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District as a whole. The rainfall at Karimganj town is as much as
160 inches in the year, but in the Langai valley it is about 50 inches
less. The staple food-crop is sail or transplanted winter rice, and the



KARIMNAGAR DISTRICT ,i

dense groves of areca palms surrounding the villages are a special
feature in the landscape. The cultivation of tea is an important indus.
try; in 1904 there were 35 gardens with 21,413 acres under plant,
which gave employment to 51 Europeans and 24,126 natives. Karlm
ganj is almost invariably in charge of a European magistrate, and for
administrative purposes is divided into the two thanas of Karlmganj
and Jaldhub. The demand on account of land revenue and cesses
in 1903—4 was Rs. 2,24,000.

Karlmganj Town.— Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same
name in Sylhet District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 52' X.
and 92° 22" E., on the left bank of the Kusiyara river. The town is
favourably situated for trade, as it is a port of call for the river steamers,
and has a station on the Assam-Bengal Railway. Population (1901),
5,692. The public buildings include the Magistrate's and Munsifs
courts, a subsidiary jail with accommodation for 35 persons, a hospital
with 6 beds, and a high school with an average attendance of 176 boys.
The Subdivisional Officer is almost invariably a European, and there is
a branch of the Welsh Presbyterian Mission in the town. Most of the
offices are located on low hills which command a fine view across the
dense groves of areca palm, with which the neighbourhood abounds,
to the hills of North Cachar. There is a considerable export trade to
Bengal in unhusked rice, mustard, linseed, bamboo mats, and timber.
The principal imports are cotton piece-goods, grain and pulse, kerosene
and other oils, salt, sugar, and spices. The majority of the merchants
are natives of the District, but there are a few Marwaris from Rajputana.

Karlmganj. — Village in the Kishorganj subdivision of Mymensingh
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 28' N. and 90
52' E., 9 miles east of Kishorganj. Population (1901), 136. It is a
large bazar and reed and jute mart, and has given its name to a well-
known variety of jute.

Karimnagar District. — District in the Warangal Division of the
Hyderabad State, formerly known as Elgandal. It is bounded on
the north by Adilabad ; on the east by the Bastar State of the Central
Provinces ; on the south by Warangal ; and on the west by Medak and
Niza.ma.bad. In consequence of the changes made in 1905, its area has
been reduced to 5,369 square miles, including jagirs. A range of hills
extends in a north-easterly direction between Gurrapalli and Jagtial,
terminating at Vemalkurti near the Godavari. A second range, running
parallel to the former, stretches from Sunigram to Mallangtir. A third
range starts in the south-western corner of the District from the valley
of the Maner river, runs in a north-easterly direction, and, after inter-
secting the Sunigram range, passes beyond Ramglr and terminates near
the Godavari. The principal river is the Godavari, which flows through
the northern portion, forming the northern and eastern boundary, and



42 KARIMNAGAR DISTRICT

partially separating the District from Adilabad in the north and from
Bastar in the east. The next important river is the Maner, a tributary
of the Godavari, which traverses the District from west to east as far
as Karlagunta, and thence flows due north, till it falls into the Godavari
in the Mahadeopur taluk. The Peddavagu and Chelluvagu are minor
tributaries of the Godavari.

The geological formations are the Archaean gneiss, and the Cuddapah,
Sullavai, and Gondwana series. Gneiss occupies most of the District,
the remaining formations occurring in the east.

The flora of the District includes teak, mango, custard-appb,
tamarind, ebony, black- wood, satin-wood, tarvar (Cassia auricu/ata),
babul (Acacia arabica), nallamaddi (Terminalia tonientosa), and eppa
(Hardtvickia bin a fa).

Karlmnagar is covered with a large extent of jungle and forest,
which give cover to tigers, leopards, bears, hyenas, wolves, wild hog,
and wild dogs, while in the plains sdmbar, spotted deer, and nilgai are
met with everywhere.

With the exception of Mahadeopur and parts of Sirsilla and Jagtial,
the District is healthy. The temperature at Karlmnagar and Jamikunta
in May rises to no , and in the remaining taluks it ranges between
ioo° and 105 . In December it falls to 6o°. The annual rainfall
averages about i>$ inches.

The population of the area of the present District in 1901 was
861,833. It comprises seven taluks : Karimnagar, Jamikunta,
Sultanabad, Jagtial, Sirsilla, Mahadeopur, and Parkal. The
chief towns are Jagtial, Manthani, Koratla, Karlmnagar, and
Vemalwada. About 96 per cent, of the population are Hindus ; 90
per cent, speak Telugu, and 6 per cent. Urdu.

The land revenue demand of the District as at present constituted
is about 22-6 lakhs.

Karlmnagar Taluk. — Taluk in Karlmnagar District, Hyderabad
State, with an area of 1,012 square miles. The population in 1901,
including jdglrs, was 138,591, compared with 170,676 in 1891, the de-
crease being due to famine and cholera. The taluk contains one town,
Karimnagar (population, 5,752), the District and taluk head-quarters;
and 186 villages, of which 26 are jdglr. The land revenue in 1901
amounted to 4-3 lakhs. Rice is largely raised with irrigation from
tanks and wells. The Maner river flows through the taluk from west
to east.

Karimnagar Town.— Head-quarters of the District and taluk of
Karlmnagar, Hyderabad State, situated in 18 26' N. and 79 8' E., on
the Maner river, 6 miles east of Elgandal. Population (1901), 5,752.
Besides the District and taluk offices, it contains the District civil
court, two dispensaries, one of which provides yunani treatment, a post



KARKALA



43



office, local board and municipal offices, several State schools, a mission
school, a female mission hospital, a District jail, and a tannery. The
town is noted for its fine filigree work.

Karjat (i).— Southern tdluka of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, lying
between i8° 20' and 18 50' N. and 74 43' and 75 13' E., with an ana
of 565 square miles. It contains 81 villages, including Karjat, the head-
quarters. The population in 1901 was 35,619, compared with 48,828
in 189 1. The decrease, which is greater than in any other tdluka,
is primarily due to emigration to the Nizam's Dominions and other
regions, consequent upon famine. It is the most thinly populated in
the District, with a density of only 63 persons per square mile.
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 80,000 and for cesses
Rs. 6,000. A chain of low hills with flat summits traverses the tdluka
from north-west to south-east, dividing it into two equal parts. The
streams from the eastern slope flow into the Slna river, and from the
western into the Bhima. The country presents a dismal appearance,
owing to the large proportion of rocky and unprofitable ground, almost
destitute of vegetation. There are a few level tracts, some of con-
siderable extent, where the soil is deep and rich. In the neighbourhood
of the hills the soil is of the poorest description. The rainfall is
extremely uncertain, and good harvests are rare. It suffered severely
in the famines of 1876-7 and 1899 -1901, w hen many villages were
deserted. The cultivators, owing to a succession of bad harvests, are
nearly all in debt.

Karjat (2). — North-eastern tdluka of Kolaba District, Bombay, lying
between 18 45' and 19 8' N. and 73 n / and 73 33' E., with an
area of 359 square miles, including the petty subdivision (petha) of
Khalapur. There are 270 villages, the head-quarters being at Karjat.
The population in 1901 was 87,415, compared with 85,288 in 1891.
The density, 243 persons per square mile, is much below the District
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. i,6i,oco,
and for cesses Rs. 10,000. Karjat may be described as a rough hilly
tract, lying between the Western Ghats and the hills of Matheran. On
its northern side dales and valleys diversify the surface ; the lowlands
are divided into rice-fields, while the higher grounds are clothed with
teak, ain, and black-wood. In the east the woodlands become a forest.
The Ulhas and other streams which rise in the Western Ghats flow
through the tdluka, but become dry channels in the hot season. The
rainfall is fairly plentiful, and failure of the rice crop rare. Drinking-
water is scarce. The rice soil is black, and the upland soil reddish.
The climate varies greatly with the season. In January and February
the nights are extremely cold. The rainfall during the ten years
ending 1903 averaged 130 inches.

Karkala. — Village in the Udipi taluk of South Kanara District,

vol. xv. o



44 KARKALA

Madras, situated in 13 13' N. and 74 59' E. Population (1901),
5,364. It was once a populous Jain town and the seat of the Bhairarasa
Wodeyars, a powerful Jain family of which no representatives are now
left. In the neighbourhood are many Jain remains. The most
remarkable is the monolithic statue of Gomata Raya, erected by the
ruling prince in a.d. 1431. It stands in an enclosure on the summit
of a rocky hill south of the town overlooking a picturesque lake, and
is 41 feet 5 inches high, with the traditional form and lineaments of
Buddha. Once in sixty years Jains from all parts gather and bathe the
statue with coco-nut milk. To the north, on the summit of a smaller
hill, stands a square temple with projecting porticoes facing each of the
four quarters, its columns, pediments, and friezes being alike richly
carved and ornamented. Within, facing each entrance, stand groups
of three life-sized figures in burnished copper, counterparts of the great
statue above. At Haleangadi, close by, is the finest Jain stambha
(pillar) in the District. It has a monolithic shaft 2>2> f eet high in eight
segments, each beautifully and variously ornamented, supporting an
elegant capital and topped by a stone shrine containing a statue. The
total height is about 50 feet. Karkala is situated on one of the
principal roads leading to Mysore, in the centre of a fertile tract con-
taining many fine areca gardens. It has a considerable trade in rice
and other local produce, and is the head-quarters of a deputy-tafci/ddr.

Karkamb. — Town in the Pandharpur taluka of Sholapur District,
Bombay, situated in 17 52' N. and 75 18' E., 13 miles north of
Pandharpur town. Population (1901), 5,571. Karkamb has a large
weaving and thread-dyeing industry, with about 500 looms, chiefly
producing cheap cloth for women's robes. About 1,500 persons are
employed in the weaving industry, which has an output of the annual
value of if lakhs. The establishments for thread-dyeing number n.
The betel-vine is largely grown. Weekly markets are held on Mondays,
when cattle, grain, and cloth are sold. The town contains two schools,
one of which is for girls.

Karli (Karla). — Village in the Maval taluka of Poona District,
Bombay, situated in 18 45' N. and 73 29' E., on the road between
Bombay and Poona. Population (1901), 903. Some celebrated caves
are z\ miles from the Karli and 5 from the Lonauli station on the
Poona section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The principal
cave is thus described by Mr. J. Fergusson in his History of Eastern
and Indian Architecture : — ■

' It is certainly the largest as well as the most complete chaitya cave
hitherto discovered in India, and was excavated at a time when the
style was in its greatest purity. In it, all the architectural defects of
the previous examples are removed ; the pillars of the nave are quite
perpendicular. The screen is ornamented with sculpture — its first



kAru . 45

appearance apparently in such a position— and the style had rea<
a perfection never afterwards surpassed.

' In the cave there is an inscription on the side of the porch, and
another on the lion-pillar in front, which are certainly integral, and
ascribe its excavation to the Maharaja Bhuti or Deva Bhuti, who,
according to the Puranas, reigned 78 B.C. ; and if this is so, they fix the
age of this typical example beyond all cavil.

' The building resembles, to a very great extent, an early Christian
church in its arrangements, consisting of a nave and side aisles, ter-
minating in an apse or semi-dome, round which the aisle is carried.
The general dimensions of the interior are 126 feet from the entrance
to the back wall, by 45 feet 7 inches in width. The side aisles, however,
are very much narrower than in Christian churches, the central one
being 25 feet 7 inches, so that the others are only 10 feet wide, includ-
ing the thickness of the pillars. As a scale for comparison, it may be
mentioned that its arrangement and dimensions are very similar to
those of the choir of Norwich Cathedral, or of the Abbaye aux
Hommes at Caen, omitting the outer aisles in the latter building.
The thickness of the piers at Norwich and Caen nearly corresponds
to the breadth of the aisles in the Indian temple. In height, however,
Karli is very inferior, being only 42 feet, or perhaps 45 feet from the
floor to the apex, as nearly as can be ascertained.

' Fifteen pillars on each side separate the nave from the aisles ; each
pillar has a tall base, an octagonal shaft, and a richly ornamented
capital, on which kneel two elephants, each bearing two figures,
generally a man and a woman, but sometimes two females, all very
much better executed than such ornaments usually are. The seven
pillars behind the "altar" are plain octagonal piers, without either base
or capital, and the four under the entrance gallery differ considerably
from those at the sides. The sculptures on the capitals supply the
place usually occupied by frieze and cornice in Grecian architecture ;
and in other examples plain painted surfaces occupy the same space.
Above this springs the roof, semicircular in general section but some-
what stilted at the sides, so as to make its height greater than the
semi-diameter. It is ornamented even at this day by a series of
wooden ribs, probably coeval with the excavation, which prove beyond
the shadow of a doubt that the roof is not a copy of a masonry arch,
but of some sort of timber construction which we cannot now very
well understand.

' Immediately under the semi-dome of the apse, and nearly where the
altar stands in Christian churches, is placed the dagoba, in this instan< e
a plain dome slightly stilted on a circular drum. As there are no
ornaments on it now, and no mortices for woodwork, it probably was
originally plastered and painted, or may have been adorned with hang-
ings, which some of the sculptured representations would lead us to
suppose was the usual mode of ornamenting these altars. It is sur-
mounted by a Tee, and on this still stand the remains of an umbrella
in wood, very much decayed and distorted by age.

' Opposite this is the entrance, consisting of three doorways, under
a gallery exactly corresponding with our rood-loft, one leading to the
centre and one to each of the side aisles ; and over the gallery the

d 2



46 KARLI

whole end of the hall is open, as in all these chaitya halls, forming
one great window, through which all the light is admitted. This great
window is formed in the shape of a horseshoe, and exactly resembles
those used as ornaments on the facade of this cave, as well as on those
of Bhaja, Bedsa, and at Nasik. Within the arch is a framework or
centring of work standing free. This, so far as we can judge, is, like
the ribs of the interior, coeval with the building ; at all events, if it has
been renewed, it is an exact copy of the original form, for it is found
repeated in stone in all the niches of the facade, over the doorways, and
generally as an ornament everywhere, and with the Buddhist " rail,"
copied from Sanchi, forms the most usual ornament of the style.

'The outer porch is considerably wider than the body of the building,
being 52 feet wide, and is closed in front by a screen composed of two
stout octagonal pillars, without either base or capital, supporting what is
now a plain mass of rock, but once ornamented by a wooden gallery
forming the principal ornament of the fagade. Above this, a dwarf
colonnade or attic of four columns between pilasters admitted light to
the great window ; and this again was surmounted by a wooden cornice
or ornament of some sort, though we cannot now restore it, since only
the mortices remain that attached it to the rock.

' In advance of this screen stands the lion-pillar, in this instance
a plain shaft with thirty-two flutes, or rather faces, surmounted by
a capital not unlike that at Kesariya, but at Karli supporting four lions
instead of one ; they seem almost certainly to have supported a chakra,
or Buddhist wheel. A similar pillar probably stood on the opposite
side, but it has either fallen or been taken down to make way for the
little [Hindu] temple that now occupies its place.

' The absence of the wooden ornaments of the external porch, as well
as our ignorance of the mode in which this temple was finished later-
ally, and the porch joined to the main temple, prevent us from judging
what the effect of the front would have been if belonging to a free-
standing building. But the proportions of such parts as remain are so
good, and the effect of the whole so pleasing, that there can be little
hesitation in ascribing to such a design a tolerably high rank among
architectural compositions.

' Of the interior we can judge perfectly, and it certainly is as solemn
and grand as any interior can well be, and the mode of lighting the
most perfect — one undivided volume of light coming through a single
opening overhead at a very favourable angle and falling directly on the
"altar" or principal object in the building, leaving the rest in comparative
obscurity. The effect is considerably heightened by the closely-set
thick columns that divide the three aisles from one another, as they
suffice to prevent the boundary walls from ever being seen ; and as there
are no openings in the walls, the view between the pillars is practically
unlimited.

'These peculiarities are found more or less developed in all the other
caves of the same class in India, varying only with the age and the
gradual change that took place from the more purely wooden forms of
these caves to the lithic or stone architecture of the more modern
ones. This is the principal test by which their relative ages can be
determined, and it proves incontestably that the Karli cave was



KARMA LA TOU'X

excavated not very long after stone came to be used as a building
material in India.'

Karmad. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Karmala Taluka. — Taluka of Sholapur District, Bombay, lying
between 17 58' and 18 33' X. and 74' 4S' and 75° 26' E., with an
area of 772 square miles. It contains one town, Karmala ('population,
7.301), the head-quarters; and 123 villages. The population in
was 67,558, compared with 93,353 in 1891. The great decrease is due
to mortality and emigration during the famine of 1 899-1 901. The
taluka is one of the most thinly populated in the District, with a density
of only 88 persons per square mile. The demand for land revenue
in 1903-4 was 1-7 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 11.000. Karmala is in the
north of the District, between the Bhlma on the west and the Slna on
the east. Except the hills near Kem and the dividing ridge, forming
the watershed between the two rivers, the country is flat ; towards the
north it is rough and broken, crossed by many streams. About half
consists of rich black soil, and the rest is red and gravelly. The
seasons are uncertain— a really good one, as a rule, not occurring
oftener than once in three or four years, when, however, the harvest is
exceedingly abundant. The annual rainfall averages 23 inches. Weekly
fairs are held at eight towns and villages ; and at Sonari an annual fair
in April is attended by about 6,000 persons.

Karmala Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name
in Sholapur District, Bombay, situated in i8 c 24' N. and 75' 12' E., 11
miles north of the Jeur station on the south-east section of the Great
Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 7.301. Karmala was
originally the seat of a branch of the Ximbalkar family. The founder
began and his son finished a fort, which still exists and is used for the
taluka offices. This fort, one of the largest in the Deccan, extends over
a quarter of a square mile, and contains about a hundred houses.
Karmala grew and became a large trade centre, being a crossing station
for the traffic from Balaghat through Barsi to Poona, and between
Ahmadnagar and Sholapur. Most of this traffic has now passed to the
railway, but Karmala is still a large mart for cattle, grain, oil, and piece-
goods. A weekly market is held on Friday, and the town has a small
weaving industry. The water-supply is derived from wells three-quarters
of a mile to the south, the water being carried through an earthenware
conduit to dipping wells in the town. An annual fair is held here, last-
ing four days. The town possesses a large temple of Amba Bai. The
municipality, established in 1867, had an average income during the
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 8.800. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,100.
Karmala contains a Subordinate Judge's court, three schools, includ-
ing one maintained by the American Congregational Mission, and
a dispensary.



4 8 KARMGARH

Karmgarh. — A niiamat or administrative district of the Patiala
State, Punjab, lying between 29 23' and 30° 27' N. and 75 40' and
76 36' E., with an area of 1,834 square miles. It had a population
in 1901 of 500,635, compared with 500,225 in 1891, dwelling in four
towns— Patiala, Samana, Sunam, and Sanaur — and 665 villages.
The head-quarters are at Bhawanigarh or Dhodan, a village in the
Bhawanigarh tahsil. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted
to 9-5 lakhs. The nizdmat consists of a fairly compact area in the
south-east of the main portion of the State, and is divided into four
tahslls — Patiala, Bhawanigarh, Sunam, and Narwana — of which the
first three lie in that order from east to west, partly in the Pawadh and
partly in the Jangal tract, on the north of the Ghaggar river, while the
fourth tahsil, Narwana, lies on its south bank in the Bangar.

Karnal District. — District in the Delhi Division of the Punjab,

lying between 29 ir' and 30° 15' N. and 76 11' and 77 17' E., with

an area of 3,153 square miles, including 36 outlying villages scattered

throughout the eastern part of the State of Patiala. The District is

bounded on the north by Patiala State and Ambala District ; on the

east by the Jumna, which separates it from the Districts of Saharan-

pur, Muzaffarnagar, and Meerut in the United Provinces ; on the

south by the Punjab Districts of Delhi and Rohtak ; and on the west

by the States of Patiala and Jind. It is divided into two parts by the

low ridge which forms the watershed between the Indian Ocean and

the Bay of Bengal. To the east of this ridge along the Jumna lies the

khadar, a strip of low-lying land from 5 to 10 miles
PlivsiCeil • • •

asnects wide ; though it is not so thickly wooded as the rest

of the District, date-palms abound, and in places

a thick jungle skirts the river bank. West of the ridge lies the bangar,

an upland plain watered throughout by the Western Jumna Canal, and

stretching parallel to the khadar for the whole length of the District.

These two tracts fill up practically the whole of the southern tahsil of

Panlpat ; but in Karnal and Kaithal, the central tahslls, the bangar

rises with a perceptible step into the Nardak 1 , a high and once arid

country, now traversed by the Sirsa branch of the Western Jumna Canal.

In the north of the District nearly the whole of Thanesar and the

northern part of the Kaithal tahsil are intersected by mountain torrents

which drain the Lower Himalayas, and include large tracts of wild

country covered with forests of dhak (fiutea frondosa).

The Jumna forms the entire eastern boundary for a distance of 81

miles. Its bed varies from half a mile to a mile in width, of which the

stream occupies only a few hundred yards in the cold season. The

most important of the torrents which traverse the northern portion are

1 The Nardak is properly another name for Kurukshetra, but it is extended to
include all the high tract.



KARNAL DISTRICT 49

the Ghaggar, with its tributaries the Umla and Saraswati, the
Chautang, and the Markanda and Puran, the last an old bed of



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