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Rai Muhammad, the Gheba chief, rendered good service in 1830 to
Ranjlt Singh against Saiyid Ahmad, the fanatical Muhammadan leader
in Hazara; and in 1848-9 and 1857 his son, Fateh Khan, stood by the
British and received substantial rewards. Rai Fateh Khan wielded
great influence in the country round Kot. On his death at an
advanced age in 1894 he was succeeded by Sardar Muhammad All
Khan, who died in 1903. The present chief, who holds a jaglr worth
about Rs. 4,400 a year and owns 27 villages, is a minor, and his estate
is under the Court of Wards. The chiefs of Kot are great horse-
breeders, and their stud is now systematically managed by the Court
of Wards.

Kotagiri. — Hill station and planting centre in the Coonoor taluk
of the Nllgiri District, Madras, situated in n° 26' N. and 76 52' E.,
at the north-east of the Nllgiri plateau, 18 miles from Ootacamund
and 12 from Coonoor. Population (1901), 5,100. The tahslldar of
Coonoor holds fortnightly criminal sittings here. The station was
founded in 1830, and has grown but slowly. Its climate is preferred
by many to that of Ootacamund, as it is warmer and less exposed to
the south-west monsoon. It is connected with Mettupalaiyam on the
plains in Coimbatore by a good road, 20 miles in length, with a uniform
gradient of 1 in 18. The abandoned military sanitarium of Dimhatti
lies just outside its limits. The Basel Mission has a station here.

Kotah State. — State in the south-east of Rajputana, lying between
24 7' and 25 51' N. and 75 37' and 77 26" E., with an area of about
5,684 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Jaipur and the
Aligarh district of Tonk ; on the west by Bundi and Udaipur ; on the
south-west by the Rampura-Bhanpura district of Indore, Jhalawar, and
the Agar tahsll of Gwalior ; on the south by Khilchipur and Rajgarh ;
and on the east by Gwalior and the Chhabra district of Tonk. In
shape the State is something like a cross, with a length from north
to south of about 115 miles, and a greatest breadth of about no miles.
The country slopes gently northwards from the high table-land of
Malwa, and is drained by the Chambal and its tributaries, all flowing
in a northerly or north-easterly direction. The Mukandwara range of
hills (1,400 to 1,600 feet above sea-level), running across the southern
portion of the State from north-west to south-east, is an important
feature in the landscape. It has a curious double formation of two
separate ridges parallel at a distance sometimes of more than a mile,
the interval being filled with dense jungle or in some parts with
cultivated lands. The range takes its name from the famous pass
in which Colonel Monson's rear-guard was cut off by Holkar in 1804.
It is for the most part covered with stunted trees and thick under-


growth, and contains several extensive game preserves. There are hills
(over 1,500 feet above the sea) near Indargarh in the north, and also
in the eastern district of Shahabad, where is found the highest point
in the State (1,800 feet). The principal rivers are the Chambal, Kali
Sind, and Parbati. The Chambal enters Kotah on the west not far
from Bhainsrorgarh, and for the greater part of its course forms the
boundary, first with Bundi on the west and next with Jaipur on the
north. At Kotah city it is, at all seasons, a deep and wide stream
which must be crossed either by a pontoon-bridge, removed in the
rainy season because of the high and sudden floods to which the river
is subject, or by ferry ; and very occasionally communication between
its banks is interrupted for days together, as no boat could live in the
turbulent rapids. Ferries are maintained at several other places. The
Kali Sind enters the State in the south, forms for about 35 miles
the boundary between Kotah on the one side and Gwalior, Indore,
and Jhalawar on the other, and, on being joined by the Ahu, forces its
way through the Mukandwara hills, and flows almost due north till it
joins the Chambal near the village of Piparda. The Parbati is also
a tributary of the Chambal. Its length within Kotah limits is about
40 miles, but for another 47 or 48 miles it separates the State from
the Chhabra district of Tonk and from Gwalior. It is dammed near
the village of Atru, where it is joined by the Andherl, and the waters
thus impounded are conveyed by canals to about 40 villages and
irrigate 6,000 to 7,000 acres. Other important streams, all subject to
heavy floods in the rainy season, are the Parwan and Ujar, tributaries
of the Kali Sind, the Sukri, Banganga, and Kul, tributaries of the
Parbati, and the Kunu in the Shahabad district.

The northern portion of the State is covered by the alluvium of the
Chambal valley, but at Kotah city Upper Vindhyan sandstones are
exposed and extend over the country to the south.

The wild animals include the tiger, leopard, hunting leopard or
cheetah, black bear, hyena, wolf, wild dog, &c. ; also sambar (Cervus
unicolor), chital {Cervus axis), nilgai {Boselaphus tragocamelus), ante-
lope, and ' ravine deer ' or gazelle. The usual small game abound ; and
the rivers contain mahseer (Barbus tor), rohn {Labeo rohita), lanchi,
gunch, and other fish.

From November to February the climate is pleasant ; in March it
begins to get hot, and by the middle of June it is extremely sultry.
The rains usually break during the first half of July, and from then till
the middle of October the climate is relaxing and very malarious.
The average mean temperature at the capital is about 82 . In 1905
the maximum temperature was 115 in May, and the minimum 49
in December.

The rainfall varies considerably in the different districts. The

vol. xv. d d


annual average for the whole State is about 31 inches, while that for
Kotah city (since 1880) is between 28 and 29 inches, of which about
19 inches are received in July and August and about 7 in June and
September. In the districts, the fall varies from about 25 inches at
Indargarh in the north and Mandana in the west, to 37 at Baran in the
centre, and to over 40 at Shahabad in the east and at several places in
the south. The heaviest rainfall recorded in any one year exceeded
71 inches at Ratlai in the south in 1900, and the lowest was 14! inches
at Mandana in 1899.

The chiefs of Kotah belong to the Hara sept of the great clan of
Chauhan Rajputs, and the early history of their house is, till the
beginning of the seventeenth century, identical with
that of the Bundi family from which they are an
offshoot. Rao Dewa was chief of Bundi about 1342, and his grandson,
Jet Singh, first extended the Hara name east of the Chambal. He took
the place now known as Kotah city from some Bhils of a community
called Koteah, and his descendants held it and the surrounding country
for about five generations till dispossessed by Rao Suraj Mai of Bundi
about 1530. At the beginning of the seventeenth century Ratan Singh
was Rao Raja of Bundi, and is said to have given his second son,
Madho Singh, the town of Kotah and its dependencies as a jag'ir.
Subsequently he and this same son joined the imperial army at
Burhanpur at the time when Khurram was threatening rebellion
against his father, Jahanglr ; and for services then rendered Ratan
Singh obtained the governorship of Burhanpur, while Madho Singh
received Kotah and its 360 townships, yielding 2 lakhs of revenue,
to be held by him and his heirs direct of the crown, a grant sub-
sequently confirmed, it is said, by Shah Jahan. Thus, about 1625,
Kotah came into existence as a separate State, and its first chief,
Madho Singh, assumed the title of Raja. He was followed by his
eldest son, Mukand Singh, who, with his four brothers, fought gallantly
at the battle of Fatehabad near Ujjain in 1658 against Aurangzeb. In
this engagement all the brothers were killed except the youngest,
Kishor Singh, who, though desperately wounded, eventually recovered.
The third and fourth chiefs of Kotah were Jagat Singh (1658-70), who
served in the Deccan and died without issue, and Prem (or Pern) Singh,
who ruled for six months, when he was deposed for incompetence.
Then came three chiefs, all of whom lost their lives in battle. Kishor
Singh I, who ruled from 1670 to 1686, was one of the most conspicuous
of Aurangzeb's commanders in the South, distinguished himself at
Bijapur, and was killed at the siege of Arcot. His son, Ram Singh I,
in the struggle for power between Aurangzeb's sons, Shah Alam Bahadur
Shah and Azam Shah, espoused the cause of the latter and fell in the
battle fought at Jajau in 1707. Lastly, Bhim Singh was killed in 1720


while opposing Nizam-ul-Mulk in his advance upon the Deccan. Bhlm
Singh was the first Kotah chief to bear the title of Maharao, and, by
favouring the cause of the Saiyid brothers, he obtained the dignity of
panj hazdri or leadership of 5,000 ; he also considerably extended his
territories, acquiring, among other places, Gagraun fort, Baran, Mangrol,
Manohar Thana, and Shergarh. He was succeeded by his sons, Arjun
Singh, who died without issue in 1724, and Durjan Sal, who ruled for
thirty-two years, successfully resisted a siege by the Jaipur chief in 1744,
and added several tracts to his dominions. Then came Ajit Singh
(1756—9) and Chhatarsal I (1759-66). In the time of the latter (1 761)
the State was again invaded by the Jaipur chief, with the object of
forcing the Haras to acknowledge themselves tributaries. An encounter
took place at Bhatwara (near Mangrol), when the Jaipur army, though
numerically superior, was routed with great slaughter. In this battle
the youthful Faujdar, Zalim Singh (see Jhalawar State), who after-
wards as regent shaped the destinies of Kotah for many years, first
distinguished himself. Maharao Chhatarsal was succeeded by his
brother Guman Singh (1766-71), and shortly afterwards the southern
portions of the State were invaded by the Marathas. Zalim Singh,
who had for a time been out of favour, again came to the rescue and
by a payment of 6 lakhs induced the Marathas to withdraw.

Guman Singh left a son, Umed Singh I (1771-1819); but through-
out this period the real ruler was Zalim Singh, and but for his talents
the State would have been ruined and dismembered. As Tod has
put it : —

'When naught but revolution and rapine stalked through the land,
when State after State was crumbling into dust or sinking into the
abyss of ruin, he guided the vessel entrusted to his care safely through
all dangers, adding yearly to her riches, until he placed her in security
under the protection of Britain.'

Zalim Singh was celebrated for justice and good faith ; his word was
as the bond or oath of others, and few negotiations during the years
from 1805 to 181 7, the period of anarchy in Rajputana, were contracted
between chiefs without his guarantee. For the first time in the history
of the State a settled form of government was introduced, an army
formed, and European methods of arming and drilling were adopted.
A new system of land revenue assessment was initiated, and the
country was gradually restored to prosperity. In 181 7 a treaty was
made through Zalim Singh by which Kotah came under British pro-
tection; the tribute formerly paid to the Marathas was made payable
to the British Government, and the Maharao was to furnish troops
according to his means when required. A supplementary article (dated
February, 1818) vested the administration in Zalim Singh and his heirs
in regular succession and perpetuity, the principality being continued

d d 2


to the descendants of Maharao Umed Singh. Up to the death of the
latter in 1819 no inconvenience was felt from this arrangement, by
which one person was recognized as the titular chief and another was
guaranteed as the actual ruler ; but Maharao Kishor Singh II (1819-28)
attempted to secure the actual administration by force, and British
troops had to be called in to support the regent's authority. In the
battle that ensued at Mangrol (1821) the Maharao was defeated and
fled to Nathdwara (in Udaipur), where in the following month he
formally recognized the perpetual succession to the administration of
Zalim Singh and his heirs, and was permitted to return to his capital.
The old regent — 'the Nestor of Rajwara,' as Tod calls him — died in
1824 at the age of eighty-four, and was succeeded by his son, Madho
Singh, who was notoriously unfit for the office, and who was in his turn
followed by his son, Madan Singh. About the same time the Maharao
died and his nephew, Ram Singh II (1828-66), ruled in his stead.
Six years later, the disputes between him and his minister, Madan
Singh, broke out afresh ; there was danger of a popular rising for the
expulsion of the latter, and it was therefore resolved, with the consent
of the chief of Kotah, to dismember the State and create the new
principality of Jhalawar as a separate provision for the descendants
of Zalim Singh.

This arrangement was carried out in 1838 and formed the basis of
a fresh treaty with Kotah, by which the tribute was reduced by
Rs. 80,000 and the Maharao agreed to maintain an auxiliary force at
a cost of not more than 3 lakhs (reduced in 1844 to 2 lakhs). This
force, known as the Kotah Contingent, mutinied in 1857; it is now
represented by the 42nd (Deoli) Regiment. The State troops likewise
mutinied and murdered the Political Agent (Major Burton) and his
two sons, as well as the Agency Surgeon ; they also bombarded the
Maharao in his palace. The chief was believed not to have attempted
to assist the Political Agent,- and as a mark of the displeasure of
Government his salute was reduced from 17 to 13 guns. Ram Singh,
however, received in 1862 the usual sanad guaranteeing to him the
right of adoption, and he died in 1866. For some years before his
death the affairs of Kotah had been in an unsatisfactory condition ; the
administration had been conducted by irresponsible and unprincipled
ministers, and the State debts amounted at his death to 27 lakhs. He
was succeeded by his son, Chhatarsal II (1866-89), to whom Govern-
ment restored the full salute of 1 7 guns. A few years later, the affairs
of State fell into greater confusion than before, and the debts increased
to nearly 90 lakhs. At last, the Maharao, despairing of being able to
effect any reform, requested the interference of the British Government,
and intimated his willingness to receive any native minister nominated
by it. Accordingly, in 1874, Nawab Sir Faiz All Khan of Pahasu was


appointed to administer the State, subject to the advice and control of
the Governor-General's Agent in Rajputana ; and on his retirement
in 1876 the administration was placed in the hands of a British Poli-
tical Agent assisted by a Council. The arrangement continued till
ChhatarsaTs death in 1889, and during this period many reforms were
introduced, and the debts had been paid off by 1885. He was suc-
ceeded by his adopted son, Umed Singh II, who is the seventeenth
and present chief of Kotah. His Highness is the second son of
Maharaja Chaggan Singh of Kotra, an estate about 40 miles east of
Kotah city. He succeeded to the gaddi in 1889, received partial
ruling powers in 1892, and full powers in 1896. He was educated at
the Mayo College at Ajmer (1890-92), was created a K. C.S.I, in 1900,
and was appointed an honorary major in the 42nd (Deoli) Regiment in
1903. The most important event of his rule has been the restoration,
on the deposition of the late chief of the Jhalawar State, of fifteen
out of the seventeen districts which had been ceded in 1S38 to form
that principality. Other events deserving of mention are the con-
struction of the railway from the south-eastern border to the town of
Baran ; the great famine of 1899-1900; the adoption of Imperial
postal unity ; the conversion of the local rupees and the introduction
of British currency as the sole legal tender in the State. The annual
tribute payable to Government by the treaty of 181 7 was 2-9 lakhs. A
remission of Rs. 25,000 was sanctioned in 1819, and, on the formation
of the Jhalawar State in 1838, a further reduction of Rs. 80,000 was
granted; but since 1899, when the fifteen Jhalawar districts were
restored to Kotah, the tribute was raised by Rs. 50,000 and now stands
at 2*3 lakhs, in addition to the annual contribution of 2 lakhs towards
the cost of the Deoli Regiment.

Of interesting archaeological remains the oldest known is the cJiaorl
at Mukandwara, belonging, it is believed, to the fifth century. The
village of Kanswa, of which the old name was Kanvashram, or the her-
mitage of the sage Kanva, about 4 miles south-east of Kotah city,
possesses an inscription which is important as being the last trace of
the Mauryas. It is dated in a. d. 740, and mentions two chiefs of this
clan, Dhaval and Sivgan, the latter of whom built a temple to Mahadeo.
Among other interesting places are the fort of Gagraun ; the ruins of
the old town of Mau close by ; the village of Char Chaumu, about
20 miles to the north, with a very old temple to Mahadeo ; and lastly
Ramgarh, 6 miles east of Mangrol, where there are several old Jain
and Sivaite temples.

The number of towns and villages in the State is 2,613, and the

population at each of the three enumerations was : „ , ,.
1 00 \ 1 o \ t ^ j/ \ o Population.

(1881) 517,275, (1891) 526,267, and (1901) 544,879-

The apparent increase of 3| per cent, in the last decade is due to



the restoration of certain Jhalawar districts in 1899. In 1891 the
territory now forming the Kotah State contained 718,771 inhabitants.
Thus, during the subsequent ten years, there was a loss of 173,892
persons, or 24 per cent., which is ascribed to the great famine of 1899-

1900 and the severe epidemic of malarial fever that followed it. In

1 90 1 the State was divided into fifteen nizamats and ir fa/isl/s, besides
jagtr estates, and contained 4 towns : namely, Kotah City (a munici-
pality), Baran, Mangrol, and Sangod.

The following table gives the principal statistics of population in
1 90 1 : —

Number of



Percentage of
variation in

population be-
tween 1891
and 1901.

Number of

persons able to

read and







Anta iiizamat .



- 27.8


Baran .,




- H-7


Barod ,,



— 31.6


DIgod , ,


1 7.494

— 2C-6


Etawah ,, .



— 22-0


Ghatoli ,, .



- 5 2 -0


Kanwas ,,

1 12


- 36-3


Khanpur ,,



- 29.8


Kishanganj ,,



- 25-S


Kunjer ,,



— 27-2


Ladpura ,,




- 21.5


Mangrol ,,




- 14.1


Sangod ,,




- 26.S


Shergarh ,,


2I ,4 I 3

- 24-3




J9,7 2 5

— 40.0


1 1 tahsih .

i, J °3

1 60, 359

— 20-2


7 kotris or estates



- 19.9



> total



544, 8 79

— 24-2


Of the total population, 487,657, or more than 89 per cent., are
Hindus, the Vaishnava sect of Vallabhas being locally important ;
37)947> or nearly 7 per cent, Musalmans ; and 12,603, or more tnan
2 per cent., Animists. The language mainly spoken is Rajasthani, the
dialects used being chiefly HaraotI, Malwi, and Dhundarl (or Jaipur!).

Of castes and tribes the most numerous is the Chamars. They
number 54,000, or nearly 10 per cent, of the population, and are by
hereditary calling tanners and workers in leather, but the majority now
live by general labour or by agriculture. Next come the Mlnas
(47,000), a fine athletic race, formerly given to marauding but now
settled down into good agriculturists. The Dhakars (39,000) are
mostly cultivators ; the Brahmans (39,000) are employed in temples or
the service of the State, and many hold land free of rent ; the Malis
(36,000) are market-gardeners and cultivators ; the Gujars (35,000) are


cattle-breeders and dealers, and also agriculturists. Among other castes
may be mentioned the Mahajans (20,000), traders and money-lenders,
and the Rajputs (15,000), the majority of whom belong to the Hara
sept of the Chauhan clan. The Rajputs look upon any occupation
save that of arms or government as derogatory to their dignity ; many
of them are in the service of the State, chiefly in the army and police,
or hold land on privileged tenures, but the majority are cultivators and,
as such, lazy and indifferent. Taking the population as a whole, about
47 per cent, live solely by the land, and another 20 per cent, combine
agriculture with their own particular trade or calling.

Of the 335 native Christians enumerated in 1901, all but 2 were
returned as Presbyterians. The United Free Church of Scotland
Mission has had a branch at the capital since 1899.

The country is fertile and well watered. The soils are divided
locally into three classes : namely, kail (or sar-i-mal), a rich black
loam containing much sand and decomposed vege- .

table matter ; utar-mdl, a loam of a lighter colour
but almost equally fertile ; and bar/, a poor, gravelly, and sandy soil,
of a reddish colour, often mixed with kankar. On the first two classes,
fine crops of wheat, gram, &c, are grown without irrigation.

Agricultural statistics are available for about 4,778 square miles, or
84 per cent, of the total area of the State, comprising all the khalsa
lands and detached revenue-free plots, and some of the jagir estates.
After deducting 1,544 square miles occupied by forests, roads, rivers,
villages, &c, or otherwise not available for cultivation, there remain
3,234 square miles, of which nearly 1,400, including about 40 square
miles cropped more than once, are ordinarily cultivated each year, i.e.
about 43 per cent, of the cultivable area. The net area cropped in
1903-4 was 1,315 square miles, and the areas under the principal crops
were (in square miles) : 381, or nearly 29 per cent., under jozvdr; 359,
or about 27 per cent., under wheat; 197, or 15 per cent., under gram ;
82 under linseed; 68 under til; 40 under both poppy and maize; t>2>
under cotton ; and 20 under barley. There were also a few square
miles under san (Indian hemp), indigo, bajra, tobacco, and rice.

The indigenous strain of cattle is of an inferior type, and all the best
bullocks are imported from Malwa. There is a little horse and pony-
breeding. Sheep and goats are reared in considerable numbers, but
are of no distinctive class.

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 104 square miles, or between
7 and 8 per cent., were irrigated: namely, 87 from wells, 11 from
canals, and about 6 from tanks and other sources. The wells are the
mainstay of the State, and number over 24,000, more than half being
of masonry. The water is for the most part lifted by means of leathern
buckets drawn up with a rope and pulley by bullocks moving down an


inclined plane ; but in a few places the renth or Persian wheel is used,
and, in the case of shallow wells, the water is raised by a contrivance
known as a dhenkd, which consists of a pole, supported by a prop, with
a jar or bucket at one end and a heavy weight at the other. Of canals,
the most important has been mentioned in connexion with the Parbati
river. There are altogether about 350 tanks, of which 30 are useful
for irrigation. The principal is that known as the Aklera Sagar, which
has cost about Rs. 80,000; it has, when full, an area of about \\ square
miles, and holds up 260 million cubic feet of water. Considerable
attention is being paid to the subject of irrigation, and several pro-
mising works are under construction : notably the Umed Sagar, in the
Kishanganj district in the east, which is estimated to cost over 2 lakhs,
and to have a capacity of more than 400 million cubic feet of water.

There are no real forests in Kotah, and valuable timber trees are
scarce. The principal trees are teak, which, however, seldom attains
any size, babul (Acacia arabica), bar (Fiats bengalensis), bel (Aegle
Marmelos), dhak (Bit tea frondosa), dhonkra (Anogeissus pendttla), gular
(Fiats glomerata), jamun (Eugenia Jambolana), kadamb (Anthocephalus
Cadamba), mahua (Bassia latifolia), mm (Melia Azadirachta), plpal
(Fiats re/igiosa), salar (Boswellia serrala), semal (Bombax mala*
baricum), and lend/7 (Diospyros tomentosa). The forests have never

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