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persons per square mile, is below the District average. The demand
for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2-5 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 17,000.
Malegaon is hilly in the north ; but in the south, except for a few small
hills, it is flat and treeless. Three ranges run through the tdluka^ and
are crossed by numerous cart-tracks into Khandesh and the adjoining
tdluka, the most southerly range being traversed by a section of the
Bombay-Agra trunk road. The tahika is healthy and well watered.
The chief rivers are the (iirna with its tributaries in the centre, and
the Bori in the north. The Girna passes close to Malegaon town.
The annual rainfall averages 21 inches.

Malegaon Town. — -Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name
in Nasik District, Bombay, situated in 20° 33'' N. and 74° 32'' E., on
the trunk road from Bombay to Agra, 154 miles north-east of Bombay
and 24 miles north-east of Manmad on the Great Indian Peninsula
Railway. Population (1901), 19,054. Malegaon was formerly a
cantonment, but the troops have now been finally withdrawn. It has
a municipality, established in 1863. The income during the decade
ending 1901 averaged Rs. 24,000. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 32,000. The town contains two cotton-ginning factories, about
3,000 hand-looms for cotton weaving, which employ 7,000 persons,
a Subordinate Judge's court, two English schools, and a dispensary.
Malegaon was occupied by Arab troops during the Pindari War, and


its capture by Colonel M'Dowell in May, 1818, was attended by a loss
of more than 200 of the British force. When the Arabs were dispersed
after the capture of the fort, many of them were escorted to Surat
and there shipped to their native country : others retired to Cutch,
Kathiawar, and the Deccan. The fort is said to have been built in
1740 by Narushankar, a daring Arab leader ; other authorities refer its
construction to an engineer sent from Delhi.

Malegaon Village. — A jaglr village in the north-east of Bidar
District, Hyderabad State, situated in 18° 41' N. and 76° 58' E.
Population (1901), 270. It was once celebrated for its annual horse
fair, where upwards of 4,000 horses and ponies were disposed of for
prices ranging up to Rs. 700, Piece-goods, cloth of all kinds, hard-
ware, &c., were among other things exposed for sale. Owing to plague
and famine the fair has not been held since 1897.

Maler Kotla State. — Native State under the political control of
the Commissioner, Jullundur Division, Punjab, lying between 30° 24'
and 30° 41^ N. and 75° 42' and 75° 59' E., with an area of 167 square
miles. Population (1901), 77,506, giving a density of 478 persons
per square mile. It is bounded by the District of Ludhiana on the
north and by Patiala territory elsewhere, except for a few miles on
the western border, where it marches with some Nabha villages. The
country is a level plain, unbroken by a single hill or stream, and varied
only by sand-drifts which occur in all directions and in some parts
assume the shape of regular ridges. The Bhatinda branch of the
Sirhind Canal passes through the northern part of the State, but the
Nawab refuses to allow irrigation from it. The Nawabs of Malcr
Kotla are of Afghan descent, and originalh- held positions of trust in
tile Sirhind in'ovince under the Mughal emperors. As the empire sank
into decay during the eighteenth century, the local chiefs gradually
became independent. In 1732 the chief of Maler Kotla, jamal Khan,
joined the commander of the imperial troops stationed in the Jullundur
Doab in an unsuccessful attack on Raja Ala Singh, the Sikh chief of
Patiala; and again in 1761, Jamal Khan afforded valuable aid against
his Sikh neighbour to the lieutenant whom Ahmad Shah, the Durrani
conqueror, had left in charge of Sirhind. The consequence of this
was a long-continued feud with the adjacent Sikh States, especially with
Patiala. After the death of Jamfd Khan, who was killed in battle,
dissensions ensued among his sons, Bhikan Khan ultimately becoming
Nawab. Soon after Ahmad Shah had left India for the last time. Raja
Amar Singh of Patiala determined to take revenge on Bhikan Khan.
He attacked him, and seized some of his villages, till at last the Maler
Kotla chief found that he was unable to resist so powerful an enemy,
and a treaty was negotiated which secured peace for many years
between these neighbouring States. During this peace the forces of


Maler Kotla on several oecasions assisted the Patiala Rajas when in
difficulties; and in 1787 Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala returned these
kindnesses by aiding Maler Kotla against the powerful chief of
Khadaur, who had seized some of the Nawab's villages. In 1794
a religious war was proclaimed against the Muhammadans of Maler
Kotla by the Bedi Sahib Singh, the lineal descendant of Baba Nanak,
the first and most revered of the Sikh Gurus. This man, who was
half-fiinatic and half-impostor, inflamed the Sikhs against the cow-
killers of Maler Kotla, and a great many Sikh Sardars joined him.
The Nawab and his troops were defeated in a pitched battle, and com-
pelled to flee to the capital, where they were closely besieged by the
fanatical Bedi. Fortunately for the Nawab, his ally of Patiala again sent
troops to help him ; and ultimately the Bedi was induced to withdraw
across the Sutlej by the offer of a sum of money from the Patiala Raja.

After the victory of I-aswari, gained by the British over Sindhia in
1803, and the subjugation and flight of Holkar in 1805, when the
Nawab of Maler Kotla joined the British army with all his followers,
the British (jovernment succeeded to the power of the Marathas in the
districts between the Sutlej and the Jumna ; and in 1809 its protection
was formally extended to Maler Kotla as to the other Cis-Sutlej
States, against the formidable encroachments of RanjTt Singh of
Lahore. In the campaigns of 1806, 1807, and 1808, Ranjit Singh
had made considerable conquests beyond the Sutlej ; and in 1808 he
occupied Faridkot, marched on Maler Kotla, and demanded a ransom
of Rs. 1,55,000 from the Nawab, in spite of the protests of Mr. (after-
wards Lord) Metcalfe, who was then an envoy in Ranjit's camp. This
led to the resolute interference of the British, who advanced troops
under Colonel Ochterlon\-, and at the same time (December, 1808)
addressed an ultimatum to Ranjit Singh, declaring the Cis-Sutlej States
to be under British protection. Finally, Ranjit Singh submitted ;
Colonel Ochterlony formally reinstated the Nawab of Maler Kotla
in February, 1809 : and in April of that year the final treaty between
the British Covernment and Lahore, which affirmed the de[)endence
of the (_1s-Sutlej States on the former, was signed by Mr. Metcalfe
and Ranjit Singh.

The present Nawab, Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan, born in 1857,
succeeded in 1877 ; but he has been insane for some years, and the
State is now administered by Sahibzada Ahmad Ali Khan, the heir-
apparent, as regent. The State contains the town of Maler Kotla, the
capital, and 115 villages. The chief products are cotton, sugar, opium,
aniseed, tobacco, garlic, and grain ; and the estimated gross revenue is
Rs. 5,47,000. The Nawab receives compensation from the Govern-
ment of India, amounting to Rs. 2,500 per annum, on account of loss
of revenue caused by the abolition of customs duties. The State


receives an allotment of 14 to 16 chests of Malwa opium annually,
each chest containing 1-25 cwt., at the reduced duty of Rs. 280 per
chest. The duty so paid is refunded to the State, with a view to
securing the co-operation of the State ofificials in the suppression of
smuggling. The military force consists of 50 cavalry and 439 infantry.
This includes the Imperial Service contingent of one company (177
men) of Sappers and Miners. The State possesses 2 serviceable
guns. The Nawab of Maler Kotla receives a salute of 11, including
2 personal, guns. The State contains an Anglo-vernacular high school
and three primary schools.

Maler Kotla Town. — Chief town of Maler Kotla State, Punjab,
situated in 30° 32' N. and 75° 59' E., 30 miles south of Ludhiana town.
Population (1901), 21,122. The town is divided into two parts, Maler
and Kotla, which have lately been united by the construction of the
new Moti Bazar. The former was founded by Sadr-ud-din, the founder
of the Maler Kotla family in 1466, and the latter by Bayazid Khan in
1656. The principal buildings are the houses of the ruling chief, a
large Diwan Khana (courthouse) situated in Kotla, and the mausoleum
of Sadr-ud-din in Maler. The cantonments lie outside the town. The
chief exports are grain and Kotla paper and survey instruments, manu-
factured in the town itself; and the chief imports are cotton cloth, salt,
and lime. A large grain market has lately been constructed. The
town has a small factory for the manufacture of survey instruments,
employing about 20 hands. A cotton-press, opened in 1904, gives
employment to about 300 persons. Maler Kotla has since 1905 been
administered as a municipality. It contains a high school, a hospital,
and a military dispensary.

Malgaon.- Town in the Miraj (Senior) Slate, Bombay, situated in
16° 53' N. and 74° 47' E. Population (1901), 5,774. It is adminis-
tered as a municipality, with an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 700. A
temple of Daudnath, which is supposed to have been dedicated by
the hero of the Ramayana, stands on a hill about 3 miles from the
town; and just outside is the shrine of a Muhammadan saint named
Bawafan, at which a yearly fair, attended by both Hindus and Muham-
madans, is held. Malgaon is flimous for its betel-nut gardens, the
produce of which is exported to Kolhapur, Poona, Bombay, and other
places. It is connected with Miraj, 6 miles away, by a good road,
which serves as a feeder to the Southern Mahratta Railway. The
town contains a branch post office and a school.

Malia. — State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay, lying
between 23° \' and 23° 10' N. and 70° 46' and 71° 2' E., with
an area of 103 square miles. The population in 1901 was 9,075,
residing in 17 villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,56,000, and
the cultivated area 68 square miles. The State ranks as a fourth-class


State in Kathiawar. The Thakur or chief was raised from the fifth to
the fourth class to give him a greater hold over the Mianas, a predatory
tribe which infests the neighbourhood. He is a representative of the
elder branch of the ('utch family, and executed the usual engagements
in 1807.

Maliahs, The ('highlands'). — An elevated tract in the western half
of Ganjam District, Madras, comprising the country above and just
adjoining the Eastern Ghats, and lying between 18° 48' and
20° 26' N. and 83° 30' and 84° 36' E., with an area of 3,551 square
miles. They are also called the Agencies, because they are adminis-
tered by the Collector under special powers vested in him in his
capacity as Agent to the Governor. They are peopled by primitive
forest tribes. The ordinary courts have no jurisdiction in them, the
Agent and his Assistants administering both civil and criminal justice,
and much of the ordinary law of the land is not in force.

The tract consists of a series of wild undulating plateaux, divided
by lower valleys. In the north, almost the whole of the Udayagiri
taluk may be said to have an average elevation of 2,300 feet. Passing
west to Balliguda and Pokiribondo, the general level sinks to 1,700
and 1,500 feet, and farther south of Balliguda to 1,000 feet at Kotgar.
On the west of this last line is a higher plateau round Belghar, with
an average elevation of 2,500 feet, and in the southern centre of the
Balliguda taluk is another of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. South of
this the general altitude is about 1,700 feet, again sinking in the
neighbourhood of Nolaghat in Ramagiri tCxliik to 1,000 feet; while
still farther south the elevation once more rises, and the hills run up
into the three highest peaks in the District, all of which are above
4,500 feet.

The scenery throughout is usually beautiful, and in places remains of
the old heavy forest are still standing ; but the continual clearing of the
hill-sides for the purposes of the shifting cultivation practised by the
tribes prevents the trees from attaining any size. This shifting culti-
vation is effected by felling and burning a piece of forest, cultivating
the ground in a careless manner for two or three years, and then
moving to a fresh patch. The best growth now, which is on the slopes
leading up into the hill country, consists chiefly of sal {Shorea rolmsta).
The chief passes into the Maliahs are the Kalingia ghat from Russell-
konda, the Pippalaponka ghat from Gazilbadi, the Katingia ghat from
Surada, the Taptapani or ' hot spring ' ghat (so called from a hot
sulphur spring it contains) from Digupudi, the Puipani ghat from
Surangi, and the Munisinghi ghat from Parlakimedi.

The Agency tracts are for the most part held on a kind of feudal
tenure, the proprietors being in theory bound to render certain services
when called upon, They comprise fourteen different Maliahs known


by separate names, of which four, the Goomsur, Surada, Gliiiinakiniedi,
and Parlakimcdi Mahahs, are Government land.

In 1901 the population numbered 321,114, living in 1,926 villages.
Of the total, 139,000 were Khonds, 83,000 Savaras, 44,000 Panes, and
46,000 Oriyas. The Panos, who are often good-looking, have well-
marked gipsy proclivities. Their occupations are trade, weaving, and
theft. They live on the ignorance and superstition of the Khonds, as
brokers and pedlars, sycophants and cheats. Where there are no
Oriyas the Panos possess much influence, and are always consulted
by the Khonds in important questions, such as boundary disputes.
The Khonds live chiefiy in the north and the Savaras in the south.
Both are primitive people and their religious beliefs are animistic,
though those who have settled below the Ghats have to some extent
adopted the ordinary Hindu gods and rites. Their languages, which
are called after them Khond and Savara, are unwritten.

The various dialects of the Khonds differ greatly in different localities,
and the ways and character of the tribe vary almost as much as their
dialects. Those inhabiting the Kutia country are the most warlike
and troublesome. Generally speaking, the Khonds are 'a bold and
fitfully laborious mountain peasantry, of simple but not undignified
manners ; upright in their conduct ; sincere in their superstitions ;
proud of their position as landholders, and tenacious of their rights.'
Khond women wear nothing above the waist except necklaces. The
men have one dirty cloth, the ends of which hang down behind like
a tail. Their head-dress is characteristic. They wear their hair very
long, and it is drawn forward and rolled up until it resembles a short
horn. Round this it is the delight of the Khond to wrap a piece of
coloured cloth or some feathers, and he also keeps his comb, pipe, &c.,
inside it. The men go about armed with a fa>igi, a sort of battle-axe,
and use bows and arrows when after game. They are over-fond of
sago-palm liquor ; and in March, when the inahud flower falls, they
distil strong drink from it, and many of the male population remain
hopelessly intoxicated for days together. In places the Sondis, a caste
of traders and toddy-sellers, have obtained much of the Khonds' land
by pandering to their taste for liquor.

The Savaras are of poorer physique, and more docile and timid than
the Khonds. They use bows and arrows like the Khonds, and dress
their hair in the same sort of horn on the top of their heads. They are
not, however, nearly so addicted to strong drink. They are skilful
cultivators, and in some places grow rice by terracing the hill-sides with
much labour and ingenuity.

The dominant race above the Ghats are the Oriyas. The hill
villages are arranged into groups called vii/ttahs, over each of which
is an hereditary headman, known as the palro or Bissoyi, who has a


number of paiks or guards under him. \\\\.h one exception, all these
patros are Oriyas. Government holds them responsible for the good
order of their muttahs, and the Khonds almost everywhere obey them

Government derives very little revenue from the Maliahs, except
from the Chokkapad khandam in the Goomsur Maliahs, which is
managed as a ryotwdri area. All the zam'inddrs and chiefs who hold
Maliahs under special sanads (grants) pay tiazardtias (fees) to Govern-
ment, and receive fixed amounts from the patros of the several muttahs,
who in their turn get fixed 7?uimil/s (customary payments) from the
several villages in their nmttahs.

The Maliahs had an evil repute in days gone by for frequent meriah,
or human, sacrifices to the earth-god to secure good crops. The
Khonds were the great offenders in this matter. The vieriah victim
was formally purchased and destined for sacrifice, and on the day
appointed was stupefied with intoxicants and then, after certain cere-
monies, was publicly done to death, the body being cut up into small
pieces which the people buried in their fields before sundown. The
method of sacrifice varied. At Balliguda the victim was tied to a
horizontal bar, roughly shaped to resemble an elephant's head, which
turned on a vertical post. The bar was whirled round and round, and
as it revolved the people hacked to shreds the still living victim. One
of these diabolical contrivances is now in the Madras Museum.

Special officers were appointed to suppress this custom (and female
infanticide, which was also common); but it persisted as late as 1857,
and even in 1880 an attempted sacrifice in Vizagapatam District was
very nearly successful. Some hundreds of persons of both sexes who
had been bought for sacrifice were rescued by the special officers, and
three or four of them are still alive and in receipt of a monthly dole
from Government. The Khonds now substitute a buffalo for the
human victim.

Malihabad Tahsil. — Northern tahsll of Lucknow District, United
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Malihabad and Mahona, and
lying between 26° 52' and 27° 9' X. and 80° 34' and 81° 4' E., with an
area of 334 square miles. Population increased from 175,542 in 1891
to 184,230 in 1 90 1. There are 379 villages and only one town, Mali-
habad (population, 7,554), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,30,000, and for cesses Rs. 51,000.
The density of population, 552 persons per square mile, is the lowest
in the District. Across the centre of the tahsil flows the Gumtl, whose
banks are fringed by ravines and bordered by a sandy tract. In the
north-east the soil is clay, and tanks and Jhlls abound. The south-
western portion is intersected by several small streams and is very
fertile. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 213 square miles, of


which 73 were irrigated. Wells supply two-thirds of the irrigated area,
and tanks most of the remainder.

Malihabad Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same
name in Lucknow District, United Provinces, situated in 26° 55' N.
and 80° 43' E., a mile from a station on the Oudh and Rohilkhand
Railway and on the road from Lucknow city to Hardol. Population
(1901), 7,554. According to tradition, the town was founded by
Malia, a Pas! ; but nothing is known of its history till the reign of
Akbar, when it was inhabited by Pathans. It contains two bazars
built in the eighteenth century, one of which owes its origin to Nawab
Asaf-ud-daula. Besides the usual offices, a dispensary and a branch
of the American Methodist Mission are situated here. Malihabad
is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs.
2,300. It has litde trade, but a kind of tinfoil is manufactured in
small quantities, and the place is noted for its mangoes and orchards
o{ ber {Zizyphus Jtijuba). A school for boys contains 175 pupils and
one for girls 29.

Maliwun (Siamese, Alaktvan). — Southernmost township of Mergui
District, Lower Burma, lying on the mainland between 9° 58' and
10° 55' N. and 96° 2 7'' and 98° 56' E., and including islands which extend
to 9° 38' N. and 97° 44' E, Its area is 989 square miles. The eastern
boundary runs for most of the way along the Pakchan river, on the
other side of which is the Siamese State of Renong. The head-quarters
were moved in 1891 from Maliwun, the principal tin-mining centre in
the District, situated on a tributary of the Pakchan, to the healthier
and more accessible Victoria Point at the southern extremity of the
mainland. Except for a few Government officials and their families,
there are no Burmans in the township, the population of which was
7,719 in 1891 and 5,265 in 1901, composed of Siamese in the rice
plain on the right bank of the Pakchan, Chinese in the mining camps,
Malays along the coast, and Salons about the islands. The township
contains 41 villages and hamlets. Until the time of Alaungpaya the
Pakchan was an important trade route. The country seems to have
been completely depopulated by that monarch's devastations, and was
left a good deal to itself till, fifty years ago, immigration had led to
such a series of dacoities and piracies that measures had to be con-
certed between the British and Siamese Governments for the main-
tenance of order. In 1859 the population was only 733. The next
year the tract was leased to a Chinaman, who took over the adminis-
tration for ten years ; but internal brawls in 1861 led to the establish-
ment of a frontier police under a European inspector, a-nd later to the
appointment of a resident magistrate. The village of Victoria Point,
called by the Siamese Kawsong, by the Malays Pulodua (both meaning
' two islands '), and by the Burmans Kawthaung, a corruption of the


Siamese name, contains about 80 houses. The Government buildings
are pleasantly situated on rolling hills, from which the islands of the
Archipelago and the Pakchan river, with the mountain ranges of
Renong beyond it, are visible at the same time. Except for the rice
plain on the Upper Pakchan and a few small patches elsewhere, the
whole township is under dense forest. The area cultivated in 1903-4
was 7 square miles, and the land revenue Rs. 4,600. The total revenue
raised in the same year amounted to Rs. 30,000.

Maliyas. — Hill tracts in the north of the Madras Presidency. See

Malkangiri.— Agency tahs'tl in Vizagapatam District, Madras,
situated north of the Ghats on the western border of the District,
and bounded east and west by the Machkund and Sabari rivers. Area,
2,396 square miles; population (1901), 35,856, compared with 28,277
in 1891 ; number of villages, 566. The tahs'il is the largest and most
sparsely peopled in the Presidency, the density of population being
only 15 persons per square mile. Malkangiri is a wild forest-clad area,
watered by the Sabari and Sileru, and sloping down to the Godavari
border. Good teak and sal {Shorea robustd) forests exist, and they
are being ' reserved ' by the Raja of Jeypore, to whom the tahsil
belongs. The head-quarters are at Malkangiri village. Among the
inhabitants, besides hill tribes, are found a considerable number of
Telugus who have immigrated from the neighbouring Agency tract
in Godavari.

Malkapur Taluk. — TCxIuk of Buldana District, Berar, lying between
20° 33" and 21° 2'N. and 76° 2' and 76°36'E., with an area of 792 square
miles. The population fell from 177,877 in 1891 to 173,234 in 1901,
the density in the latter year being 219 persons per square mile. The
tdhik contains 288 villages and two towns, Malkapur (population,
13,112), the head-quarters, and Nandura (6,669). The demand for
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 5,24,000, and for cesses Rs. 41,000.
Malkapur lies in the fertile valley of the Puma, which bounds it on
the north, while on the south it is bounded by the hills of the Balaghat.

Malkapur Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in
Buldana District, Berar, situated in 20° 53' N. and 76° 15' E., on the
Nalganga, a tributary of the Purna, at an elevation of 900 feet, with
a station on the Nagpur branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway,
308 miles from Bombay and 213 from Nagpur. Population (1901),
13,112. Two bands or dams cross the Nalganga here, one of which is
said to have been constructed about two hundred years ago to facilitate
communication with the peth or suburb, and the other about fifty years
later to fill the town ditch with water and thus protect it from surprise

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