were formerly of value, by promiscuous felling.
Kollangod. Town in the Palghat taluk of Malabar District,
Madras, situated in io° 37' N. and 7 6° 41' E. Population (1901),
9,800. It is the residence of the Nambidi of Kollangod, a landed
proprietor who owns estates in the Nelliampathi and Anaimalai
Hills ; and it has a high school maintained by the Nambidi, and
a weekly market. About 2 miles to the south is a large Hindu temple
known by the name of Kachankurichi. Since the opening of the coffee
estates in the Kollangod and Nelliampathi Hills the trade of the place
has improved.


Kollegal Taluk. — Northern subdivision and taluk of Coimbatore
District, Madras, lying between n° 46' and 12 18' N. and 76 59' and
77 47' E., with an area of 1,076 square miles. The Cauvery river
bounds it on three sides, forming at its north-west angle the famous
Sivasamudram island and Falls. The population in 1901 was 96,563,
compared with 88,533 m 1891. There are 122 villages, and only one
town, Kollegal (population, 13,729), the head-quarters. The demand
for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,16,000.
Kollegal is the most sparsely peopled taluk in the District, its popula-
tion, which is mainly Kanarese as in the adjoining State of Mysore,
numbering only 90 persons per square mile, while the average for the
District is 280. Unlike the rest of Coimbatore, Kollegal benefits
considerably from the south-west monsoon, and its annual rainfall
(35 inches) is the heaviest in the District. The southernmost spurs
of the Eastern Ghats run through it, forming on the west a well-
marked minor range called the Biligiri-Rangan hills ; and it is on a
higher level than the remainder of the District and really forms part
of the adjoining Mysore plateau, the climate and temperature of which
it shares. More than half of the taluk consists of ' reserved ' forest ;
but this is chiefly useful as a grazing ground for cattle, for the Kollegal
ryot is more often a raiser of stock than a cultivator of arable land.
The well-known Alambadi breed of draught-cattle comes from here.

Kollegal Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name
in Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in 12 10' N. and 77 7' E.,
in the extreme north-west corner of the District. Population (1901),
13,729. It is well-known for its gold-laced cloths and kerchiefs.
Some of the silk cloths made here cost as much as Rs. 300 each, or
even more, according to the quantity and quality of the gold and silver
embroidery, which, in the highest priced cloths, is woven in intricate
and elegant designs into the texture of the cloth while still on the loom.

Kollern. — Lake in Kistna District, Madras. See Colair.

Komulmair. — Fort in Udaipur State, Rajputana. See Kumbhal-

Konarak. — Ruined temple in the head-quarters subdivision of
Purl District, Bengal, situated in 19 53' N. and 86° 6' E., about ii
miles from the sea and 2 1 miles east of Purl town. The temple was
built and dedicated to the Sun-god by Narasingha Deva I of the
Ganga dynasty of Orissa, who ruled from 1238 to 1264. Konakona
appears to have been the ancient name, and the modern name thus
stands for Konarka, meaning ' the arka (Sun-god) at Kona.' It con-
sisted of a tower, probably a little over 180 feet in height, and of a porch
or mandap in front of it, about 140 feet high. The principal gate was
to the east, and was flanked by the figures of two lions, mounted upon
elephants. The northern and southern gates were sculptured with the


figures of two elephants, each lifting up a man with his trunk, and of
two horses, richly caparisoned and led by warriors. Each gate was
faced by exquisite chlorite carvings, of which those of the eastern
gate are still in perfect preservation. Above this gate was an enormous
chlorite slab, bearing the figures of the nine planets, which is now
lying a little distance from the temple and has become an object of local
worship ; and above this slab there was originally a statue of the Sun-
god, seated cross-legged in a niche. Along the plinth are eight wheels
and seven horses, carved in the stone, the temple being represented as
the car of the Sun-god drawn by his seven chargers. East of the
mandafi, or porch, stands a fine square building with four pillars inside,
which evidently was used as a dancing-hall, as the carvings on its
walls all represent dancing-girls and musicians. The wall of the
courtyard measures about 500 by 300 feet ; and it originally contained
a number of smaller shrines and out-houses, of which only the remains
can now be traced. The entire courtyard till recently was filled with
sand ; but since 1902 Government has carried on systematic excava-
tions, which have brought to light many hidden parts of the temple
itself and of other structures. The great tower of the temple collapsed
long ago, and at the present day forms a huge heap of debris west of
the porch ; but it is believed that about one-third of it will be found
intact below the broken stones, as soon as they have been removed.
In order to preserve the porch, it has been filled up with broken stones
and sand, and is now entirely closed from view ; its interior was plain
and of little interest. In spite of its ruinous state, the temple still
forms one of the most glorious examples of Hindu architecture. Even
the fact that many of the carvings around its walls are repulsive to
European notions of decency cannot detract from the beauty of an
edifice of which Abul Fazl said that ' even those whose judgement is
critical and who are difficult to please, stood astonished at its sight.'

[Rajendralala Mitra, The Antiquities of Orissa (Calcutta, 1875,
1880); and the Reports of the Archaeological Survey of India for
1902-3 and 1903-4 (Calcutta, 1904, 1906).]

Kondalwadi.— Head-quarters of the paigdh taluk of Kotglr in
Nizamabad District, Hyderabad State, situated in 18 48' N. and
77° 4 6 ' E., 28 miles north-west of Nizamabad and 9 miles west of the
confluence of the Godavari and Manjra rivers. Population (1901),
6 >557-

Kondane.— Village in the Karjat taluka of Kolaba District, Bombay,
situated in 18 49' N. and 73 24' E., about 4 miles south-east of
Karjat on the south-eastern line of the Great Indian Peninsula Rail-

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