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by marauders. A dilapidated rampart of dressed stone with five gates
and twenty-eight bastions surrounds the tow^n, which is divided into

VOL. xvn. G



92 UfALKAPUR TOU'iY

four principal quarters. One of the gates bears on it an inscription, to
the effect that it was erected in 1729 during the rule of Muhammad
Maali Khan. Malkapur is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akban as the head-
quarters of a pargajia in the sarkdr of Narnala. The town is said to
have been founded about four hundred and fifty years ago by a prince
of the Faruki house of Khandesh, and to have been named by him
after the princess {//lalika) his daughter ; but the story is improbable,
for we have no record of any journey in this direction by Miran GhanT
Adil Khan, the Faruki prince of the period. In 1761 the town was
rich enough to pay Rs. 60,000 to the army of Raghunath Rao Peshwa,
for exemption from plunder. The Nizams used to keep a force of
about 20,000 men in this frontier district of their dominions. Daulat
Rao Sindhia and Raghuji Bhonsla were encamped near Malkapur
when the British envoy, Colonel Collins, after presenting General
Wellesley's ultimatum, quitted Sindhia's camp on August 3, 1803.
Malkapur was the scene of several petty battles between zaimndais,
rival falukddrs, Rajputs, and Musalmans during the period between
the beginning of the nineteenth century and the Assignment of Berar.
A subordinate civil court is established at Malkapur, which also
contains a fa/is'il, a courthouse, schools, a dispensary, and some ginning
factories. A mosque near the kdzts house is said to be older than
the town.

Mallaiii. — The largest district in the State of Jodhpur, Rajputana,
situated in the west of the State, with an area of 5,750 square miles.
In 1 90 1 it contained one town, Barmer, and 464 villages, with a total
population of 172,330, of whom about 75 per cent, were Hindus,
12 per cent. Musalmans, 6 per cent. Animists, and 5 per cent. Jains.
The population in 1891 was 221,184; the decrease is due to the
famine of 1 899-1 900. The most numerous castes are the J^^ts, 40,000 ;
Bhils, 11,700; Rajputs, 11,400 (of whom 1,400 are Musalmans);
Mahajans, 11,000; Brahmans, 9,400; and Balais or Chamars, 8,000.
The salient feature of the country is the sandhills, which in some
places rise to an altitude of 300 to 400 feet. The northern and
western portions form part of the desert stretching into Sind and
Jai.salmer. Water is usually brackish, and in some spots deadly to man
or beast. Wells and pools yield potable water only after the rains
and become noxious by March, so that in the summer there is a great
scarcity of water and the use of a wholesome well has to be paid for.
The sandy wastes provide excellent grazing for the herds of camels,
cattle, sheep, and goats kept by a large migratory population, including
some of the hardy Baloch tribes. The only river in Mallani is the
Luni, which enters the district at Jasol and pursues a tortuous course
of about 80 miles till it passes into the Sanchor district of the State,
and thence to the Rann of Cutch. There are about ^ojhils or marshes



MALLANI 93

in the vicinity of Barmer, Takhtabad, and Setrao, some of which cover
an area of 400 or 500 acres. In favourable seasons, wheat is grown in
their beds, and when they are dry they yield a good supply of water at
a depth varying from 8 to 24 feet. Fuller's earth is found in con-
siderable quantities ; and the principal manufactures are cloth of a
mixture of cotton and wool, woollen blankets, small rugs of camel hair,
millstones, and horse and camel saddlery. The horses of Mallani are
famous for their hardiness and ease of pace, and though light-boned
will carry heavy weights ; the best are bred in the villages of Nagar and
Gurha. The administration of the district is in the hands of a Super-
intendent, under whom are the hakim or chief local officer ; the Munsif,
who settles civil suits and disputes about land ; and the risdidd?', who
is the head of the local police. There are four vernacular schools of
long standing, and a couple of small hospitals.

Historically the tract is very interesting, and justly claims to be the
cradle of the Rathor race in the west. Here, in the beginning of the
thirteenth century, Rao Siahjl and his son Asthanji, having conquered
Kher (now a ruined village near Jasol) and the adjoining tract called
Mewo, from the Gohel Rajputs, planted the standard of the Rathors
amid the sandhills of the Luni. The eighth in succession from Siahji
was Rao Salkha, in whose time, about the middle of the fourteenth
century, a separation took place. Salkha had three sons : namely,
Mallinath, Viramdeo, and Jetmal. A portion of the tribe followed
the fortunes of Viramdeo, whose son Chonda captured Mandor from
the Parihar Rajputs in 1381, and whose descendants ruled first there
and subsequently at Jodhpur. The rest of the tribe remained on the
banks of the Luni with Salkha's eldest son, Mallinath, after whom
the district of Mallani is named. Succession following the rule of
partition, the country became minutely subdivided among the descen-
dants of Mallinath, and the dissensions and blood-feuds thereby created
offered the chiefs of Jodhpur opportunities to interfere and establish
an overlordship which continues to the present day. The district was
for centuries one continual scene of anarchy and confusion ; and the
Jodhpur Darbar, when called upon to remedy this, acknowledged its
inability. In these circumstances, in 1836, it became necessary for the
British Government to occupy Mallani and restore order by reducing
the principal Thakurs. The district was subsequently held in trust
by Government, the rights of the Jodhpur chief being recognized ; and
as the Darbar gave increasing evidence of sound administration, its
jurisdiction has been gradually restored — namely, military in 1854,
civil in 1891, and criminal in 1898. The whole of Mallani consists
of Jdgir estates, the principal being Jasol, Barmer, and Sindri, held by
descendants of Mallinath, and Nagar and Gurha, held by descendants
of Jetmal. They pay a small tribute called faiijbal to the Jodhpur

u 2



94 MALLANI

Darbar, which thus derives an income of about Rs. 18,000, including
a few miscellaneous items.

Mallanwan. — Town in the Bilgram tahsll of Hardoi District, United
Provinces, situated in 27° 3' N. and So° 9' E., on the old route from
Delhi to Benares, north of the Ganges. Population (1901), 11,158.
The Shaikhs who inhabit the place claim to have come with Saiyid
vSal.ar, and it was of some importance under native rule. In 1773
a force of the Company's troops was cantoned between Mallanwan
and Bilgram, but was removed soon after to Cawnpore. At annexation
in 1856 Tvlallanwan was selected as the head-quarters of a District ; but
after the Mutiny the offices were removed to Hardoi. The town is
administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs.
2,700. There is a considerable manufiicture of vessels of brass and
bell-metal. The school has 216 pupils, and the American Methodist
Mission has a branch in the town.

Malot (i). — Ancient fortress, now in ruins, in the District and tahsll
of Hoshiarpur, Punjab, situated in 31° 50' N. and 76° E. It was founded
by a Pathan general in the reign of Bahlol LodI (1451-89), and became
under Sher Shah the capital of the tracts which now form Hoshiarpur
and Kangra Districts. In 1526 it was surrendered to Babar by Daulat
Khan, ruler of the Punjab, and in later times it fell into the hands of
the hill Rajputs.

Malot (2). — Fort and temple on a precipitous spur projecting from
the southern edge of the Salt Range, Jhelum District, Punjab, situated
in 32° 42' N. and 72° 50' E., about 9 miles west of Katas. The fort is
said to have been built five or six centuries ago by Raja Mai, a Janjua
chief, whose descendants still hold the village. The temple, with its
gateway, stands on the extreme edge of the cliff. They are in the
earlier Kashmir style, built of coarse red sandstone, much injured by
the action of the weather. The temple is 18 feet square inside, with
remarkable fluted pilasters and capitals, on each of which is a kneeling
figure.

\ArchaeoIogicaI Survey Reports, vol. v, pp. 85-90.]

Malpe. — Village and port in the Udipi tdluk of South Kanara
District, Madras, situated in 13° 28' N. and 74° 46' E. It is the best
natural port in the District, the roadstead being sheltered by the island
of Darya Bahadurgarh. The St. Mary Isles, on which Vasco da Gama
landed in 1498 and set up a cross, lie about 3 miles to the north-west.
The Basel Mission has a tile factory here.

Malpur. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay.

Malpura. — Head-quarters of the ?nzai>iat and tahsll of the same
name in the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 26° 18' N. and
75° 23' E., about 55 miles south-west of Jaipur city, and connected
with the Rajputana-Malwa Railway at Naraina by an unmetalled road



MALUR TALUK A



95



about 38 miles long. Population (igor), 6,502. The town has a
more than local reputation for the iiamda or felt manufactured there.
Blankets, gugis, or capes with hoods worn in the rainy season, Hindu
prayer-rugs, saddle-cloths, gun-covers, and floorcloths are the chief
articles made from this material ; and they are largely exported. A ver-
nacular middle school is attended by about 120 boys, and the hospital
has accommodation for 4 in-patients. There are numerous excellent
irrigation works in this district ; among them the Tordi Sagar, a few
miles to the south of Malpura town. Completed in 1887 at a cost of
5 lakhs, this tank, when full, covers an area of over 6 square miles, and
can hold water sufficient to irrigate about 27 square miles. The total
expenditure up to 1904 was about 6-3 lakhs, while the total revenue
realized up to the same date was 6-4 lakhs.

Malsiras Taluka.— 7'a////^fl' of Sholapur District, Bombay, lying
between 17° 35' and 18° 2' N. and 74° 37' and 75° 13' E., with an area
of 574 square miles. It contains 69 villages, the head-quarters being
at Malsiras (population, 2,263). The population in 1901 was 52,533,
compared with 74,039 in 1891. The taliika is very thinly populated,
with a density of only 92 persons per square mile, the average for the
District being 159. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was
I- 1 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 8,000. Malsiras is generally flat and bare
of trees, except in the west, where there is a chain of hills. Water is
not plentiful. The chief rivers are the Nira and Bhima. The tdluka
chiefly consists of good black soil. The climate is dry and hot, and
the rainfall scanty and uncertain.

Malsiras Village. — Head-quarters of the tdiuka of the same name
in Sholapur District, Bombay, situated in 17° 53' N. and 74° 58' E.
Population (1901), 2,263. ^^ weekly market is held on Tuesday. The
village contains an old Hemadpanti temple of Someshwar, and a
shrine of Hanuman, on the high road from Poona to Pandharpur,
which is much frequented by pilgrims. There is one school.

Malur Taluka. — South- w^estern fdiuk of Kolar District, Mysore,
lying between 12" 48' and 13° 11' N. and 77° 51' and 78° 8' E., with
an area of 267 square miles. The population in 1901 was 61,908?
compared with 54,180 in 1891. The td/tik contains one town, Malur
(population, 3,632), the head-quarters; and 374 villages. The land
revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,21,000. Maliir occupies the
watershed separating the Palar and Ponnaiyar rivers. The high-lying
tracts are bare or covered with low jungle. The north-east is the most
fertile part, watered by streams flowing west to the Ponnaiyar. There
are many large tanks. Good potatoes are grown. The soil is red
and comparatively deep, mixed with sand in the south-west ; in the
east it is grey and shallow, being similar in the south, where rock
crops up.



96 MALUR village

Malur Village. — Village in the Channapatna taluk of Bangalore
District, Mysore, situated in 13° o' N. and 77° 56' E., on the Kanva.
Population (1901), 2,515. Most of the residents are Brahmans of the
Srivaishnava sect, who give it the name Rajendrasimha-nagara. There
are several ruined temples, but a large one of Aprameyaswami is
kept in good order. The place was of importance under the Cholas.
^^ijnaneswara is said to have here composed the law book Mitdkshard,
his celebrated commentary on Yajnavalkya, its date being about iioo.

Malvalli. — Taluk and town in Mysore District, Mysore. See
Malavalli.

Malvalli. — Village in Shimoga District, Mysore. See Malavalli.

Malvan Taluka. — Southern ta/uka of Ratnagiri District, Bombay,
lying between 16° 1' and 16° 19' N. and 73° 27' and 73° 41' E., with
an area of 238 square miles. It contains one town, Malvan (popula-
tion, 19,626), the head-quarters 3 and 58 villages, including Masura
(8,855) ^"d Pendur (5,364). The population in 1901 was 107,944,
compared with 92,437 in 1891. The increase is due to the presence
of large numbers of Bombay mill-hands, whose homes are in Malvan,
and whom the closing of mills in 1901 had forced to return to their
villages. The density, 454 persons per square mile, is much above the
District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was
Rs. 89,000, and for cesses Rs. 6,000. The taluka forms a considerable
stretch of the Ratnagiri sea-board, intersected by the Kolamb and
Kalavali creeks. The interior is a series of rugged hills and rich
valleys. Rice and sugar-cane are grown along the Karli and Kalavali
creeks. The headland of Rajkot at Malvan offers a secure harbour to
small steamers and country craft which anchor in Malvan Bay, but the
bay is dangerous to vessels without a pilot. The climate is on the
whole healthy. The annual rainfall averages 88 inches. The supply
of water for drinking and other purposes is abundant. The Karli and
Kalavali creeks are navigable by small craft for 20 miles, 'llie chief
ports on the sea-board are Devgarh, Aclira, and Malvan, fcnming the
Malvan customs division.

Malvan Town {Malm lavajia, the 'Salt Marsh'). — Head-quarters
of the taluka of the same name in Ratnagiri District, Bombay, situated
in 16° 3' N. and 73° 28' E., 70 miles south of Ratnagiri town. Popu-
lation (1901), 19,626. In a bay almost entirely blocked by rocky
reefs, there were formerly three islands. On the larger of the two outer
islands was the famous fort of Sindhudrug, and on the smaller the
ruined fort of Padmagarh. Sindhudrug or the 'ocean fort,' built by
Sivajl, was very extensive, little less than 2 miles round the ramparts.
To the Marathas it is SivajT's cenotaph, and his image is worshipped in
the chief shrine. On what was once the inner island, now part of the
mainland, is situated, almost hidden in palms, the old town of Malvan.



MALU'A AGENCY 07

The English had a factory here in 1702. The modern town of Mai van
has spread far beyond the limits of the former island. ^Vithin the
boundaries of the town, on rising ground surrounded on three sides
by the sea, is Rajkot fort. Malvan was formerly a stronghold of the
Maratha pirates, known as 'the Malwans ' ; but in 181 2 it was, under
the Treaty of Karvir, ceded to the British by the Raja of Kolhapur.
Towards the close of 18 12 Colonel Lionel Smith completely extirpated
the pirates. Iron ore of good quality is found in the neighbourhood.
The value of trade at the port of Malvan in 1903-4 was : imports
12 lakhs, exports 6^ lakhs. The town contains a Subordinate Judge's
Court and eleven schools, of which two are for girls.

MalAva Agency. — A collection of Native States in charge of a
Political Agent under the orders of the Agent to the Governor-
General in Central India, lying between 22° 20' and 25° 9' N. and
74° 32' and 76° 28' E. It has an area of 8,919 square miles, and is
bounded on the north and west by Rajputana ; on the south by the
Bhopawar and Indore Residency Political Charges ; and on the east
by Bhopal.

The total population in 1901 was 1,054,753, of whom Hindus
numbered 839,364, or 81 per cent. ; Musalmans, 107,290, or 10 per
cent.; Animists, 55,013, or 5 per cent.; Jains, 36,615, or 3 per cent.;
and Christians, 1,488. The density of population is 118 persons per
square mile. The Agency contains 15 towns, of which the chief
are Ujjain (population, 39,892), Ratlam (36,321), Jaora (23,854),
NiMACH including cantonment (21,588), Mandasor (20,936), and
Dewas (15,403); and 3,847 villages.

After the conclusion of the Treaty of Mandasor with Holkar in 181 8,
the local corps raised in accordance with its provisions was stationed
at Mehidpur, and the conniiandant received military and civil powers.
His charge comprised the whole of the Agency as it was up to
March 20, 1907, before the inclusion of the Indore Agency and the
lately transferred Indore districts, but not the Nimach district, which
was at that time included in Rajputana. After the Mutiny, Colonel
Keatinge, who was placed in political control of the country, moved
his head-quarters from time to time between Mandasor, Agar, and
Mehidpur. In i860, when the Central India Horse was regularly
constituted and stationed at Agar, the dual military and civil control
of the charge, then called the Western Malwa Agency, was entrusted
to the commandant. The civil work becoming too heavy for this
officer to deal with adequately, the Malwa Agency was created under
a separate Political officer in 1895, the head-quarters being placed at
Nimach. In 1903 the Indore State districts comprised in the charge
were handed over to the Resident at Indore. A further change was
made in March, 1907, when the Indore Agenc)' was abolished, and the



98 MALWA AGENCY

States and estates directly under the Agent to the Governor-General
were transferred to the Political Agent in Mahva. In 1854, on the
first appointment of an Agent to the Governor-General, the twin States
of Dewas and several estates, of which the Thakurat of Bagli was the
most important, remained directly under the Agent to the Governor-
General, who delegated the powers of control to his First Assistant.
The increase of secretariat work at head-quarters necessitated the
abolition of this arrangement, and the charge was transferred. There
are now five States with their head-quarters in the Agency : the Hindu
twin States of Dewas, the Muhammadan treaty State of Jagra, and the
mediatized Hindu States of Ratlam, Sitamau, and Sailana. In
addition to the above, the Political Agent also has charge of a con-
siderable portion of Gwalior territory, of the Pirawa pargaua of
ToNK, and of numerous holdings under British guarantee, of which
PiPLODA and Bagli are the most important (see table on next page).
Among these minor holdings Panth-Piploda is peculiar, being held
directly from the British Government, without the intervention of any
Native State. The holders possess no land, but receive a cash assign-
ment levied on the income derived from ten villages situated within
the territory of various Thakurs, five of these villages being in Piploda.
The grantees have no proprietary rights whatever, receiving their cash
assignment through the Political Agent, who holds the jurisdiction over
these villages.

The Ajmer-Khandwa branch of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, the
Ujjain-Ratlam-Godhra branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central
India Railway, and the Ujjain-Bhopal Railway serve the Agenc}'. The
Agra-Bombay, Ujjain-i\gar, Mhow-Nimach, Ujjain-Sehore, Agar-Sarang-
pur, Dewas-Ujjain, and Dewas-Bhopal metalled roads also traverse it.

The Political Agent exercises the usual general control over all the
States, and is a Court of Sessions for the cantonment of Nimach. He
is also the District Magistrate and Judge and Court of Sessions for
the Rajputana-Malwa, Ujjain-Nagda, and Ratlam-Godhra sections of
the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, from Fatehabad to
Kesarpura stations and from Ratlam to the east of the Mahl.

The Agency comprises the States, portions of States, and estates
shown in the table on the next page.

Malwa (i). — A high-level region, with an area of 7,630 scjuare miles,
forming the greater part of the western section of the Central India
Agency, which, as one of the most fertile and habitable parts of the
Peninsula, has figured prominently in the ancient and mediaeval
periods of Indian history.

The term Malwa has at different periods been applied to somewhat
varying tracts, though Malwa proper has always constituted its main area.
Malwa proper, as understood by Hindus, consists solely of the plateau



MALIVA AGENCY



99



Name.


Title.


Caste, clan, &c.


Areain
square
miles.


Population,
lyoi.


Total
revenue.


1, Dewas, Senior










Rs.


Branch, portion


H. H. Raja .


Ponwar Maratha .


385


5i>7o8


2,85,000


2. Dewas, Junior












Branch, portion


II. H. Raja .


Ponwar Maratha .


378


44,410


2,95,000


3, Jaora


II.H.Nawab


Pathan Musalman


568


84,202


8,50,000


4. Ratlam


H. H. Raja .


Rathor Rajput


902


83,773


5,00,000


5. Sitamau .


H. H. Raja .


Rathor Rajput


350


23,863


1,26,000


6. Sailana


H. H. Raja .


Rathor Rajput


4.^°


25,731


1,50,000


7. Piploda


Thakur


Doria Rajput


60


11,441


95,000


8. Ajraoda .


Thakur


Ponwar Maratha .


*


*


336


9. Bagli


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


108


14,049


1,00,000


10. Bardia (Barra) .


Rao .


Chauhan Rajput .


7


568


15,000


11. Barkhera Deo












DungrI .


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


4


225


2,800


12. Barkhera Panth .


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


5


375


4,800


13. Bhatkherl .


Rawat


Chandrawat Raj-
put .
Sondhia


\r.


1,878


15,000


14. Bhojakheil


Rao


1

6


250


2,000


15. Hichraud I


Thakur


Chauhan Rajput .


*


*


1,200


16. Bichraud 11


Thakur


Ciiauhan Rajput .


*


*


1,500


17. Bilaud


Thakur


Muhammadan
Saiyid


|.6


204


6,500


18. Borkhera .


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


8


870


13,900


19. Dabri


Thakur


Chauhan Rajput .


*


*


180


20. Datana


Thakur


Jadon Rajput


*


*


186


21. Dhulatia .


Thakur


Rhichi Rajput


*


*


1,221


22. Jawasia


Rao . j


Goyal Sesodia

Rajput
KhTchI Rajput


i '^


418


10,000


23. Kalukhera


Rao


6


932


7,000


{ Karaudia and
^' \ Kheri Rajapur


1 Thaknr


Jadon Rajput
Chauhan Rajput .


10
6


1,469
630


8,000
4,180


25. Kherwasa .


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


5


716


I 1 ,000


26. Khojankhcra


Thakur


Solanki Rajput .


5


549


6,000


27. Lalgarh


Diwan


Chauhan Rajput .


14


1,838


18,000


28. Narwar


Rao .


Jhala Rajput


16


1,405


19,000


29. Naugaon .


Thakur


Jadon Rajput


*


*


114


30. Panth-Piploda .


Pandit


Karade Dakshani
Brahman .


|.9


3,544


15,000


31. Patharl


Thakur


Chauhan Rajput .


15


1,436


16,000


32. Plplia


Rawat .


Khichi Rajput


8


600


4,000


33. Sadakherl^Sheo-










garh)


'I'hakur


Rathor Rajput .


2


445


42,000


34. Sanauda .


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


9


143


2,200


35. Sarwan


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


71


4,056


42,000


36. Shujaota .


Thakur


Solanki Rajput


7


319


10,000


37. Sidrl .


Thakur


Nima Mahajan
Bania


1 ■


184


3,000


38. SirsI .


Thakur


Rathor Rajput


i.S


',352


25,000


39-Tal .


Rawat .


Doria Rajput


10


1,122


10,000


40, Uni .


Thakur


Doria Rajput


5


494


1,800


41. Uparwara .


Thakur


Solanki Rajput .


10


1,186


20,000


Portions of












42. Gwalior .







5.246


638,290


33,49,000


43. Indore






37


12,404


10,000


44. Tonk






248


25,286


1,40,000


Railways, canton


ments, and sta


tions .

Total




23,771





8,919


1,054,753


62,38,917



Note. — The area and population of numbers 10-14, '7, '8, 22, 25, 26. 30, 32, and 41, have also
been included in their parent State. * No villages.



loo MALWA

lying between 23 30' and 24° 30' N. and 74*^ 30' and 78° 10' E., which
is terminated on the south by the great Vindhyan range, on the east
by the arm of this same range that strikes north from Bhopal to
Chanderl (the Kulachala Parvata of the Puranas), on the west by the
branch which reaches from Amjhera to Chitor (in Rajputana), and
on the north by the Mukandwara range which strikes east from Chitor
to Chanderi. Under Muhammadan rule the Subah of Malwa included,
in addition to the tract mentioned, the Nimar district on the south,
between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges, Mewar (now in Rajputana)