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all seasons of the year. In the bay is a cluster of islets called the
Oyster Rocks, on the largest of which, Devgad island, a lighthouse
has been built. There are two smaller islands in the bay (138 and
120 feet above the level of the sea), which afford good shelter to native
craft and small vessels during the strong north-west winds that prevail
from February to April. From the Karwar port-office, on a white
flagstaff, 60 feet from the ground and 65 feet above high water, is
displayed a red fixed ship's light, visible three miles ; with the light
bearing east-south-east a vessel can anchor in 3 to 5 fathoms. About
5 miles south-west and 2 miles from the mainland, the island of
Anjidiv rises steep from the sea, dotted with trees and the houses
of its small Portuguese settlement. Coasting steamers belonging to
the Bombay Steam Navigation Company call twice a week at Karwar
throughout the fair-weather season. These steamers generally make
the trip between Karwar and Bombay in thirty-six hours. The value
of the trade at Karwar port during the year 1903-4 is returned as
follows : imports 3-34 lakhs and exports Rs. 82,000. Karwar bay is
remarkable for its beautiful scenery. It possesses a fine grove of
casuarinas, beneath which the sea breaks picturesquely on the long
stretch of white sand, from the mouth of the Kalinadi to the sheltered
inlet of Baitkal cove. Besides the chief revenue and judicial offices,


the town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a jail, a hospital, a high
school with 237 pupils, 2 middle schools, and 8 other schools.

Karwi Subdivision. — Subdivision of Banda District, United Pro-
vinces, consisting of the Kamasin, Karwi, and Mau tahslls.

Karwi Tahsil. — South-eastern tahsil of Banda District, United
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of T arahuwan, lying between
24 53' and 25 19/ N. and 8o° 45' and 8i° 16' E., with an area of 567
square miles. Population fell from 87,687 in 1891 to 78,410 in 1901.
There are 189 villages and two towns, including Karwi, the tahsil
head-quarters (population, 7,743). The demand for land revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 77,000, and for cesses Rs. 15,000. The density of
population, 138 persons per square mile, is the lowest in the District.
Roughly speaking, about half the tahsil lies in the plain, while the
other half is situated on a plateau between the crest of the first range
of the Vindhyas and the scarp beyond which extends to the still higher
plateau of Rewah. The latter portion presents beautiful scenery and is
clothed with forest. Near the west the Paisuni river forms part of the
border and then strikes across the tahsil. In 1903-4 the area under
cultivation was 126 square miles, of which only 3 were irrigated.

Karwi Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsil of the
same name, in Banda District, United Provinces, situated in 25 12' N.
and 8o° 54' E., near the Paisuni river and on a branch of the Great
Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 7,743. Karwi was
a British cantonment from 1805 to 1816; and in 1829 it became the
principal residence of a Maratha chieftain who lived in almost regal
state, and built several beautiful temples and large wells. Numerous
traders from the Deccan were thus attracted to Karwi. During the
Mutiny, Narayan Rao, after the murder at Banda of the Joint-Magis-
trate of Karwi, assumed the government, and retained his independence
for eight months amid the subsequent anarchy. The accumulations of
his family constituted the great treasure afterwards famous as ' the
Kirwee and Banda Prize Money.' The Bara, a large building which
formed the palace of Narayan Rao's family, was confiscated, with most
of the other property, and now serves as a tahslli, police station, and
school. The other public buildings are a jail and dispensary. A Joint-
Magistrate and an Assistant District Superintendent of police are
stationed at Karwi, which also contains branches of the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel and the American Methodist Mission.
The town is administered, together with the adjacent village of
Tarahuwan, under Act XX of 1856. Karwi declined for a time after
the Mutiny; but the railway, opened in 1899, has caused it to become
the most important trade centre in the District. Cotton, grain, ghi,
and other produce are largely exported. A cotton-gin, opened in 1900,
employed 180 hands in 1903, and there is a small manufacture of


embroidered plush. There are three schools, with 170 buys and
25 girls.

Kasalpura. — Petty State in Mahi KanthA, Bombay.

Kasaragod Taluk. — Southernmost taluk of South Kanara Dis-
trict, Madras, lying between 12 7' and 12 57' N. and 74 52' and 75
26' E., with an area of 762 square miles. It contains 114 villages.
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to
Rs. 2.42,000. The population in 1901 was 231,280, compared with
210,323 in 1891, showing an increase of 10 per cent. Much of the
surface consists of a bare treeless plateau ; but the valleys are deep,
well-watered, and very fertile, and, especially in the northern half of the
taluk, admirably adapted for areca cultivation. The chief products are
rice, coco-nuts, and areca-nuts. In the coast villages in the south a
considerable amount of tobacco is raised by the Mappilla cultivators.
In eighteen survey villages adjoining Coorg and Malabar the shifting
system of cultivation known as kumri is still carried on, the crop being
usually a mixed one of hill rice, pulse, and cotton. The jungle on
selected spaces on the hill slopes is cut down, usually in December,
and burned when dry three or four months later. The seed is sown
in the ashes, sometimes without ploughing, when the rains come, and
in good years fine crops are secured with little further trouble. A
catch-crop is sometimes raised the following season ; and the spot
is then abandoned for a period of from seven to ten years till there
is sufficient fresh growth, when the process is repeated.

Kasarghat. — Pass in Thana District, Bombay. See Thalghat.

Kasauli. — Hill station and cantonment in the Punjab, situated in
3°° 53' N. and 76 58' E., entirely surrounded by Native States, but
attached for administrative purposes to the Kharar tahsil of Ambala
District. It stands on the summit of the long ridge overlooking Kalka,
at an elevation of 6,335 feet above the sea, and nearly 4,000 feet above
Kalka, from which it is distant about 9 miles. Population (1901), 2,192.
Kasauli was founded in 1842 as a military station, and now serves as
a convalescent depot. It has during the summer months a considerable
civil population, for whose accommodation hotels have been built.
Owing, however, to its nearness to the plains, it is the least attractive
in climate of the Punjab hill stations. The management of the station
is in the hands of a Cantonment Magistrate assisted by a cantonment
committee ; the Cantonment Magistrate proceeds on tour for ten days
in each month of the hot season, and is relieved of the charge of the
treasury by the Assistant Commissioner in charge of the Rupar sub-
division. The Deputy-Commissioner of Ambala also resides at Kasauli
during part of the hot season. There is an Anglo-vernacular middle
school. The Lawrence Military Asylum at Sanawar is 3 miles away,
in a portion of territory attached to Simla District. The income and


expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten years ending 1902 3
averaged Rs. 13,000.

The Pasteur Institute at Kasauli was established in 1901 for the
treatment of persons bitten by rabid animals, and now treats patients
from all parts of Northern India. In 1906 a central Research Institute
was founded, which will provide means for the scientific study of the
etiology and nature of disease in India, in addition to the preparation
of curative sera for the diseases of man and the training of scientifie
workers. The institution is in eharge of a Director, with a staff of
assistants. Kasauli is also the head-quarters of the Punjab Nursing
Association, and eontains a dispensary. There is a brewer)- in the

Kasba.— Old name of Jessore Town, Bengal.

Kasba. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Purnea District,
bengal, situated in 25° 51' N. and 87 32' E., on the road from Purnea
town to Araria, about 9 miles from the former. Population (1901),
7,600. Kasba, which lies on the Eastern Bengal State Railway, is the
chief centre of the rice trade in Purnea District, the paddy being col-
lected from the north of the District and the submontane portions of
Darjeeling for export to Calcutta. It has also become a large centre
of the jute trade, the annual sales amounting to over 10 lakhs; and
a European firm has an agency there.

Kasegaon. — Village in the Valva tahtka of Satara District, Bombay,
situated in 17 8' N. and 74° 14' E., close to the Satara-Kolhapur road,
11 miles south of Karad and 4 miles north of Peth. Population (1901),
5,482. This is one of the most thriving places in the taluka. It is
inhabited by well-to-do merchants, who traffic with the coast in local
produce, chiefly tobacco, pepper, and sugar-cane. The inhabitants
have an unenviable character for crime and litigiousness — mischief
to crops, cattle poisoning, and arson having been very frequent for
many years.

Kasganj Tahsll. — Northern tahsll of Etah District, United Pro-
vinces, comprising the parganas of Ulai, Bilram, Pachlana, Soron,
Sidhpura, Sahawar-Karsana, and Eaizpur-Badaria, and lying between
27 33' and 28 2' N. and 78 29' and 78° 59' E., with an area of 492
square miles. Population increased from 191,625 in 1891 to 265,216
in 1 90 1. There are 468 villages and six towns, the largest of which are
Kasganj (population, 19,686), the tahsll head-quarters, Soron (12,175),
and Sahawar (5,079). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was
Rs. 2,91,000, and for cesses Rs. 44,000. The new settlement will raise
the demand for revenue to Rs. 3,26,000, and for cesses to Rs. 53.000.
The density of population, 539 persons per square mile, is above the
District average. Population increased by nearly 28 per cent, between
1 89 1 and 1900, a higher rate of increase than in any other talis'il in the


United Provinces. The tahsll is bounded on the north-east by the
Ganges and on the south-west by the Kali Nadi. It thus lies entirely
in the tarai and in the central doab, which are the most precarious
tracts in the District. Heavy rain in 1884-6 led to extensive water-
logging, and the land which fell out of cultivation was overgrown with
kans {Saccharum spontanea m). Extensive reductions of revenue were
made, and, to prevent further deterioration, the drainage was improved.
The Burhiganga, which lies below the old high bank on the southern
edge of the tarai, has been deepened and straightened. In 1898-9 the
area under cultivation was 347 square miles, of which 108 were irrigated.
The tarai is so moist that irrigation is not usually required, and the
upland area is served by the Lower Ganges Canal and its Fatehgarh
branch. Wells supply about half the irrigated area.

Kasganj Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in
Etah District, United Provinces, situated in 27 48' N. and 78 39' E.,
on the Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway, and also on the road from Muttra
to Bareilly. A short branch railway connects Kasganj with Soron near
the Ganges, and an extension to Bareilly is under construction. This
is the chief trade centre of the District, and population is increasing :
(1891) 16,050, (1901) 19,686. The town is said to have been founded
by Yakut Khan, a eunuch in the service of Muhammad Khan, Nawab
of Farrukhabad. It afterwards came into the hands of Colonel James
Gardner, who was in the employ of the Marathas, and later in British
service. He raised a regiment, now known as Gardner's Horse, and
acquired a large property which was dissipated by his descendants.
Part of the property fell into the hands of Dilsukh Rai, once an agent
to the Gardner family, and one of his descendants has built a magnifi-
cent residence near the town. Kasganj stands on an elevated site, its
drainage flowing towards the Kali Nadi, which runs about a mile south-
east of the town. A new drainage scheme has recently been completed.
The town contains two fine bazars crossing each other at right angles.
At the junction a fine octagonal building, consisting of shops, forms
a suitable centre to the town. The chief public buildings are the town
hall, dispensary, ta/isl/i, and munsifi. There are also branches of the
Church Missionary Society and the American Methodist Mission.
Close to the railway station is a considerable colony of railway employes.
The town was constituted a municipality in 1868. During the ten
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 15,000.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,000, chiefly derived from octroi
(Rs. 16,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 23,000. Kasganj is
becoming an important centre for the collection and distribution of
country produce, especially grain, sugar, and cotton. Sugar-refining
is a growing industry, and there were two cotton-gins and a cotton-
press which employed 788 hands in 1903, while another ginning


factory was opened in 1004. The town school has about 190 pupils,
and 16 other schools aided by the municipality have 420 pupils.

Kashipur Tahsil. — South-western tahsil and subdivision of Nairn
Tal District, United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the
same name, lying between 29 7' and 29 22' N. and 78 43' and 79° 4'
E., with an area of 189 square miles. Population fell from 73,168 in
1891 to 55,632 in 1901, the rate of decrease being the highest in the
District. There are 147 villages and two towns : Kashipur (popula-
tion, 1 2,023), tri e tahsil head-quarters, and Jaspur (6,480). The demand
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 90,000, and for cesses Rs. 11,000.
The density of population, 294 persons per square mile, is also the
highest in the District. The tahsil resembles the adjoining parts of
Rohilkhand. It lies entirely in the plains, and is not so damp as the
Tarai. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 69 square miles, of
which 10 were irrigated, almost entirely from canals.

Kashipur Town. — Head-quarters of the Kashipur tahsu of
Nairn Tal District, United Provinces, situated in 29 13' N. and 78 58'
E., on a road from Moradabad : a railway from the same place has been
projected. Population (1901), 12,023. Near the town are extensive
ruins of forts and temples, which were identified by General Cunning-
ham with the capital of the kingdom of Govisana, visited by the Chinese
pilgrim in the seventh century. There are several tanks in the neigh-
bourhood, one of which is called after Drona, the tutor of the Pandava
brothers. A brick inscribed in characters of the third or fourth century
a. d. was recently found here. The modern town is named after its
founder, Kashi Nath, the governor of the pargana in the sixteenth or
seventeenth century. In the latter half of the eighteenth century Nand
Ram, the governor, became practically independent of the Chand Raja
of Almora ; and his nephew, Shib Lai, was in possession at the date of
the cession to the British in 1801. Kashipur contains a fair-sized bazar
with brick-built houses ; but outside of this the houses are chiefly of
mud. The largest building is the residence of the Raja, who is
descended from an illegitimate branch of the Chand Rajas of Almora.
Besides the usual courts there is a dispensary. Kashipur has been
a municipality since 1872. During the ten years ending 1901 the in-
come and expenditure averaged Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 14,000, chiefly from tolls (Rs. 5,000) and a tax on circumstances
and property (Rs. 3,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 12,000. There
is a flourishing trade in cloth, metal vessels, and hill produce. The
municipality supports a school with 75 pupils.

Kashkar.— Capital of Chitral State, North-West Frontier Province.
See Chitral.

Kashmir and Jammu. — The territories of the Maharaja of
Kashmir and Jammu may be roughly described in the words of the


treaty of March 16, 1846, as 'situated to the eastward of the river
Indus and westward of the river Ravi.' This country, known to the
English as Kashmir and to the Indians as Jammu, covers an area of
80,900 square miles, extending from 32 17' to 36 58' N. and from
73 26' to 8o° 30' E. It may be likened to a house with many storeys.

The door is at Jammu, and the house faces south,
yS ct^ looking out on the Punjab Districts of Jhelum,

Gujrat, Sialkot, and Gurdaspur. There is just a
fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth
of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is
known as the Kandi, the home of the Chibs and the Dogras. Then
comes the first storey, to reach which a range of mountains, 8,000 feet
high, must be climbed. This is a temperate country with forests of
oak, rhododendron, and chestnut, and higher up of deodar and pine,
a country of beautiful uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar,
drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the
Himalayan range known as the Pir Panjal lead to the second storey,
on which rests the exquisite valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum
river. Up steeper flights of the Himalayas we pass to Astor and
Baltistan on the north and to Ladakh on the east, a tract drained by
the river Indus. In the back premises, far away to the north-west,
lies Gilgit, west and north of the Indus, the whole area shadowed by
a wall of giant mountains which run east from the Kilik or Mintaka
passes of the Hindu Kush, leading to the Pamirs and the Chinese
dominions past Rakaposhi (25,561 feet), along the Muztagh range past
K 2 (Godwin Austen, 28,265 feet), Gasherbrum and Masherbrum
(28,100 and 25,660 feet respectively) to the Karakoram range which
merges in the Kuenlun mountains. Westward of the northern angle
above Hunza-Nagar the mighty maze of mountains and glaciers trends
a little south of east along the Hindu Kush range bordering Chitral,
and so on into the limits of Kafiristan and Afghan territory.

At the Karakoram pass (18,317 feet) the wall zigzags, and to the
north-east of the State is a high corner bastion of mountain plains at
an elevation of over 17,000 feet, with salt lakes dotted about. Little
is known of that bastion ; and the administration of Jammu and
Kashmir has but scanty information about the eastern wall of the
property, which is formed of mountains of an elevation of about
20,000 feet, and crosses lakes, like Pangkong, lying at a height of
nearly 14,000 feet. The southern boundary repeats the same
features — grand mountains running to peaks of over 20,000 feet ; but
farther west, where the wall dips down more rapidly to the south, the
elevation is easier, and we come to Bhadarwah (5,427 feet) and to
the still easier heights of Basoli (2,170 feet) on the Ravi river. From
Madhopur, the head-works of the Bari Doab Canal, the Ravi river


erases tn be the boundary, and a line crossing the (Jjh river and the
watershed of the low Dogra hills runs fairly straight to Jammu. A
similar line, marked by a double row of trees, runs west from Jammu
to the Jhelum river. From the south-west corner of the territories the
Jhelum river forms an almost straight boundary on the west as far as
its junction with the Kunhar river, 14 miles north of Kohala. At that
point the western boundary leaves the river and clings to the moun-
tains, running in a fairly regular line to the grand snow scarp of Nanga
Parbat (26,182 feet). Thence it runs almost due north to the crossing
of the Indus at Ramghat under the Hattu Plr, then north-west, sweep-
ing in Punial, Yasln, Ghizar, and Koh, the Mehtarjaos or chiefs of
which claim the Tangir and I )arel country, and linking on to the Hindu
Kush and Muztagh ranges which look north to Chinese territory and
south to Hunza-Nagar and Gilgit.

It is said of the first Maharaja Gulab Singh, the builder of the edifice
just described, that when he surveyed his new purchase, the valley of
Kashmir, he grumbled and remarked that one-third of the country was
mountains, one-third water, and the remainder alienated to privileged
persons. Speaking of the whole of his dominions, he might without
exaggeration have described them as nothing but mountains. There
are valleys, and occasional oases in the deep canons of the mighty
rivers ; but mountain is the predominating feature and has strongly
affected the history, habits, and agriculture of the people. Journeying
along the haphazard paths which skirt the river banks, till the sheer
cliff bars the way and the track is forced thousands of feet over the
mountain-top, one feels like a child wandering in the narrow and
tortuous alleys which surround some old cathedral in England.

It is impossible within the limit of this article to deal in detail with
the nooks and corners where men live their hard lives and raise their
poor crops in the face of extraordinary difficulties. There are interest-
ing tracts like Padar on the southern border, surrounded by perpetual
snow, where the edible pine and the deodar flourish, and where the
sunshine is scanty and the snow lies long. It was in Padar that were
found the valuable sapphires, pronounced by experts the finest in the
world. Farther east across the glaciers lies the inaccessible country of
Zaskar, said to be rich in copper, where the people and cattle live
indoors for six months out of the year, where trees are scarce and food
is scarcer. Zaskar has a fine breed of ponies. Farther east is the
lofty Rupshu, the lowest point of which is 13,500 feet ; and even at
this great height barley ripens, though it often fails in the higher places
owing to early snowfall. In Rupshu live the nomad Champas, who
are able to work in an air of extraordinary rarity, and complain bitterly
of the heat of Leh (1 1,500 feet).

Everywhere on the mass of mountains are places worthy of mention,


but the reader will gain a better idea of the country if he follows one
or more of the better known routes. A typical route will be that along
which the troops sometimes march from Jammu, the winter capital, past
the Summer Palace at Srinagar in Kashmir to the distant outpost at
Gilgit. The traveller will leave the railway terminus on the south bank
of the Tawi, the picturesque river on which Jammu is built. From
Jammu (1,200 feet) the road rises gently to Dansal (1,840 feet), passing
through a stony country of low hills covered with acacias, then over
steeper hills of grey sandstone where vegetation is very scarce, over
the Laru Lari pass (8,200 feet), dropping down again to 5,150 feet and
lower still to Ramban (2,535 feet), where the Chenab river is crossed,
then steadily up till the Banihal pass (9,230 feet) is gained and the
valley of Kashmir lies below.

So far the country has been broken, and the track devious, with
interminable ridges, and for the most part, if we except the vale of the
Bichlari, the pine woods of Chineni, and the slopes between Ramban
and Deogol (Banihal), a mere series of flat uninteresting valleys,
unrelieved by forests. It is a pleasure to pass from the scenery of the
outer hills into the green fertile valley of Kashmir — the emerald set in
pearls. The valley is surrounded by mountain ranges which rise to
a height of 18,000 feet on the north-east, and until the end of May
and sometimes by the beginning of October there is a continuous ring
of snow around the oval plain. Leaving the Banihal pass — and no
experienced traveller cares to linger on that uncertain home of the
winds — the track rapidly descends to Vernag (6,000 feet), where a
noble spring of deep-blue water issues from the base of a high scarp.
This spring may be regarded as the source of Kashmir's great river
and waterway, commonly known as the Jhelum, the Hydaspes of the
ancients, the Vitasta in Sanskrit, and spoken of by the Kashmiris as
the Veth. Fifteen miles north the river becomes navigable ; and the
traveller, after a march of no miles, embarks at Khanabal in a fiat-bot-
tomed boat and drops gently down to Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir.

Looking at a map of Kashmir, one sees a white footprint set in
a mass of black mountains. This is the celebrated valley, perched
securely among the Himalayas at an average height of 6,000 feet above
the sea. It is approximately 84 miles in length and 20 to 25 miles in
breadth. North, east, and west, range after range of mountains guard

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