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in with their retainers, who on such occasions are maintained at the
expense of the Darbar. No tax is ordinarily exacted in addition to
the tribute, except in cases of disputed succession, when nazardna is
levied. This tenure is known as bdpoti ; and such estates are not
permanently resumed except for treason or serious crime, though in the
past they were frequently sequestrated for a time when the holders gave
trouble. Another form of mudfi tenure is known as pandrth or religious
grant. Under it land is granted in perpetuity free of rent and taxes.
Other lands are granted on the ordinary jdglr tenure, while lands are
also set apart to meet zandna expenses. In the khdlsa area the
cultivating tenures of the peasantry are numerous. In some villages
a fixed sum is paid, varying according to the kind of crop and the
nature of the soil, and village expenses may be either included or
excluded ; in other villages an annual assessment is made by the
tahsilddr, and the land revenue is paid sometimes in cash and some-
times in kind ; in other villages again the State merely takes a share,
varying from one-fifth to one-half, of the actual produce ; and lastly,
under the thekaddri or lambardari system a village, or a part of one, is
leased for a term of five or ten years to the headman or some individual
for a fixed sum payable half-yearly. Land revenue is nowadays mostly
paid in cash, and the assessment varies from Rs. 15 per acre of wheat,
sugar-cane, or poppy, to 1 2 annas per acre of moth or til. There is no



ADMINISTRATION 33

complete revenue survey and settlement in Karauli, but one has been
in progress since 1891.

No salt is manufactured in the State, nor is any tax of any kind
levied on this commodity. By the agreement of 1882 the Maharaja
receives Rs. 5,000 annually from the British Government as compen-
sation, as well as 50 maunds of Sambhar salt free of cost and duty.
The liquor consumed is mostly made from the flowers of the mahua
{Bassia latifolid). The right to manufacture and sell country
liquor is sold annually by auction, and brings in from Rs. 1,600 to
Rs. 1,800; similarly the right to sell intoxicating drugs, such as ganja,
bhang, &c, yields about Rs. 1,200. The revenue derived from the
sale of court-fee stamps is about Rs. 6,000.

The only municipality is described in the article on Karauli Town.

There is a Public Works department called Kamthaiia, but it is
not now under professional supervision. A British officer was, however,
usefully employed in 1885-6. The expenditure during recent years
has averaged about Rs. 12,000 ; and the principal works have been
tne metalled road to the Jaipur border in the direction of Hindaun
Road (Rs. 37,000), the Neniakl-Gwari tank (about Rs. 23,000), a
couple of bridges (costing respectively Rs. 17,000 and Rs. 30,000),
and a building for a school (about Rs. 45,000).

The military force consists of 2,053 men. The cavalry number
260, of whom 171 are irregular; the infantry number 1,761 (1,421
irregular); and there are 32 artillerymen. Of- the 56 guns, 10 are
said to be serviceable.

The State is divided into seven police circles or thatias, besides the
kotwali at the capital. The police force consists of 358 men of all
ranks, and there is in addition a balai in each village who performs
duties similar to those of the chaukiddr in British India. The only
jail is at the capital.

According to the Census of 1901, about 2-3 per cent, of the people
were able to read and write : namely, 4 per cent, of the males and
0-2 per cent, of the females. The State maintains seven schools :
namely, a high school and a girls' school at the capital, and primary
schools at Mandrael, Karanpur, Sapotra, Kurgaon, and Machilpur.
These are attended by nearly 400 pupils. Education is free, the
annual expenditure being about Rs. 4,000. In addition, several private
schools are attended by about 200 boys.

The State possesses five hospitals : namely, two at the capital (one
exclusively for females), and three in the districts, at Machilpur,
Mandrael, and Sapotra. They contain accommodation for 36 in-
patients; and in 1904 the number of cases treated was 31,909, of
whom 136 were in-patients, and 2,150 operations were performed.

Vaccination is nowhere compulsory. Three vaccinators under a



34 KARAULI STATE

native Superintendent are employed; and in 1904-5 the number of
persons successfully vaccinated was 5,865, or more than 37 per 1,000
of the population.

[P. W. Powlett, Gazetteer of Karauli (1874, under revision);
H. E. Drake-Brockman, Gazetteer of Eastern Rajputana. States (Ajmer,
1905) ; Administration Reports of Karauli (annually from 1894-5).]

Karauli Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in
Rajputana, situated in 2 6° 30' N. and 77 2' E., equidistant (about
75 miles) from Muttra, Gwalior, Agra, Alwar, Jaipur, and Tonk. It is
also the head-quarters of the Sadr tahsll. It was founded in 1348 by
Raja Arjun Pal, and was originally called Kalyanpuri after the temple
to Kalyanji built about the same time. It is connected with the
Rajputana-Malwa Railway at Hindaun Road by a metalled road 52
miles long. The population in 1901 was 23,482, of whom 76 per cent,
were Hindus and 22 per cent. Muhammadans.

Viewed from some points whence the palace is seen to advantage,
the town has a striking appearance. It is surrounded by a wall of red
sandstone, and is also protected on the north and east by a network
of ravines. To the south and west the ground is comparatively level-;
but advantage has been taken of a conveniently situated watercourse
to form a moat to the town wall, while an outer wall and ditch,
defended by bastions, has been carried along the other bank, thus
forming a double line of defence. These fortifications, though too
strong for the desultory attacks of the Marathas, would be far less
formidable to regular troops than were the mud walls of Bharatpur.
The town wall, in spite of its handsome appearance, is unsubstantially
built, being composed of ill-cemented stones faced by thin slabs after
the fashion which prevails throughout the State. The circumference
of the town is somewhat less than 2\ miles, and there are six gates and
eleven posterns. The streets are rather narrow and irregular, but since
1884 most of them have been flagged with the local stone, and they
can easily be cleansed as the natural drainage is excellent. There
are several costly houses and a few handsome temples ; of the latter
the most beautiful is perhaps the Pratap Saroman temple, built by
Maharaja Pratap Pal (1837-50) in the modern Muttra style. The
palace is about 200 yards from the eastern wall of the town ; it was
founded by Arjun Pal in the fourteenth century, but little or nothing
of the original structure can now be traced. In its present state it was
erected about the middle of the eighteenth century by Raja Gopal
Singh, who adopted the Delhi style of architecture with which his
residence in that city had made him familiar. The whole block of
buildings is surrounded by a lofty bastioned wall in which there are
two fine gates.

A municipality was constituted in 18S4, and the committee has



KARENN1 35

successfully looked after the paving and lighting of the streets and the
general conservancy of the town. Indeed, Karauli is one of the
cleanest towns in Rajputana. The income of the municipality varies
from Rs. 7,000 to Rs. 9,000, derived mainly from a small octroi duty
on cereals ; and the expenditure is somewhat less. The jail has
accommodation for 77 prisoners, who are employed on cotton cloth
and carpet-weaving ; attached to the jail is a small printing press, in
which some of the prisoners occasionally work.

Besides a few private schools in which only plain ciphering and
letter-writing are taught, and a girls' school, the town possesses a high
school teaching up to the matriculation standard of the Allahabad
University, with an Oriental department affiliated to the Punjab
University, and a patwari class. This institution costs the State about
Rs. 3,000 a year and education is free ; the daily average attendance
in 1904 was 227. Since the high school was established in 1889,
6 students have passed the matriculation at the Allahabad University
and 39 have passed various Oriental examinations of the Punjab
University. There are two hospitals, a general and a female. The
latter, which was opened as a dispensary for out-patients in 1891, is
maintained from municipal funds.

Karchana. — The central of the three trans-Jumna tahsih of Allah-
abad District, United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of
Arail, lying between 25 9' and 25 26' N. and 8i c 44' and 82 5' E.,
with an area of 257 square miles. Population fell from 134,818 in
1891 to 127,327 in 1901. There are 338 villages and one small town.
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,64,000, and for
cesses Rs. 42,000 ; but the revised settlement has reduced the revenue
to Rs. 2,39,000. The density of population, 495 persons per square mile,
is below the District average. The tahsil is bounded on the north-east
by the Ganges, on the north-west by the Jumna, and on the south and
east by the Tons. Bordering on the rivers are tracts of high sandy
soil much cut up by ravines, except towards the Ganges. The central
portion consists of a fertile loam, which changes in the west to clay,
where coarse rice is the staple crop. Though situated south of the
Jumna, the country resembles the Doab, but facilities for irrigation
are not good. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 174 square
miles, of which 28 were irrigated. Wells supply about two-thirds of
the irrigated area, and jliils the remainder.

Karenni. — The country of the Red Karens, Burma, lying on both
banks of the Salween, between 18 50' and 19 55' N. and 97 10' and
97 50' E. It is bounded on the north by the Shan States, on the
south by Salween District, on the east by Siam, and on the west by
Toungoo District. At Loikaw, a village of 2,042 inhabitants towards
the north of the tract, an Assistant Superintendent of the Shan States



36 KARENNI

is posted as Agent of the British Government, with a military police
guard under an assistant commandant, and control is exercised by him
and the Superintendent at Taunggyi over the chiefs. The tract is
divided in a general way into eastern and western Karenni, the former
consisting of the single State of Gantarawadi (2,500 square miles), the
latter of the four small States of Kyebogyi (350 square miles), Bawlake
(200 square miles), Nammekon (50 square miles), and Naungpale
(30 square miles). The north-western portion is an open, fairly level
plain, well watered and in some parts swampy. It lies in the basin
of the Nam Pilu or Balu stream, which drains the Inle Lake, and, after
flowing past Loikaw, sinks into the ground to the south-east of that
village before joining the Nam Pawn. The rest of the Karenni
country is mountainous, with occasional fertile valleys, but for the
most part arid. It is watered by the Salween and its tributary the
Nam Pawn, which are separated by a ridge 5,000 feet in height.

Nothing definite is known of the history of the Karenni States prior
to the middle of the nineteenth century. During the latter part of
that century they were the scene of constant hostilities, occasioned by
incursions from the Shan States and by intestinal disputes. Certain
features of their history since the annexation of Upper Burma are
given in the article on the Southern Shan States. Gantarawadi
was heavily fined for the disturbances which Sawlapaw had occasioned
in 1888, and Sawlawi undertook to pay a tribute of Rs. 5,000 to the
British Government. This chief was raised to the dignity of Sawbwa
in 1 90 1. The other four chiefs were formally recognized as feudatories
in 1892, and appointed Myozas. Kyebogyi, Bawlake, and Nammekon
pay a tribute of Rs. 100 each, and Naungpale Rs. 50. The population
of Karenni was estimated in 1901 at 45,975, distributed as follows
over the different States : Gantarawadi, 26,333 '■> Kyebogyi, 9,867 ;
Bawlake, 5,701; Nammekon, 2,629; an( ^ Naungpale, 1,265. The
inhabitants are said to have decreased considerably of late, owing to
the diminution of water in the Nam Pilu valley, the most cultivated
part of the country. More than half are Red Karens, who are at
a low stage of civilization, and very far from clean in their persons
and habits. Other people represented are Shans, Taungthus, Bres,
Padaungs, and White and other Karens. The chief wealth of the
country is teak timber, rich forests lying on the left bank of the
Salween, on both banks of the Nam Pawn, and in the north-western
States. The total revenue of the States in 1893-4 was Rs. 37,000.

Karens. — A collection of Indo-Chinese tribes, the representatives
in Burma of one of the smaller immigration waves that entered the
country from the direction of South-Western China during prehistoric
times. The arrival of the Karens in the country in all probability pre-
ceded that of the Tai (Shans), and may possibly have been earlier than



KARENS 37

that of the Burmans. It is more probable, however, that they app< ared
after the latter, and in any case there is reason to believe that they were
later comers than the representatives of the Mon-Anam races. The
Karens may be divided into three main divisions : the Sgaw, the Pwo,
and the Bghai. The Sgaw and Pwo are generally looked upon as the
Karens proper. They are found down the whole of the eastern border
of Lower Burma, from Toungoo to Mergui, in the delta of the Irra-
waddy, and in the Pegu Yoma ; in fact it is only in the Arakan Division,
in Rangoon, and in the Districts of Prome and Thayetmyo that they do
not form an important section of the community in the Lower province.
They are most numerous in the Districts of Thaton, Myaungmya, and
Toungoo. In 1901, 86,434 persons were returned as Sgaw-Karens, and
174,070 as Pwo- Karens, a total of 457,355 having been shown as Karens
with no division specified. These last w r ere practically all either Sgaw
or Pwo, probably more of the former than of the latter.

The Karens are for the most part hill-dwellers, but a very consider-
able proportion of them are now permanently settled in the plains.
The Sgaw plain-dwellers are often known as Burmese Karens, and the
Pwo as Taking Karens. In physique there is no great difference
between the Karens of Lower Burma and their Burman and Talaing
neighbours ; they are not exceptionally flat-faced, and sharp features
are frequently met with. Their eyes are not oblique, like those of the
Chinese. In dress they have to some extent adopted the style of the
people in whose neighbourhood they live. The typical Karen garment,
where the national dress is still worn, is the thindaing or smock, a long,
sleeveless or almost sleeveless garment, which is slipped over the head
and falls away from the neck, leaving a V-shaped opening in front and
behind. Where this is worn it forms the sole upper garment of the
men, boys, and unmarried girls. In the case of married women the
thindaing is shorter, is often highly decorated, and is worn over a skirt.
Clan distinctions were, and to a certain extent still are, indicated by
differences in dress, as for instance in the embroidery on the hem of
the men's smocks. The typical hill Karen house, like that of the
Kachin, is far longer and larger than that built by the people of the
plains. The Karens practise agriculture, their cultivation, when resi-
dent in the hills, being of the ordinary taungya description. They are
excellent foresters, and ever since the annexation of Pegu their relations
with the Forest department have been intimate. The original religion
of the Karens was spirit-worship, and a considerable number still hold
by their old faith ; but some have embraced Buddhism and a large
proportion of them have become Christians. In their spontaneous
readiness to accept Christianity they are probably unique among the
more backward races of Asia. The Karens have been enlisted to some
extent in the Burma military police. At one time a battalion was



38 KARENS

recruited entirely from the Karens ; but a riot that occurred in its ranks
in 1899 led to its abolition as a separate unit, and to the distribution of
the companies of which it was composed over other battalions. The
two main divisions of the Karens proper have dialects of their own
which differ very considerably. It is probable that the Sgaw dialect
will in time supersede the Pwo for educational purposes. The lan-
guage is tonal, and belongs to the Siamese-Chinese sub-family of the
Indo-Chinese family.

Of the Bghai division of the Karen race, the Red Karens of Karenni
have hitherto been the best known. Other representatives of this
division are called Padaungs, Bres, Zayeins, Sawngtiing Karens, Loilong
Karens, White Karens, and the like. The Bghai inhabit the south-
western corner of the Shan States, between 18 3c/ and 20 30' N.
They were found mostly in the 'estimated' areas in 1901, and the
precise strength of the different tribes is not exactly known. The total
of Red Karens would appear, however, to be above 29,000, that of the
Padaungs between 9,000 and 10,000, and that of the Bres about 3,500.
Most of the Zayeins live in territory that was regularly enumerated ; they
aggregated 4,440. The Bghai tribes vary considerably in language, cus-
toms, and dress. The male costume consists as a rule of short trousers
and a jacket or blanket ; the female costume, of a short kilt with either
a short smock or, in the case of the Red Karen women, of a single piece
of cloth, draped over the upper portion of the body. Leg and neck
ornaments are common among the women, the former being specially
noticeable in Karenni in the shape of beaded garters, the latter in the
Padaung country, where the women lengthen their necks artificially by
means of a succession of brass rings which is added to year by year.
All the Bghai are spirit-worshippers, and the majority of them are at
a lower stage of civilization than the Karens of Lower Burma. The
Bghai dialects, though differing, are probably all variants of a common
speech.

Karhal Tahsil. — Central southern tahsil of Mainpuri District,
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Karhal and Barnahal,
and lying between 26 56" and 27 9' N. and 78 46' and 79 io' E.,
with an area of 218 square miles. Population fell from 100,297 m
1 89 1 to 98,39s in 1 90 1. There are 189 villages and one town, Kar-
hal (population, 6.268), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,75,000, and for cesses Rs. 28,000.
The density of population, 451 persons per square mile, is the lowest in
the District, and this is the only tahsil which lost in population between
1 89 1 and 1 90 1. The Sengar, flowing from north-west to south-east,
divides the tahsil into two parts. The eastern portion forms part of the
great central loam tract ; and its fertility is interrupted only by patches
of barren land called usar, and great swamps from which are formed



KARTKAL 39

the Puraha and Ahneya streams, flowing into Etawah. Although the
west is more sandy it contains no Fisar ; this tract suffered during trie
scarcity of 1896-7. In 1901-2 the area under cultivation was 1 10
square miles, of which roi were irrigated. The Etawah branch of the
Lower Ganges Canal serves the tract east of the Sengar, supplying
about half of the irrigated area; and wells irrigate most of the re-
mainder.

Karhal Town. — Head-quarters of the iahsll of the same name in
Mainpur! District, United Provinces, situated in 27° X. and 78 57' I*.,
on the road from Mainpuri town to Etawah. Population (190 1 ), 6,268.
The town contains a bazar of poor shops, but has some substantial
brick-built houses. A Saiyid family, some of the members of which
are reputed to possess miraculous powers, resides here. The tahsill
and dispensary are the chief public buildings. Karhal is administered
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. r,4oo. Trade
is local. The tahs'ih school has about 90 pupils.

Kariana. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Karikal (Kdraikkdl, ' fish pass ' ; the Carical Cariukalla of Barto-
lomeo).— French Settlement and town on the Coromandel coast, lying
between the taluks of Mayavaram, Nannilam, and Xegapatam in the
Tanjore District of Madras and the Bay of Bengal. The town is
situated in io° 55' X. and 79 50' E. The Settlement is divided into
three communes, containing no villages in all, and covering an area
of 53 square miles, and is governed by an Administrator subordinate
to the Governor at Pondicherry. The population has been rapidly
decreasing. In 1883 it was 93,055; in 1891, 70,526; and in 1901,
56,595 ; but the density is still very high, being 1,068 persons per square
mile. Kumbakonam is the only taluk in Tanjore District which has
a higher density. Each of the three communes — namely, Karikal, La
Grande Aldee, and Xedungadu — possesses a mayor and council. The
members are all elected by universal suffrage, but in the municipality
of Karikal half the number of seats is reserved for Europeans or their
descendants. The country is very fertile, being irrigated by seven
branches of the Cauvery : namely, the Xandalar, Nattar, Arasalar,
Tirumalarajanar, Mudikondanar, Vanjiar, and Nular, besides many
smaller channels.

The capital of the Settlement is situated on the north bank of the
Arasalar, about \\ miles from its mouth. It has a brisk trade in rice
with Ceylon and to a less extent with the Straits Settlements. In 1 904
it had no commerce whatever with France, and very little with other
French colonies. The total imports amounted to £49,000, of which
£1,600 came from the French colonies. The total exports were valued
at £106,000, out of which only £600 went to the French colonies.
The port is merely an open roadstead, provided with a lighthouse



4 o KARIKAL

142 feet high, the light in which has a range of from 8 to 10 miles.
Indian labourers emigrate from Karikal to the French colonies in large
numbers. Inland customs are governed by a convention with the
Madras Government, and all salt consumed in French territory is by
treaty purchased from the British on payment of an annual indemnity
of Rs. 20,748. In 1899 Karikal was connected with Peralam on the
Tanjore District Board Railway. The line is i4§ miles long and is
owned by the French Government, but worked by the South Indian
Railway.

Karikal was promised to the French in 1738, in return for their assis-
tance, by Sayaji, the exiled Raja of Tanjore. He did not, however,
keep his promise ; and it was only by the assistance of Chanda Sahib,
then at war with Sayaji, that a grant of the town was obtained in the
following year. An additional cession of 81 villages was obtained in
1749 under a like pressure and with the same assistance, when the
French and Chanda Sahib were besieging Tanjore. The latter grant
was confirmed by treaty in 1754. The town and fort were besieged
by an English force under Major Monson in 1760, and, after a gallant
defence of ten days, surrendered on April 15. They came into British
possession again on three subsequent occasions (see French Posses-
sions), and were finally restored to the French on January 14, 181 7.

Karimganj Subdivision. — Subdivision in the south-east of Sylhet
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 15' and 25 N.
and 92 2' and 92 36' E., with an area of 1,048 square miles. It
contains one town, Karimganj (population, 5,692), the head-quarters ;
and 924 villages. The northern portion of the subdivision is a level
plain, but to the south it is much broken by hills. The Saraspur and
Patharkandi ranges project into the valley from the Lushai-Tippera
system ; and a third range of low hills, which intervenes between them,
separates the valleys of the Langai and Singla rivers. The lower hills
have been largely taken up for tea, but the upper valleys of these two
rivers are still, to a great extent, covered with jungle. Attempts have
been made to colonize this tract ; but they have only met with a qualified
measure of success, as it is very inaccessible, and much of the land is
not well adapted for cultivation. At the extreme end of this valley are
located the only forest Reserves in the District, which cover an area of
103 square miles. The population of Karimganj in 1891 was 384,638,
and by 190 1 had risen to 410,460, an increase of nearly 7 per cent.
Like the rest of Sylhet, the subdivision is densely peopled ; and, in spite
of the large tracts of waste land in the south, the density in 1901 was
392 persons per square mile, which is but little below the figure for the



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