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nearly Rs. 1,600, and fees brought in Rs. 10,000.

Besides the Karnal civil hospital the District has 9 dispensaries, one
at Karnal and 8 at out-stations, at which 117,370 out-patients and
1,626 in-patients were treated in 1904, and 6,849 operations performed.
The income and expenditure amounted to Rs. 21,000, Local and
municipal funds contributing Rs. 11,000 and Rs. 9,000 respectively.
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel also maintains a female
hospital at Karnal.

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 20.090?
representing 23 per 1,000 of population.

[A. Kensington, Customary Laic of Ambala District (1893) (for the
Thanesar tahsll) \ J. M. Douie, District Gazetteer (1890), Settlement
Report of Karnal-Ambala (1S91), and Rhvaj-i-am of Tahsil Kaithal
and Pargana Indri, District Kartial (1892) : D. C. J. Ibbetson, Settle-
ment Report of tJu Panipat Tahsll and Karnal Pargana (1883).]

Karnal Tahsil. — Central tahsil of Karnal District, Punjab, lying
between 29 26' and 30 o' X. and 76 40' and 77° 13' E., on the west
bank of the Jumna, with an area of 838 square miles. The population
in 1901 was 248,544, compared wuh 241,369 in 1S91. It contains
the town of Karxal (population, 23,559), tne h ead -quarters ; and
380 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to
3-2 lakhs. On the east lie the Jumna lowlands, fertile but unhealthy,
and varying in width from 5 to 10 miles. The western boundary of
this tract is the old high bank of the Jumna, and from the crest of this
bank the country slopes imperceptibly away into the Xardak. The
upland portion of the tahsil is irrigated by the Western Jumna Canal ;
but in the Xardak the people have not entirely abandoned their pas-
toral traditions, and still retain ample grazing-grounds for their cattle.

Karnal Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of Karnal,
Punjab, situated in 29° 41' X. and 76 c 59' E., on the old bank of the
Jumna, about 7 miles from the present course of that river, and on
the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka Railway ; distant 1,030 miles by rail from
Calcutta, 1,056 from Bombay, and 895 from Karachi. Population
(1901), 23,559. Its name is derived from Kama, the rival of Arjuna
in the epic of the Mahabharata, by whom it is said to have been
founded. It would seem to have been a place of little impor-
tance in early historical times, as no mention of it occurs until
towards the end of the Pathan period. Karnal was plundered
in 1573 by Ibrahim Husain Mirza in his revolt against Akbar,
and its neighbourhood laid waste by Banda Bairagi in 1709. In
1739 it was the scene of the defeat of Muhammad Shah by Xadir
Shah. After the fall of Sirhind in 1763 the town was seized by Gajpat



KARNALI 59

Singh, Raja of Jind, but in 1775 it was recovered by Najaf Khan,

governor of Delhi. It again fell into the hands of Gajpat Singh, but
his son Bhag Singh lost it to the Marathas in 1787, and it was sub-
sequently made over by them to George Thomas. It then came into
the hands of Gurdit Singh of Ladwa, from whom the British took it in
1805. A cantonment was formed at Karnal, which was abandoned
in 1 84 1 owing to the unhealthiness of the station. The place is still
unhealthy, though drainage and sanitation have done much to improve
its condition. There is a fine marble tomb, built by the emperor
Ghiyas-ud-din to the memory of the saint Bu-All Kalandar. The
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has a mission at Karnal.
The municipality was created in 1867. The income and expenditure
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 32,500 and Rs. 32,100
respectively. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 33,800, mainly derived
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 33,500. The chief manu-
factures are country cloth for local consumption, and shoes. The
principal educational institution is the Anglo-vernacular high school,
managed by the Educational department. There is a civil hospital,
with a branch in the town. The Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel also maintains a female hospital and dispensary.

Karnala (or Funnel Hill). — Fort and hill in the Panvel talukd of
Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18 53' N. and 73 7' E., a few
miles north-west of the Vegavati river, and 8 miles south of Panvel ;
elevation 1,560 feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 1,327. Karnala
commands the high road between the Bor pass and the Panvel and
Apta rivers. The hill has an upper and lower fort. In the centre of
the upper fort is the ' funnel,' an almost inaccessible basalt pillar about
125 feet high, locally known as the Pandu's tower. From the south-
west of the hill can be seen the island-studded harbour of Bombay.

The fort was often taken and retaken during the turbulent period
of Indian history. Under the Muhammadans, Karnala was garrisoned
to overawe the North Konkan. Troops from Ahmadnagar took it in
1540. The Portuguese captured it soon after, but gave it up on
receiving a ransom of Rs. 17,500 a year. Sivajl, the Maratha leader,
seized it in 1670, driving out the Mughals. On the death of Sivajl,
Karnala was recaptured by Aurangzeb's generals, and was held by the
Mughals till at least 1735. Shortly afterwards it must have again
come into the hands of the Marathas, for in 1740 the Peshwa's power
was established over the whole of the Deccan. In 1818 the fort was
captured, and passed into British possession, together with the whole
remaining territory held by the Peshwa. It is now in ruins.

Karnali. — River of Nepal and the United Provinces. See
Kauriala.

Karnali.— Village in the Baroda prant, Baroda State, situated in

VOL. xv. E



6o KARNALI

z\° 59' N. and 73 28' E., on the right hank of the Narbada at its
junction with the Orsang river. Population (1901), 1,126. Thousands
of pilgrims repair annually to this holy place in order to perform their
ablutions in the Narbada.

Karnaphuli. — River of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It rises in
a lofty range of hills beyond the border of the Chittagong Hill Tracts,
in 22 53' N. and 92 27' E., and, after following a generally south-
westerly course of 121 miles, falls into the Bay of Bengal in 22 i2 / N.
and 91 47" E., 12 miles below the town and port of Chittagong, which
is situated on its right bank. As far up as Chittagong it is navigable
by sea-going vessels, and by shallow-draught steamers as high as
Rangamati, the head-quarters of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Earge
native boats go up as high as Kasalang, while small craft ply 14 miles
farther up to the Barkal rapids. In the Hill Tracts it is known as the
Kynsa Khyoung. The chief tributaries are the Kasalang, Chingri,
Kaptai, and Rankhiang rivers in the Hill Tracts, and the Halda in
Chittagong District ; the latter empties itself into the main river from
the north, and is navigable by native boats for 24 miles throughout the
year. Besides those already mentioned, the principal river-side villages
are Chandraghona and Rangonia. The Karnaphuli is 'largely used for
floating cotton and forest produce from the Hill Tracts to Chittagong.
The approaches to the mouth are lit by lighthouses at Kutubdia and
Norman's Point, and the channels are buoyed by the Port Com-
missioners of Chittagong.

Karnaprayag. — One of the five sacred confluences of the Alak-
nanda, where this river is joined by the Pindar (see Pindari) in
Garhwal District, United Provinces. The village is situated at a height
of 2,300 feet above the sea, in 30 16' N. and 79 15' E. Population
(1901), 243. It contains a number of temples and also a dispensary,
and during the summer a police station.

Kama Suvarna. — Ancient kingdom in Bengal, which lay west of
the Bhaglrathi river, and comprised the modern Districts of Burdwan,
Bankura, Western Murshidabad, and Hooghly. The best-known king
was Sasanka or Narendra, the last of the Guptas, who was a fanatical
worshipper of Siva. He invaded Magadha, and cut down the sacred
bodhi tree, early in the seventh century. The capital of this kingdom
was probably at Rangamati in Murshidabad District.

Karnatak. — Tract in Peninsular India. See Carnatic.

Karnul. — District, subdivision, and town in Madras. See Kurnool.

Karol. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Karond. — Native State in Bengal. See KalahandI.

Karor. — Former name of the pargana and taksl/, now called
Bareilly. See Bareilly Tahsil.

Karor. — Town in Multan District, Punjab. See Kahror.



KARUNGUL1 61

Karor Lai Isa {Kahror). — Town in the Leiah tahsil of Mianwali
District, Punjab, situated in 31 13' N. and 70 57' E., on the high
bank of the Indus east of that river. Population (1901), 3,243.
Founded by Makhdum Lai Isa, Kureshi, a descendant of Bah3\val
Hakk, the saint of Multan, in the fifteenth century, the town still
preserves the massive tomb of its founder, and a large fair is held
yearly in his honour. It is first mentioned in history as included in
the government of Multan under Sultan Husain in 1469. The muni-
cipality was created in 1887. The income during the ten years ending
1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,600, and the expenditure Rs. 3,900. The in-
come in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,400, chiefly derived from octroi; and the
expenditure was Rs. 3,600. The town contains a dispensary, a muni
cipal board school (primary), a private Anglo-vernacular middle school,
and two municipal girls' schools.

Karsiang. — Subdivision and town in Darjeeling District, Bengal.
See Kurseong.

Kartarpur.— Town in the District and tahsil of Jullundur, Punjab,
situated in 31 26' N. and 75 30' E., on the North-Western Railway
and grand trunk road, 9 miles from Jullundur town. Population (1901),
10,840. Founded by Arjun, the fifth Sikh Guru, it is a place of great
sanctity, as the seat of the line of Gurus descended from him, and as
possessing his original Adi Granth or scripture. It was burnt by Ahmad
Shah in 1756. Kartarpur is a flourishing grain mart, with a market
outside octroi limits. Chairs, boxes, tables, and native flutes are made ;
also cotton twill (susl). The cantonment established here after the first
Sikh War was abolished in 1854. The municipality was created in
1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged
Rs. 7,500, and the expenditure Rs. 6,900. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 7,300, mainly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 10,600.
The town has an Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the
municipality, and a Government dispensary.

Karunguli. — Village in the Madurantakam taluk of Chingleput Dis-
trict, Madras, situated in 12 32' N. and 79 54' E., on the South Indian
Railway and on the southern trunk road, 48 miles from Madras city.
Population (1901), 4,065. It was the head-quarters of the District from
1795 to 1825, and subsequently continued for some years to be the head-
quarters of a taluk. Karunguli fort was occupied as a strategic point
during the wars between the English and the French, being regarded
as an outpost of Chingleput, from which it is 15 miles distant to the
south-west. These two places, with Wandiwash and Uttaramerur, formed
a sort of quadrilateral on the line of attack between the seats of the
two Governments of Madras and Pondicherry. As early as 1755 it was
a point of dispute. In 1757 it was evacuated by the English in the face
of advancing French troops. The following year the English attempted

E 2



6 2 KARUNGULI

to recover it by surprise, but were repulsed with loss, a failure which
was repeated in 1759. But some months later Colonel Coote, after
a few days' bombardment, captured the fort. This was the first de-
cisive action in the successful campaign of 1759-60, which led to the
victory at Wandiwash. The circumference of the fort is 1,500 yards,
enclosing the remains of what were apparently huge granaries for the
storage of grain, the tribute to the Muhammadan government out of
the produce of the neighbourhood. The Karunguli tank, which is fed
from the overflow of the Madurantakam tank, usually receives a plenti-
ful supply of water. A travellers' bungalow stands in the village, a
handsome old building in a grove of fine mango-trees.

Karur Taluk. — South-eastern taluk of Coimbatore District, Madras,
lying between io° 38' and n° 6' N. and 77 45" and 78 14' E., with
an area of 612 square miles. It is an open and undulating plain,
with no hills or forests of note, bounded on the north by the Cauvery
river and traversed by the Amaravati. It is poorly wooded and suffers
from an unusually trying hot season. It has one town, the municipality
of Karur (population, 12,769), the head-quarters; and 95 villages.
The population in 1901 was 220,843, compared with 211,794 in 1891,
the increase having been slower than elsewhere in the District. The
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,49,000.
The soil is mostly of an inferior red or grey variety, and is generally
lightly assessed. The area irrigated by channels is larger than in any
taluk except Satyamangalam. These lead from the Amaravati and the
Cauvery, and this is the first taluk in the Presidency in which the water
of the latter is used to any considerable extent. The rainfall (averaging
26 inches annually) is fairly plentiful and regular, and the crops are
generally good. Cambu is by far the most common cereal.

Karur Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in
Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in io° 58' N. and 78 6' E., on
the South Indian Railway, 48 miles from Trichinopoly, and on the
Amaravati river not far from its junction with the Cauvery. Population
(1901), 12,769. The town is called Tiruvanilai or Pasupati ('the place
of the sacred cow') in vernacular writings. The name Karur means
' embryo town,' and is said to have been given because Brahma began
his work of creation here. For the same reason it is often called
Brahmapurl in legendary records. It was apparently a place of some
importance as far back as the early centuries of the Christian era, for
coins of the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius were found
near by in 1806. Situated near the point where the territories of the
rival Chera, Chola, and Pandya dynasties met, it probably played a
part in their ancient struggles. On the dissolution of the Vijayanagar
empire in 1565, Karur fell under the Naiks of Madura; but it was
frequently attacked and occupied by the Mysore armies, and towards



KARVAN 63

the end of the .seventeenth century it was finally annexed to the latter
kingdom and became its most important frontier post. In 1639 the
Jesuits established a mission here. In later years the place constantly
changed hands. In 1736 Chanda Sahib besieged it unsuccessfully.
In 1760 it was captured by the British, in revenge for the assistance
given by Haidar to the French. Orme describes the siege in detail.
Karur was held by them till 1768, when it was retaken by Haidar,
whose possession was confirmed by treaty in the following year. In
1783 Colonel Lang took and held the fort for a few months. There
is a monument on the south bank of the river to the British troops who
fell in this siege. It was a third time captured in 1790 by General
Medows, and restored at the peace of 1792. It was garrisoned by the
Company as a military station until 1801, and portions of the old fort
still remain.

Karur was formerly the head-quarters of the Sub-Collector. Besides
the tahsildar, a District Munsif and a stationary sub-magistrate are now
stationed here. Being on the railway and at the junction of several
roads, it possesses a considerable trade. Its chief drawback is its
crowded site, which is surrounded entirely by rice-fields and the river.
The only industry worth mention is the manufacture of brassware on
a small scale. There are, however, two tanneries in the neighbourhood.
The principal temple is a considerable edifice of some antiquity,
containing numerous inscriptions on stone.

Karur was constituted a municipality in 1874. During the ten years
ending 1903 the annual income and expenditure averaged about
Rs. 20,000. In 1903—4 the receipts and expenditure were Rs. 29,000
and 28,000 respectively, the former being chiefly derived from school
fees, the house and land taxes, and tolls. It is a station of the
Wesleyan Mission, which maintains two industrial schools here, one
for boys and the other for girls. A drainage scheme estimated to cost
R- s « 95^50 has been framed for this municipality ; but its execution
has been postponed pending the introduction of a proper water-supply,
plans for which are still under preparation.

Karvan. — Village in the Baroda prant, Baroda State, situated in
22 5' N. and 73 15' E., with a station on the Dabhoi-Miyagam State
Railway. In olden times it was probably very important as a place
of pilgrimage. The local tradition is that the sage Vishvamitra, in
consequence of a dispute with Vasishta, desired to create another
Benares in this village. He therefore fashioned a thousand lingams
and then wrestled to bring the Ganges here, till Vishnu was weary
of his importunities. The god was forced to make himself visible to
the saint, who then ceased from vexing him, and in return Vishnu
promised that the village should be as holy as Benares. Many temples,
some old, some in ruins, are to be seen at this sacred spot.



64 KARVETNAGAR ZAMINDARI

Karvetnagar Zamindari. — Ancient zamindari in the north-east

of North Arcot District, Madras, lying between 13 2' and 13° 35' N.
and 79 14' and 79 49' E. Area, 943 square miles : number of
villages, 667 ; population (1901), 341,240. It is held on permanent
tenure under a sanad (grant) issued by the British Government in 1802.
The whole of the zamindari is hilly except the south-east ; penetrating
the hills run numerous picturesque ravines or konas, which are well
wooded and fairly stocked with game. One of the most charming
of these is the Sadasiva kona, about 10 miles north-east of the Puttur
station on the Madras Railway. Here a perennial stream flows east-
wards by a succession of cascades, by the sides of which tree-ferns and
other species of water-loving plants grow in profusion. The principal
streams which drain the zamindari are named after the towns of
Narayanavanam, Nagari, and Tiruttani, by which they flow. They
are dry except during the rains, but have excellent underground
springs, the water of which is tapped by means of channels and
irrigates considerable areas on both banks. The soil of the estate
is fertile ; but much of it is covered with hill and jungle, and three-
fourths of the area is uncultivable, only about 130,000 acres being
under the plough. Indigo is still largely cultivated, but of late years
the market for the dye has been depressed owing to the competition
of its new chemical rival. From the forests of the zamindari much
fuel is exported to Madras by rail. The total peshkash (or permanent
revenue paid to Government) is 1-7 lakhs, and the cesses in 1903-4
were an additional Rs. 50,000. The gross income of the whole
estate averages between 6 and 7 lakhs, but it is heavily encumbered.
Some of the villages have been sold in satisfaction of decrees of the
Civil Courts and now form separate properties ; and the estate is so
involved in debt that it was taken under the management of the Court
of Wards for a time. It has now been handed back to the proprietor.
Karvetnagar, 7 miles from Puttur railway station, is the chief town and
the residence of the zamlnddr, who has the hereditary title of Raja.
Puttur, Narayanavanam, Nagari, and Tiruttani are other important
places.

Karwar Taluka. — North-westernmost taluka of North Kanara
District, Bombay, lying between 14° 44' and 15 4' N. and 74 4' and
74 32' E., with an area of 281 square miles. It contains one town,
Karwar (population, 16,847), the taluka and District head-quarters;
and 54 villages. The population in 1901 was 58,460, compared with
53,278 in 1891. The density, 208 persons per square mile, is much
above the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4
was 1-09 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 7,000. The KallnadI flows from
cast to west through the centre, and as it enters the sea throws up
a bar of sand impassable to any but small craft. Along both banks



KARWAR TOWN 65

ol the river broad belts Of rice land, broken by groves ol palms and

other fruit trees, stretch east to near the Western Ghats. The soil
on the plains is sandy, and near the hills is much mixed with granite.
( )n the banks of the Kalinadi, and along the seashore, are large tracts
covered with a black alluvial deposit, charged with salt and liable to
be flooded at high tides. To bring such land under tillage, a strong
and costly wall must be built to keep out the sea. A heavy rainfall
is required to sweeten the land, and then, without much manure and
with due care, rich crops can be raised. Throughout the tdluka the
houses are not gathered into villages, but are scattered along narrow
lanes, standing in shady coco-palm gardens, some tiled and some
thatched, each with its well, bathing-place, and cattle-shed. The annual
rainfall is heavy, amounting at Karwar town to nearly no inches.

Karwar Town (Kadvdd). — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same
name and of North Kanara District, Bombay, situated in 14 49' N.
and 74 8' E., 50 miles south-east of Goa and 295 miles south-east
of Bombay. Population (1901), 16,847, including suburbs. The
municipality, established in 1864, had an average income during the
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 13,000. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 12,000.

Old Karwar, on the banks of the Kalinadi, 3 miles to the east of
the new town, was once an important place of commerce. It is first
mentioned in 15 10 as Caribal, on the opposite side of the river to
Cintacora or Chitakul. During the first half of the seventeenth century
the Karwar revenue superintendent, or desai, was one of the chief
officers of the Bijapur kingdom, of which it formed a part. In 1638
the fame of the pepper of Sonda induced Sir William Courten's
Company to open a factory at Karwar. In 1660 the factory was
prosperous, exporting the finest muslins in Western India ; the weaving
country was inland to the east, at Hubli and other centres, where as
many as 50,000 weavers were employed. Besides the great export of
muslin, Karwar provided pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and coarse blue
cotton cloth (du/igan). In 1665 SivajT, the founder of the Maratha
power, exacted a contribution of Rs. 1,120 from the English. In 1673
the faujddr, or military governor of Karwar, laid siege to the factory.
In 1674 Sivajl burnt Karwar town; but the English were treated civilly,
and no harm was done to the factory. In 1676 the factory suffered
from the exactions of local chiefs, and the establishment was withdrawn
in 1679. It was restored in 1682 on a larger scale than before. In
1684 the English were nearly driven out of Karwar, the crew of a small
vessel having stolen and killed a cow. In 1685 the Portuguese stirred
the desais of Karwar and Sonda to revolt. During the last ten years of
the seventeenth century the Dutch made every attempt to depress the
English pepper trade ; and in 1697 the Marathas laid Karwar waste.



66 KARWAR TOWN

In 1 715 the old fort of Karwar was pulled down, and Sadashivgarh was
built by the Sonda chief. The new fort seriously interfered with the
safety of the English factory ; and owing to the hostility of the Sonda
chief, the factory was removed in 1720. The English, in spite of their
efforts to regain the favour of the Sonda chiefs, were unable to obtain
leave to reopen their factory at Karwar till 1750. The Portuguese
in 1752 sent a fleet and took possession of Sadashivgarh. As the
Portuguese claimed the monopoly of the Karwar trade, and were in
a position to enforce their claim, the English agent was withdrawn.
In 1 80 1 Old Karwar was in ruins. Very few traces of it remain.

The new town dates from after the transfer of North Kanara District
to the Bombay Presidency, before which it was a mere fishing village.
The present town and neighbouring offices and residences are in the
lands of six villages, and within the municipal limits of the town are
nine villages. A proposal was strenuously urged in Bombay to connect
Karwar by a railway with the interior, so as to provide a seaport for the
southern cotton Districts. Between 1867 and 1874 the hope that
a railway from Karwar to Hubli would be sanctioned raised the value
of building sites at Karwar, and led to the construction of many ware-
houses and dwellings. The scheme was finally abandoned in favour
of the line through Portuguese territory to Marmagao. The trade of
Karwar has markedly decreased since the opening of this railway.

Karwar is the only safe harbour between Bombay and Cochin during



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