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way, and at the base of Rajmachi hill. Population (1901), 158.
Kondane has a group of early Buddhist caves (250 b. c.-a.d. 100) of
considerable interest. There are four caves, including the chaitya or



KONGNOLI 393

shrine ; and an inscription on one of them, attributed to the second
century b. c, runs : ' Made by Balaka, the pupil of Kanha (Krishna).'
The caves are fully described in the Thana District Gazetteer.

Kondapalli. — Town and hill-fortress in the Bezwada taluk of
Kistna District, Madras, situated in i6° 37' N. and 8o° 33' E. Popu-
lation (1901), 4,799. The place is now unimportant, but was formerly
a fortress of considerable strength and the capital of one of the five
Northern Circars. Built about a.d. 1360 by the Reddi kings of
Kondavid, it became the centre of numerous struggles. It was taken
by the Bahmani Sultan in 1471 from the Orissa kings, and in 1477
from a revolted garrison. Falling once more into the hands of the Orissa
kings, it was again captured by Krishna Deva of Vijayanagar about
15 1 5, and by Sultan Kuli Kutb Shah in 153 1. It surrendered to
the troops of Aurangzeb in 1687, and in 1766 was taken by General
Caillaud from the Nizam. A small British garrison was stationed here
till 1859. The ruined outworks, some miles in circumference, are now
overgrown with jungle or covered with corn-fields ; but the citadel on
the rock overhanging them is still a striking object. At Kondapalli
there is a special industry — the manufacture of small figures and toys
from a light wood which grows on the hills.

Kondavid. — Village and hill-fortress in the Narasaraopet taluk of
Guntur District, Madras, situated in 16 16' N. and 8o° 16' E. Popu-
lation (1901), 1,979. It was once the capital of a province of the
same name extending from the Kistna river to the Gundlakamma.
The fortress, constructed in the twelfth century, was a seat of the
Reddi dynasty from 1328 to 1482. It was taken by Krishna Deva
Raya of Vijayanagar about 15 16, and by the Sultans of Golconda in
1531, 1536, and 1579. The Musalmans called it Murtazanagar. The
French obtained the province in 1752, and it passed to the English in
1788. The fortifications, erected upon the crests of a small range of
hills, are extensive and strongly built with large stones. They are
many miles in circumference and in a fair state of preservation. A
description of them will be found in the Indian Antiquary, vol. i,
p. 182. The interior of the fort, which is overgrown with thick jungle,
contains the ruins of numerous storehouses and magazines. The hill,
the highest point of which is 1,701 feet above the sea, was once used
as a sanitarium by the officers at Guntur.

Kondka. — Native State in Central Provinces. See ChhuIkhadan.

Kongnoli. — Village in the Chikodi tdluka of Belgaum District,
Bombay, situated in 16 33' N. and 74 20' E., on the Belgaum-Kolha-
pur road, in the extreme north-west corner of the District. Population
(1901), 5,597. The village has a large trade, sending rice to Belgaum
and various places in Kolhapur, and importing cloth, dates, salt, spices,
and sugar. A weekly market takes place on Thursday, when cotton



3 9 4 K0NGN0L1

yarn, grain, molasses, tobacco, and from 2,000 to 3,000 cattle are
disposed of. Weaving of women's saris, waist-cloths, and inferior
blankets are the only industries. Paper for packing purposes and for
envelopes was manufactured to a large extent before the famine of
1876-7, but during the famine the paper-makers deserted the village.
It contains a boys' school with 90 pupils.

Konkan. — A name now applied to the tract of country below the
Western Ghats south of the Damanganga river, including Bombay, the
Districts of Thana, Kolaba, Ratnagiri, the coast strip of North Kanara,
the Native States of Janjlra, Savantvadi, and the Portuguese territory of
Goa, with an area of 3,907 square miles. Population (1901), 5,610,432.
The term ' Konkan ' seems to be of Dravidian origin, but has not so
far been satisfactorily explained. The language of the Konkan was
probably, at a remote period, Kanarese, but is now mainly Marathi.
Mention is made of the people of the Konkan in the Mahabharata,
Harivamsa, and Vishnu Purana, as well as in the work of Varaha
Mihira, the geographer of the sixth century, and in the Chalukya
inscriptions of the seventh century. The tract is found referred to
under the name of Aparanta in the third century B. c. and the second
century a. d. Late Sanskrit works apply the name Konkan to the
whole western coast of India from about Trimbak to Cape Comorin,
and mention seven divisions, the names of which are variously given,
but Konkan proper is always one of these and seems to have included
the country about Chiplun. The Konkan does not seem at any time
to have been a political unit. The Arab geographers of the ninth to
the fourteenth century were familiar with it in its present signification.
In history it appears either as a number of petty states or as part of
a larger whole as in the early days of Maratha power, when the Konkan
Ghat Matha, or 'spurs of the Ghats,' were linked with such territory in
the Deccan as from time to time came into the possession of Sivaji and
his successors.

The coast strip of the Konkan is a fertile and generally level tract,
watered by hill streams and at parts intersected by tidal backwaters,
but has nowhere any great rivers. A luxuriant vegetation of palms rises
along the coast, the coco-nut plantations being an important source of
wealth to the villagers. In the southern portions the Ghats forming
the eastern boundary are covered with splendid forest. The crops are
abundant ; and owing to the monsoon rainfall being precipitated upon
the Ghats behind, the Konkan is exempt from drought or famine.
The common language is a dialect of Marathi known as Konkanl, in
which a Dravidian element is traceable.

The history of the Konkan can best be gathered from a perusal of
the historical portions of the articles on the included States and Dis-
tricts. The earliest dynasty which can be connected with this tract is



KONNUR 395

that of the Mauryas, three centuries before Christ ; but the only
evidence of the connexion rests on an Asoka inscription discovered at
the town of Sopara in Thana District. The principal dynasties that
succeeded were the following, in their order, so far as order is ascertain-
able : the Andhras or Satavahanas, with their capital at Paithan in the
Deccan ; the Mauryas, of Purl ; the Chalukyas ; the Rashtrakutas ;
the Silaharas, whose capital was perhaps the island of Elephanta in
Bombay harbour ; the Yadavas, with their capital at Deogiri, the
modern Daulatabad ; the Muhammadans (Khiljis, Bahmanis, Bijapur
and Ahmadabad kings, and Mughals) ; Portuguese (over a limited
area) ; Marathas ; and British. The Konkan coast was known to
the Greeks and Romans, and Ptolemy (a. d. 150) and the author of
the Periplus (247) afford evidence that Greek traders from Egypt
dealt with the Konkan ports.

The arrival of the Bani-Israil and the Parsls from the Persian
Gulf are important incidents in Konkan history. The Bani-Israil,
in whom some trace the descendants of the lost tribes, are now
scattered over the Bombay Presidency, but mostly in the North
Konkan. The descendants of the first Parsls, who landed in Thana
about the seventh century, now crowd the streets and markets of
Bombay, engross a large part of the city's wealth and principal
trading operations, and have their agents in all important provincial
towns.

The Portuguese reached Malabar in 1498. In 15 10 Goa was
seized, and soon afterwards Chaul and Bassein became the head-
quarters of their naval dominion. During the sixteenth century the
Portuguese shared the rule of the Konkan with the Muhammadan
kings of Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. The rise and fall of the pirate
power of the Angrias, who from 1700 to 1756 harassed English,
Dutch, and native shipping alike, mark a disastrous period of Konkan
history. In the seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth century
the Konkan had an unenviable notoriety on account of these pirates,
who were known as the ' Malabars,' and infested the numerous
creeks and harbours. The strongholds of these marauders are still
to be seen on the coast. Their chief ports were Revadanda, Suvarn-
drug, and Gheria or Vijayadrug.

Since the British administration was established in 1818 on the
overthrow of the Peshwa, the peace of the whole area, if some
disturbances in Savantvadi in 1844 and 1850 be excepted, has
remained unbroken.

Konnur (the Kondamiru of inscriptions). — Village in the Gokak
taluka of Belgaum District, Bombay, situated in 16 n' N. and
74 45' E., on the Ghatprabha river, about 5 miles north-west of
Gokak. Population (1901), 5,667. It contains a boys' school with

vol. xv. c c



39 6 KONNUR

81 pupils. Near the Gokak Falls on the Ghatprabha, within the limits
of Konnur village, are several ruined temples of about the eleventh
century. To the south, close to the foot of some sandstone hills, are a
number of the slab-walled and slab-roofed cell-tombs or kistvaens which
have been found near Hyderabad in the Deccan and in other parts of
Southern India, and which have a special interest from their likeness to
the old stone chambers in England. The most interesting feature is
a group of fifty more or less perfect rooms. All the stone slabs used
as walls and roofs are of the neighbouring quartzite sandstone. They
show no signs of tooling, but seem to have been roughly broken into
shape. The cell or kistvaen is formed of six slabs of fiat unhewn
stone. From an opening in the south face a small passage is usually
carried at right angles to the chamber. Over each cell-tomb a cairn of
small stones and earth seems originally to have been piled, probably
forming a semi-spherical or domed mound about 8 feet high. In
almost every case remains of these mounds or covers are seen. Many
of the chambers are ruined, and of some only a few 7 stones are left, the
large slabs having probably been taken for building. Some of the
better-preserved chambers were surrounded by a square rough-hewn
stone kerb, which in some instances is in fair order. This kerb was
probably a plinth on which the covering mound rested, which in some
cases seems to have been carefully built of rough stone boulders set in
mud. An examination of the magnetic bearing of the axes of these
chambers showed that of forty-eight chambers in the main group the
axes of ten pointed due north, of thirty-two pointed west of north, in
one case as much as 34 west, but most were much nearer north than
west. The remaining six pointed east of north, one as much as 27
east and the rest only a few degrees east. The people call these
erections ' Pandavas' houses,' and say the Pandavas built them as
shelters. The complete or almost complete weathering away of the
mounds of earth and stones which originally covered these burial-
rooms shows that they must be of great age. As konne is the Kanarese
for ' room ' and urn for ' village,' it seems probable that the village
takes its name from its cell-tombs or burial-rooms, and that Konnur
means ' the room-village.' One of the most perfect tombs contained
fragments of a human tooth and bones, and some pieces of pottery.

Konrh. — Tahsll in Mirzapur District, United Provinces. See Korh.

Kooshtea. — Subdivision and town in Nadia District, Bengal. See

K.USHTIA.

Kopaganj. — Town in the GhosI tahsll of Azamgarh District,
United Provinces, situated in 26° 1' N. and 83 34' E., on the metalled
road from Ghazipur to Gorakhpur, and also connected by road with
Azamgarh town. It is a junction on the Bengal and North-Westem
Railway from Gorakhpur to Benares, at which branches converge from



KOPPA 397

Dohrlghat and from Ballia. Population (1901), 7,039. The town
was founded on an ancient site by Iradat Khan, Raja of Azamgarh,
about 1745; but a Hindu inscription on a small Hindu temple is
dated as early as 1472. It is administered under Act XX of 1856,
with an income of about Rs. 1,300. It contains a small saltpetre
refinery, and cotton cloth is woven, employing 500 looms. The finest
products are turbans, woven with silk borders. There is also some
trade in sugar and grain. The town has two schools, with 156 pupils.

Kopargaon. — Tdluka of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, lying
between 19 35' and 19° 59' N. and 74 15' and 74 45' E., with an
area of 519 square miles. It contains one town, Puntamba (popula-
tion, 5,890), and 122 villages. The head-quarters are at Kopargaon.
The population in 1901 was 73,539, compared with 89,339 in 1891.
The decrease is attributed to famine and consequent migration. The
density, 142 persons per square mile, is slightly above the District
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2-4 lakhs, and
for cesses Rs. 14,000. The Godavari river enters at the extreme north-
west corner, traverses the tdluka, and forms for a short distance the
eastern boundary. The bed of the river is considerably below the
general level of the country, and the high black-soil and clay banks are
deeply fissured by numerous minor streams. Kopargaon consists of
a black-soil plain, having a gentle slope from both sides towards the
Godavari. In most of the villages the people are dependent on wells
for their water-supply, as all but the largest tributaries of the Godavari
run dry shortly after the monsoon rains have ceased. The cultivators
are in an impoverished condition, attributable in a great measure to
the frequent occurrence of bad seasons. Sudden and violent showers,
which deluge the country, are often succeeded by a long and continued
drought.

Kopili. — River in Nowgong District, Eastern Bengal and Assam.
See K api li.

Koppa. — Western taluk of Kadur District, Mysore, including the
Yedehalli sub-taluk and the Sringeri jag'ir, and lying between 13 15'
and 13 46' N. and 75 5' and 75 45' E., with an area of 701 square
miles. The population in 1901 was 65,483, compared with 62,343 in
1891. The taluk contains three towns, Sringeri (population, 2,430),
Yedehalli (2,266), and Koppa (1,018), the head-quarters; and 427
villages. The land revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,85,000.
Koppa is bounded on the west by the Western Ghats. The Tunga
flows through the west, and the Bhadra forms the eastern boundary.
The whole is purely Malnad, full of grand and picturesque scenery.
It is a network of lofty hills and sunken valleys, the former densely
covered with forests, which shelter a continuous belt of coffee planta-
tions, formed by Europeans in the last thirty years, the latter occupied

c c 2



39 8 KOPPA

by steeply terraced rice flats and areca gardens. The annual rainfall
averages 120 inches. The most open part is the Sringeri valley.
Cardamoms are valuable products on the Ghats. There is not much
'dry' cultivation. Rice is the staple 'wet crop,' nourished by the
rainfall, and sugar-cane is much grown around Danivasa in the north-
east. Conspicuous among the mountains is the superb Merti peak
(5,451 feet). The Sringeri math, founded in the eighth century by
Sankaracharya, lies in the west, and is the chief seat of the Smarta
Brahmans. At Balehalli in the east is one of the principal maths of
the Lingayats.

Koppal. — Old hill-fort and town in Raichur District, Hyderabad
State, situated in 15 21' N. and 76 10' E., on the Southern Mahratta
Railway. Population (1901), 8,903. It was occupied by Tipu Sultan
in 1786, who had the lower fortress rebuilt by his French engineers.
It was besieged by the British and the Nizam's forces for six months
in 1790, before it was finally carried. During the Mutiny of 1857,
Bhlm Rao, a rebel, obtained possession of it, but was slain with many
others of his party, and the rest surrendered. The fortifications consist
of two forts ; the upper fort is situated on the lofty and insulated
summit of a hill, and is 400 feet above the plains. Sir John Malcolm
described it as the strongest place he had seen in India. It is now the
chief town in a jaglr of Sir Salar Jang's family, and contains a State
post office and a vernacular school maintained by the estate.

Kora. — Ancient town in the Khajuha tahsil of Fatehpur District,
United Provinces, situated in 26 7' N. and 8o° 22' E., on the old
Mughal road from Agra to Allahabad, 29 miles west of Fatehpur town.
Population (1901), 2,806. The town was for centuries held by the
Gautam Rajas of Argal, and became the head-quarters of a province
under the Muhammadans. In Akbar's time it was the capital of
a sarkar in the Subah of Allahabad. It still contains many old and
substantial houses, but most of them are ruinous and desolate in
appearance. A massive and handsome baradarl in a large garden
surrounded by high walls and a magnificent tank are the chief relics
of native rule, and these were constructed late in the eighteenth
century. Separated from Kora by the Mughal road stands another
town, called Jahanabad, which is more flourishing and contains 4,379
inhabitants, jahanabad is administered under Act XX of 1856, with
an income of about Rs. 900. A school in Jahanabad has no pupils,
and a smaller school in Kora 23.

Korabar. Estate and head-quarters thereof in Udaipur State,
Rajputana. See Kurabar.

Korangi.— Village in Godavari District, Madras. See Coringa.

Korapula.— River in Malabar District, Madras, 32 miles long, but
shallow and of small commercial importance. It forms the boundary



KOREA 399

between North and South Malabar, a division still of importance in the
social organization of the country. A Nayar woman of North Malabar
may not cross it.

Koraput Subdivision. — Subdivision of Vizagapatam District,
Madras, consisting of the zamlndari tahsils of Koraput, Nowranga-
pur, Jeypore, Pottangi, Malkangiri, and Padwa, which are all in
the Agency tract.

Koraput Tahsll. — Agency tahsll in Vizagapatam District, Madras,
lying above the Ghats, with an area of 671 square miles. The popula-
tion in 1901 was 73,818 (chiefly hill tribes), compared with 74,476 in
1891. They live in 611 villages. The head-quarters of the tahsll are
at Koraput Village. The country is hilly but extensively cultivated,
most of the forest having been destroyed. It belongs to the Raja of
the Jeypore estate.

Koraput Village. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in
Vizagapatam District, Madras, situated in 18 48' N. and 82 44' E.
It is the head-quarters of the Koraput subdivision, and the residence
of the Special Assistant Agent and the Superintendent of police,
Jeypore, as well as of several German missionaries. Population (1901),
1,560. There is a police reserve here, besides the usual head-quarters
offices and buildings.

Koratla. — Town in the Jagtial taluk of Karlmnagar District, Hyder-
abad State, situated in 18 49' N. and 78 43' E. Population (1901),
5,524. Paper of a coarse texture is made here, which is largely used
by the patwaris for their account books.

Korea. — Tributary State in the Central Provinces, lying between
22 56' and 23 48' N. and 8i° 56' and 82 47' E., with an area of
1,631' square miles. Till 1905 it was included in the Chota Nagpur
States of Bengal. It is bounded on the north by Rewah State ; on the
east by Surguja ; on the south by Bilaspur District ; and on the west
by the States of Chang Bhakar and Rewah. It consists of an elevated
table-land of coarse sandstone, from which spring several abruptly
scarped plateaux, varying in height and irregularly distributed over the
surface. The general level of the lower table-land is about 1,800 feet
above the sea. On the east this rises abruptly into the Sonhat plateau,
with an elevation of 2,477 f eet - The north of the State is occupied by
a still higher table-land, with a maximum elevation of 3,367 feet. In
the west a group of hills culminates in the Deogarh Peak (3,370 feet),
the highest point in Korea. The lofty Sonhat plateau forms the water-
shed of streams which flow in three different directions : on the west
to the river Gopath, which has its source in one of the ridges of the
Deogarh peak and divides Korea, from Chang Bhakar ; on the north-

1 This figure, which differs from the area shown in the Census Report of 1901, was
supplied by the Surveyor-General.



4 oo KOREA

east to the Son ; while the streams of the southern slopes feed the
Heshto or Hasdo, the largest river of Korea, which runs nearly north
and south throughout the State into Bilaspur District and eventually
falls into the Mahanadl. Its course is rocky throughout, and there
is a fine waterfall near Kirwahi. In the past tigers and wild elephants
used to commit serious depredations and caused the desertion of many
small villages, but their numbers have been considerably reduced.
Bison, wild buffaloes, sambar (Cervus unicolor), nilgai (Boselaphus
fragocawe/its), 'ravine deer' (Gazella bennettt), hog deer, mouse deer,
and bears are common.

The State was ceded to the British Government in 1818. In early
times there had been some indefinite feudal relations with the State
of Surguja, but these were ignored by the British Government. The
chief's family call themselves Chauhan Rajputs, and profess to trace
back their descent to a chief of the Chauhan clan who conquered
Korea several centuries ago. The direct line became extinct in 1S97,
and the present chief, Raja Seo Mangal Singh Deo, belongs to
a collateral branch of the family. The country is very wild and barren,
and is inhabited mainly by migratory aborigines ; the population
decreased from 36,240 in 1891 to 35,113 in 1901, the density being
only 22 persons per square mile. The State contains 250 villages,
one of which, Sonhat, lying at the foot of the Sonhat plateau and on
its northern edge, is the residence of the chief. On the highest table-
land, which stretches for nearly 40 miles to the borders of Chang
Bhakar, there are only 37 hamlets inhabited by Cheros, who practise
jhuming and also carry on a little plough cultivation on their home-
stead lands. Hindus number 24,430 and Animists 10,395. There
are 10,000 Gonds ; and Goalas, Kaurs, and Raj wars number 3,000
each. The people are almost entirely dependent on agriculture for
a livelihood, but the aboriginal tribes are accustomed to supplement
the meagre produce of their fields with various edible fruits and
roots from the jungles.

Korea contains extensive forests consisting chiefly of sal (Shorea
robusta), and bamboos are also abundant. Some forests in the western
part, which lie near the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, have been leased to
timber merchants ; but in the remainder of the State the forests contain
no trees of any commercial value. The minor jungle products include
lac and khair {Acacia Catechu), besides several drugs and edible roots.
In the forests there is good pasturage, which is used extensively by
cattle-breeders from the Rewah State and elsewhere, on payment of
certain fixed rates. Iron is found everywhere, but mineral rights belong
to the British Government. Traders from Mirzapur, Bilaspur, and
Benares import sugar, tobacco, molasses, spices, salt, and cloths, and
export slick lac, resin, rice, and other food-grains. The State contains



KOREA 401

footpaths but no regular roads, and trade is carried on by means of
pack-bullocks.

The relations of the chief with the British Government are regulated
by a sanad granted in 1899, and reissued in 1905 with a few verbal
changes due to the transfer of the State to the Central Provinces.
Under this sanad the chief was formally recognized and permitted to
administer his territory subject to prescribed conditions, and the tribute
was fixed for a further period of twenty years, at the end of which
it is liable to revision. The chief is under the general control of the
Commissioner of Chhattlsgarh as regards all important matters of
administration, including the settlement and collection of land revenue,
the imposition of taxes, the administration of justice, arrangements
connected with excise, salt, and opium, and disputes in which other
States are concerned. He cannot levy import and export duties or
transit dues, unless they are specially authorized by the Chief Com-
missioner ; and he has no right to the produce of gold, silver, diamond,
or coal mines in the State or to any minerals underground, which
are the property of the British Government. He is permitted to levy
rents and certain other customary dues from his subjects, and is
empowered to pass sentences of imprisonment up to five years and
of fine to the extent of Rs. 200 ; but sentences of imprisonment for
more than two years and of fine exceeding Rs. 50 require the con-
firmation of the Commissioner. Heinous offences calling for heavier



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