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punishment are dealt with by the Political Agent, Chhattlsgarh Feuda-
tories, who exercises the powers of a District Magistrate and Assistant
Sessions Judge ; the Commissioner occupies the position of a Sessions
Court in respect of such cases, while the functions of a High Court
are performed by the Chief Commissioner.

The total revenue of the State from all sources in 1904-5 was
Rs. 18,500, of which Rs. 6,600 was derived from land and Rs. 5,000
from forests. The total expenditure in the same year was Rs. 17,350,
including Rs. 3,300 spent on administration and Rs. 8,660 on domestic
charges. The tribute to the British Government is Rs. 500 per
annum. The zamlnddrs hold immediately under the chief and pay
annual rents, which in most cases are fixed permanently, besides cer-
tain cesses. The cultivators have no permanent rights in their land,
but are allowed to hold it as long as they pay their rents and cesses
and render customary service {begar) to the State. Besides the
village chaukidars and goraits, who are remunerated in kind or hold
grants of land, there is a salaried police force of 3 officers and 10 men.
The State maintains a small jail with accommodation for 7 prisoners,
in which prisoners sentenced to imprisonment for two years or less are
confined. There is no school in the whole State, and in 1901 only
84 persons of the total population could read and write. Up to the

4 o2 KOREA

present no dispensary has been established ; 2,260 persons were
successfully vaccinated in 1904-5.

Koregaon Taluka.— Taluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying
between 17 28' and 18 i' N. and 74 and 74 18' E., with an area of
346 square miles. It contains 74 villages, including Rahimatpur
(population, 6,735). The head-quarters are at Koregaon. The popu-
lation in 1901 was 83,375, compared with 92,254 in 1891. The
density, 241 persons per square mile, is nearly equal to the District
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2-2 lakhs, and
for cesses Rs. 19,000. The country is comparatively flat in the south,
but everywhere slopes gently from the hills. The eastern portion is
generally raised and more barren. The climate is healthy, but the
rainfall, which measures 30 inches annually at Koregaon, is precarious.

Koregaon Village. — Village in the Sirur taluka of Poona District,
Bombay, situated in 18 39' N. and 74 4' E., on the right bank of the
Bhima, 16 miles north-east of Poona city. Population (1901), 689.
This was the scene of the last of the three battles in the neighbourhood,
which led to the collapse of the Peshwa's power, fought on January 1,
1 8 18. Captain Staunton, on his march to strengthen Colonel Burr,
arrived at Koregaon in the morning after a fatiguing night march with
a detachment of 500 Bombay native infantry, 300 irregular horse, and
2 six-pounders manned by 24 Madras artillerymen. He found the
whole army of the Peshwa, some 20,000 strong, encamped on the
opposite bank of the Bhima river. The Maratha troops, mostly Arabs,
were immediately sent across against the exhausted handful of soldiers,
destitute of both provisions and water. The engagement was kept up
throughout the day, and resulted in the discomfiture and retreat of the
Marathas. The remarkable feature of this engagement was that the
British troops were all natives, without any European support, excepting
the 24 artillerymen, of whom 20 were killed and wounded. Of 7 officers
engaged, 4 were killed and 1 wounded; total casualties, 276 killed,
wounded, and missing. This gallant fight is now commemorated by
a stone obelisk. Koregaon contains a small school with 32 boys.

Korh (or Bhadohl).— North-western tahsil of Mirzapur District,
United Provinces, conterminous with the Bhadohl pargana, lying be-
tween 25 9' and 25 32' N. and 82 14' and 82 45' E., with an area of
396 square miles. Population fell from 291,218 in 1891 to 285,240
in 1901, the rate of decrease being the lowest in the District. There
are 1,076 villages and one town, Goplganj (population, 4,005). The
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,73,000, and for cesses
Rs. 12,000. Korh lies entirely north of the Ganges and is very thickly
populated, the density being 720 persons per square mile. Its northern
boundary is formed by the Barna river. The tahsil forms part of the
Benares Estate, and is a uniform plain, highly cultivated and well


wooded, with but little waste or jungle. The area under cultivation in
1903-4 was 250 square miles, of which 112 were irrigated, almost
entirely from wells.

Korku. —A primitive tribe in the Central Provinces. Out of
140,000 Korkus enumerated in India in 1901, nearly 100,000 belonged
to the Central Provinces and the remainder to Berar and Central
India. They dwell almost exclusively on the west of the Satpura range
in the Districts of Hoshangabad, Nimar, and Betul. The word Korku
simply signifies ' men ' or ' tribesmen,' kor meaning ' man ' and ku being
a plural termination. The Korkus have been identified with the
Korwas of Chota Nagpur, and it is not improbable that they are an
offshoot of this tribe, who have a legend giving the Mahadeo or
Pachmarhl hills as their original home. The Raj Korkus now claim
to be descended from Rajputs, and say they came from Dharanagar,
the modern Ujjain, whence their ancestors were led to the Pachmarhl
hills in the pursuit of a sambar stag. This legend is of the usual
Brahmanical type, and has no importance.

They have four endogamous divisions : the Mowasis and Bawarias in
a higher rank, and the Rumas and Bondoyas in a lower one. The
Mowasis and Bawarias are Raj Korkus occupying the status of cultiva-
tors, and Brahmans will take water from them. The term Mowasi
means a resident of Mowas, the name given to the western Satpura
Hills by the Marathas, and signifying the ' troubled country,' a reminis-
cence of the time when the Korkus were notorious robbers and free-
booters. Bawaria means a resident of Bhowargarh, in Betul. Each
division has thirty-six exogamous septs, which are mainly named after
trees and animals, and are totemistic. The Korkus have generally
forgotten the meaning of the sept names, and pay no reverence to their
totems, except in one or two cases.

Ten of the septs consider the regular marriage of girls inauspicious,
and simply give away their daughters without the performance of any
ceremony. Among the others, several formalities precede the marriage
ceremony. A proposal for marriage is in the first place made by the
father of the boy to the father of the girl, and the latter is bound
by etiquette to continue refusing the suggested alliance for a period
varying from six months to two years, and averaging about a year.
The father always receives a sum of about Rs. 50 for the loss of his
daughter's services ; and if the girl is once betrothed, the payment
is due even should she die before marriage. Before the wedding
procession starts, the bridegroom and his elder brother's wife are made
to stand on a blanket together and embrace each other seven times.
This is possibly a survival of the old custom of fraternal polyandry
still existing among the Khonds. The bridegroom receives a knife or
a dagger with a lemon spiked on the blade to scare away evil spirits,

4 o 4 KORKU

and the party then proceeds outside the village, where the boy and his
parents sit under a &?r-tree {Zizyphus Jujuba). The Bhumka or caste
priest ties all three with a thread to the tree, to which a chicken is then
offered in the name of the sun and moon, whom the Korkus consider
to be their ultimate ancestors. On reaching the bride's village the
progress of the wedding procession is barred by a leathern rope
stretched across the road by the bride's relatives, who have to receive
a bribe of two pice each before it is allowed to pass. The marriage
is completed by an imitation of the bhanwar ceremony or walking
round the sacred pole.

After death, ceremonies must be performed in order to cause the
soul of the deceased person to take up its residence with the ancestors
of the tribe, who are supposed to pass a colourless existence in a village
of their own. Corpses are buried, two pice being thrown into the grave
to buy the site. No mourning is observed, but some days after death
the members of the family repair to the burial-place carrying with them
a piece of turmeric. This is sliced up and put into a leaf cup and
water poured over it. A piece is then laid on the tomb, and the
remainder brought back tied up in a cloth, and placed under the main
beam of the house which is the dwelling-place of the ancestors. A
second ceremony called the sedoli may be performed at any time within
fifteen years. Each sept has a separate place for its performance,
where a stake called nwnda is set up for every one whose rites are
separately performed, while in the case of poor families one stake
does for several persons. On the stake are carved images of the
sun and moon, a spider and a human ear, and a figure representing
the principal person in whose honour it is put up, on horseback, with
weapons in his hand. For the performance of the ceremony the stake
is taken to the house, and the pieces of turmeric previously tied up
are untied, and they and the post are besmeared with the blood of
a sacrificial goat. After the stake has been placed in the ground, the
pieces of turmeric are carried to a river, made into a ball, and allowed
to sink, the Korkus saying, 'Ancestors, find your home.' If the ball
does not sink at once, they consider that it is due to the difficulty
experienced by the ancestors in the selection of a house, and throw
in two pice to assist them. After this ceremony the spirits of the
ancestors are laid, but before its performance they may return at any
time to vex the living.

The Korkus generally call themselves Hindus, and profess venera-
tion for Mahadeo, of whose shrine in the Pachmarhl hills two Korku
land owners are hereditary guardians. They also worship a number
of tribal deities, among whom may be mentioned Dongar Deo, the god
of the hills ; Mutha or Mutwa Deo, the general deity of disease, who
is represented by a heap of stones outside the village: Kunwar Deo,


the god who presides over the growth of children ; and others. They
have caste priests called Bhumkas, who are members of the tribe ; the
office is sometimes but not necessarily hereditary, and if it be vacant
a new Bhumka is chosen by lot. The Bhumka performs the usual
functions and has special powers for the control of tigers.

The Korkus are well-built and muscular, slightly taller than the
Gonds, a shade darker, and a good deal dirtier. They are in great
request as farm-servants, owing to their honesty and simplicity. They
are as a rule very poor, and wear even less clothing than the Gonds,
and where the two tribes are found together the Gonds are more
civilized and have the best land.

The tribe have a language of their own, called after them Korku,
which belongs to the Munda family. It was returned by 88,000
persons in 1901, of whom 59,000 belonged to the Central Provinces.
The number of Korku speakers is 59 per cent, of the total of the tribe,
and has greatly decreased during the last decade.

Korwai (Kurwat). — A mediatized chiefship directly dependent on
the British Government, in Central India, under the Bhopal Agency,
lying between 24 1/ and 24 14' N. and 78 2' and 78 9' E., with an
area of about in square miles. It is bounded by the Central Pro-
vinces on the north and east, and by parts of Gwalior State on the
remaining sides. It is situated on the edge of the Malwa plateau,
partly in the Bundelkhand gneiss area. The Betwa flows through its
western section.

In 1 7 13 Muhammad Diler Khan, an Afghan adventurer from Tirah,
belonging to the Firoz Khel, seized Korwai and some of the sur-
rounding villages. Later, in return for certain services, he obtained
a grant of 31 parganas from the emperor. During the decline of the
Mughal empire the State was equal in extent to Bhopal, if not larger ;
but during the Maratha period it rapidly declined, although it has
always remained independent, the assistance rendered by the chief to
Colonel Goddard in 1778 especially marking it out as an object of
Maratha persecution. In 181 8 the Nawab was hard pressed, and
applied to the Political Agent at Bhopal for aid against Sindhia, which
was granted. In 1820, after the establishment of British supremacy,
the State was seized by Akbar Khan, an illegitimate son of the previous
ruler. Iradat Muhammad Khan, the rightful heir, applied for assis-
tance to the British Government ; but it was not considered advisable
to disturb arrangements which existed previous to the establishment
of our supremacy, and Iradat Khan received a pension on abandoning
his claims. Muhammad Yakub All Khan succeeded in 1895, and died
in 1906. He was succeeded by Sarwar All Khan, the present Nawab.

The population was : (1881) 24,631, (1891) 21,787, and (1901)
1 3^34) giving a density of 122 persons per square mile. The decrease


of 37 per rent, during the last decade is due mainly to the famine
of 1899-1900. Hindus number 11,285, or 83 per cent; and Musal-
mans, 1,824. The State contains 85 villages. The Malwl dialect of
Rajasthani is the prevailing form of speech. Agriculture supports
43 per cent, of the population, and general labour 9 per cent.

About 23 square miles, or 16 per cent, of the total area, are culti-
vated, of which only 93 acres are irrigated ; 78 square miles are
cultivable but uncultivated ; 1 1 square miles are forest ; and the rest
is waste. Of the cropped area, jowar occupies 9 square miles, gram 6,
wheat 2, and maize 456 acres.

Two metalled roads in the State have been constructed by the
British Government, one to Kethora and the other to Bamora stations
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway.

The chief exercises the powers of a magistrate of the first class, cases
beyond his powers being tried by the Political Agent. The British
Indian codes are used in the courts. The control of the finances
is entirely in the hands of the Political Agent. The total revenue is
Rs. 37,000, of which Rs. 23,000 is derived from land and Rs. 2,200
from customs. The incidence of the land revenue demand is Rs. 1-9
per acre of cultivated land.

The capital is Korwai, situated on the right bank of the Betwa.
Population (1901), 2,256. A fort built of the gneiss rock which
abounds in the neighbourhood stands on a small hill to the east of the
town ; the houses are also for the most part built of this material
and roofed with big slabs. Korwai contains a British post office and
a hospital.

Kosala (from ki/s/iala, ' happy '). — Two tracts of this name are
known in Hindu literature. That north of the Vindhyas corresponded
roughly to Oudh. In the Ramayana it is the country of Dasaratha
and Rama, with its capital at Ajodhya, and it then extended to the
Ganges. It was part of the holy land of Buddhism, and in Buddhist
literature kings of Kosala ruled also over Kapilavastu. Sravasti, the
site of which is disputed, was the capital of Uttara Kosala, the northern
portion, over which Lava, son of Rama, ruled after his father's death.
Southern or Great Kosala (Dakshina or Maha. Kosala), which fell to
Kusa, the other son of Rama, lay south of the Vindhyas. In the
seventh century Hiuen Tsiang describes it as bounded by Ujjain on
the north, Maharashtra on the west, Orissa on the east, and Andhra
and Kalinga on the south. It thus lay in ChhattTsgarh about the upper
valley of the Mahanadi and its tributaries, from Amarkantak on the
north to Ranker on the south, and may at times have extended west
into Mandla and Balaghat Districts, and cast into Sambalpur. From
about the year 1000 the tract was absorbed in a new kingdom called
< 'hedi (eastern).

KOSI 407

[For Northern Kosala, see Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. i, p. 129, and
authorities quoted there ; Rhys Davids's Buddhist India, passim. For
Southern Kosala, see Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports,
vol. xvii, p. 68, and map ; and Coins of Mediaeval India, p. 73.]

Kosam. — The name of two villages, distinguished as Kosam Inam
and Kosam Khiraj, in the Manjhanpur tahsil of Allahabad District,
United Provinces, situated in 25° 20' N. and 8i° 24/ E., on the bank
of the Jumna. Population (1901), 2,374. For many years the ancient
remains buried beneath these villages were believed to be the site
of the city of Kausambhi, one of the most celebrated cities of ancient
India to both Hindu and Buddhist. If the distances recorded by
Hiuen Tsiang are correct, Kausambhi must be looked for at some
distance south or south-west of Kosam, and the most recent writer has
located it at Gurgi in the State of Rewah. The remains at Kosam
include those of a vast fortress with earthen ramparts and bastions,
four miles in circuit, with an average height of 30 to 35 feet above the
general level of the country. Near the centre is a small modern Jain
temple, and a large collection of Jain sculptures of the eleventh century
were dug up close by. A large stone monolith stands at an angle in
a mound of brick ruins, bearing inscriptions by pilgrims dating from
the fifth or sixth century. An inscription, dated in 1564, mentions
the name of Kausambhi. Numerous terra-cotta figures, stone carvings,
and coins are found in the neighbourhood, the latter ranging over the
whole period of Indian numismatics. One variety of coins found here
bears the names of a series of kings who appear to have reigned in the
first or second century b. c. Three miles north-west of the fort stands
a rocky hill called Pabhosa, high on the face of which is a cave where
important inscriptions have been found.

[Cunningham, Archaeological Reports, vol. i, pp. 301-12 ; vol. x,
pp. 1-5; vol. xxi, pp. 1-3; Coins of Ancient India, p. 73; Major Vost,
Journal, Royal Asiatic Society, 1903, p. 583.]

Kosgi. — Head-quarters of the estate of the same name belonging
to Sir Salar Jang's family, in Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State,
situated in 16 59' N. and 77 43' E. Population (1901), 8,228. The
town contains a dispensary, a police station, a school with 50 pupils,
all maintained by the estate, and three private schools with 140 pupils.
Silk and cotton saris are extensively made here, there being 1,500
looms at work.

Kosi (or Kusi). — River of Nepal and North Bengal, rising among
the eastern Nepal Himalayas (26 27' N. and 87 6' E.), in the country
known as the Sapt KosikI, or 'country of the seven Kosis,' of which
the most important and best known is the San Kosi. It first takes
a south-westerly course for about 60 miles, then flows south and south-
east for 160 more, during which it receives on its left bank its two great

4 o8 KOSI

tributaries, the Aran and Tambar. It leaves the mountains at Chatra
in 26 u 44' N. and S7 6' E., in a series of cataracts and rapids, and
after a southerly course touches upon British territory in the extreme
north-east of Bhagalpur District, in 26 35' N. and 87 5' E., at which
point it is a large river nearly a mile wide. It here assumes the
character of a deltaic stream, and runs south with many bifurcations
and interlacings, till, after receiving another considerable tributary,
the Ghugri, on its left bank, it finally falls into the Ganges in 25
22' N. and 87 17' E., in Purnea District, after a course within
Bengal of about 84 miles.

According to Hindu legend, this river is KausikI, the daughter of
Kusik Raja, king of Gadhl. Although the daughter of a Kshattriya,
she was the wife of a Brahman ; and, on giving birth to a son who
preferred the warlike exploits of his mother's race to the sacred duties
of his father's, she became a river.

The Kosi is notorious, even among Bengal rivers, for its vagaries,
and remarkable for the rapidity of its stream, the dangerous and
uncertain nature of its bed, and the desolation caused by its floods.
Tracts inundated by it lapse into sand and jungle, and in this way
it has made a wilderness of about half the Madhipura subdivision of
Bhagalpur. In the early part of the eighteenth century the river passed
below Purnea town, but it has since worked westwards, across about
50 miles of country, as indicated by now deserted channels. The Kosi
carries a small amount of boat traffic in the lower half of its course
through Purnea; but navigation is at all times of the year a matter
of much difficulty, as the channels are constantly changing, new ones
being yearly opened up and old ones choked by sandbanks, while the
bed is full of sunken trees or snags. Moreover, owing to the great
velocity of the current, boats have frequently to wait several days for
a favourable wind to drive them up some of the reaches, and they
require a pilot to precede them and select the channel to be followed.
The Kosi has recently been spanned by a fine railway bridge near
Katihar, and is also crossed higher up by a ferry from Anchra Ghat
to Khanwa Ghat on the west bank, both of which connect the Bengal
and North-Western Railway with the Bihar section of the Eastern
Bengal State Railway.

Kosi.— Town in the Chhata tahsil of Muttra District, United Pro-
vinces, situated in 27 48' N. and 77 26' E., on the Agra-Delhi road.
Population (1901), 9,565. It contains a fine sarai ascribed to
Khwaja Itibar Khan, governor under Akbar. During the Mutiny the
District officials took refuge at Kosi for a time, but were compelled
to flee by the defection of the Bharatpur force. There is a dispensary,
and the Baptist Mission has a station here. The town lies low, and
is surrounded by hollows containing stagnant water which had most

KOT 409

injurious effects on the health of the inhabitants. A main drain has
now been constructed. KosI became a municipality in 1867. During
the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged
Rs. 12,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 17,000, chiefly derived
from octroi (Rs. 8,000) and rents (Rs. 3,000); and the expenditure was
Rs. 23,000. The municipality has Rs. 10,000 invested. There is
a considerable trade in the collection of grain and cotton for export
to Muttra, and six cotton-gins and presses employed 580 hands in
1903. KosI is, however, chiefly known for its large cattle market, one
of the most important in this part of India, where more than 30,000
head of cattle are sold annually. There are four schools with about
240 pupils.

Kosigi. — Town in the Adoni taluk of Bellary District, Madras,
situated in 15 51' N. and 77 15' E., on the north-west line of the
Madras Railway. Population (1901), 7,748. It is built close under
a hill between 400 and 500 feet high, the sides of which are covered
with huge blocks of granite lying piled one upon the other in an
absolute confusion, which can have been brought about by nothing
short of severe earthquakes. The many rocky hills round about the
town are conspicuous for the great size of the granite blocks which
form them : and on one, just west of the railway about 3 miles south
of Kosigi station, stands a tor which is perhaps the finest in Southern
India. It consists of a huge tower-like mass, on the top of which are
perched two upright, tall, thin blocks of granite, the whole being 80 feet
high. It is conspicuous for miles in every direction, and is known
to the natives as Akkachellalu (' the sisters '). Round the lower part
of the hill under which Kosigi is built run ruined lines of fortifications.
In the old turbulent days the place was the stronghold of a local
chief, one of whose descendants is now its headman. Like others with
similar pedigrees, he keeps his womankind gosha. The doings of his
ancestors are commemorated on half a dozen of the vlraka/s, or stones
recording the deeds of heroes which are common all over the District,
of more than ordinary size and elaboration. About a mile south of the
town, in a corner between three hills, are five stone kistvaens. Only
one is now intact. It is larger than such erections usually are. The
industries include a tannery and the weaving of the ordinary cotton
cloths worn by the women of the District. Kosigi was very severely
affected by the famine of 1877, and in 1881 its population was 27 per
cent, less than in 187 1. But during the next decade its inhabitants
increased at the abnormal rate of 44 per cent., and it is now a fairly
flourishing place.

Kot. — Estate in the Fatahjang tahsil of Attock District, Punjab,
with an area of 88 square miles. The Ghebas, a tribe which claims
alliance with the Sials and Tiwanas, had long maintained a semi-

4 io KOT

independence in the wild hill-country between the Indus and Sohan
rivers, and acknowledged only the nominal supremacy of the Sikhs.

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