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on the west, Haraoti (the Hara States of Bundi and Kotah in Rajputana)
on the north, and much of the present Central Provinces on the south-
east, including even Garha Mandla.

Sindhia's possessions on ^this plateau, which comprise the Ujjain,
Shajapur, Mandasor, and Amjhera zilas^ are known collectively as the
Malwa prdtit.

Malwa is always divided by natives into six divisions : Kauntel,
the country of which Mandasor is the centre ; Bagar, of which Bans-
wara State in Rajputana is the centre, and in which part of Ratlam
State lies ; Rath, the country in which the greater part of Jhabua and Jobat
States are situated ; Sondwara, the country of the Sondia tribe, of which
Mehidpur is the centre ; Umatwara, the country of the Umat Rajputs,
now represented at Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh ; and Khlchiwara, the
land of the KhichI Chauhans, of which Raghugarh State is the centre.

The plateau is mainly composed of a vast spread of basaltic rock,

which forms great rolling downs, dotted over with the flat-topped hills

peculiar to that geological formation. The country

Physical j^. highly fertile, being principally covered by the soil

here called mar or kali by the natives, and ' black

cotton soil ' by Europeans. The plateau has a general slope towards

the north, the great Vindhyan scarp to its south forming the watershed.

The chief rivers are the Chambal, Sipra, greater and lesser Kali

SiND, and Parbati. The people are skilful and industrious cultivators.

The principal crops are wheat, gram, yVzt'ar, cotton, and poppy. Jowdr

occupies about 44 per cent, of the cropped area, poppy about 6 per

cent. The annual rainfall averages 30 inches. The Rajasthani dialect

called Malwi or Rangri is spoken by nearly half of the population.

The name of the tract, more correctly Malava, was originally the
designation of a tribe, which is mentioned in the Mahabharata and
the Ramayana ; but the earliest reference to their habitation is a some-
what vague statement in the Vishnu Purana that the Malavas lived in
the Pariyatra mountains, or western Vindhyas, while the name Malava-
desa, ' country of the Malavas,' is not mentioned in any Sanskrit work
before the second century B.C., and then refers to an entirely different
locality, probably held by another section of this tribe. From these


rather involved accounts, it appears that the tract now known as Malwa
was not so called till the tenth century A. D., or even later. The Brihat
Sanhi/a, written in the sixth century, does indeed mention a country
called Malava ; but the name is not applied to the present Malwa, which
is called Avanti in the same work, while its inhabitants were known
as Avantikas or Ujjayantikas. The latter country, of which Avanti
(Ujjain) was the chief town, comprised the tract lying between the
Vindhyas on the south, Jhalrapatan (in Rajputana) on the north, the
Chambal river on the west, and the Parbati on the east. To the east
of the Parbati lay the country of Akara, or Eastern Malwa. of which
Vidisha, now Bhilsa, was the recognized capital. In the seventh
century Malwa and Ujjain were described as separate principalities
by the Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang, who placed the former to the
west of the latter, possibly in Gujarat. Another branch of the Malavas
appears to have occupied the country round Nagaur in Raj[)utana,
45 miles north of Kotah, where large numbers of their coins have been
found, dating probably from not later than the fourth century a.d.
The Malavas seem to have been at first a nomadic tribe composed
of separate units, each under its own headman, but subsec^uently they
formed a regular tribal constitution. They also inaugurated an era
which has long been in use among Hindus north of the Narbada, and
is now known as the Vikrama Samvat, the initial year corresponding
to 57 B.C. Till the tenth century, however, the word Vikrama is never
employed with dates given in this era, which are always designated
as of the Malava era, the era of the lords of Malava, or of the tribal
constitution of the Malavas. No historical event can be connected
with its initial year, or with the adoption of the title Vikrama,
which certainly has no connexion with any king of that name living
in 57 B.C., as is poi)ularly supposed. All the earliest records in this
era come from Rajputana, north-west of Malwa, and the first inscrip-
tion in Malwa proper is that at Mandasor, dated in the year 493 of
the tribal constitution of the Malavas, or a.d. 436.

According to the early Buddhist books, Avantidesa was one of
the sixteen powers of India in Buddha's lifetime, its chief town, Ujjain,
being important as one of the principal stages on
the great route from the Deccan to Nepal, which
passed through Mahissati or MahishmatI, now Maheshwar, and Vidisha
or Bhilsa. The Maurya dynasty held Malwa among their western pro-
vinces, Asoka being governor during his father's lifetime, with his
head-quarters at Ujjain. On his accession he erected the great stupa
at Sanchi, where a fragment of one of his edicts has been found.

Early in the Christian era the Western Satraps extended their rule
over Malwa. The Kshatrapa, or Satrap, Chashtana is mentioned by
Ptolemy (a.d. 153), wlio callb him Tiastenos king of Ozenc (Ujjain).


From Chashtana onwards a regular succession of Satraps ruled Mahva,
the most famous being Rudradaman, who added greatly to his domi-
nions, and whose record at Junagarh in Kathiawar (a.d. 150) mentions
that he possessed Akara and AvantI, or Eastern and Western Malwa, he
himself ruling fromUjjain, while his other provinceswere held by viceroys.

As the rule of the Satraps died away, the Guptas of Magadha rose
to power. Samudra Gupta (326-75), in his Allahabad pillar inscription,
mentions the Malavas as a frontier tribe. His successor Chandra
Gupta II (375-413) extended his dominions westwards and, driving
out the Kshatrapas, annexed Malwa about a.d. 390, as his records
at SanchI and Udayagiri show. In the next century the Gupta
empire broke up ; and, though some of the family still held petty
principalities, the greater part of the tract fell to the White Hun
adventurers, Toramana and his son Mihirakula. The White Huns
probably entered India towards the end of the fifth century, and, after
occupying the Punjab, forced their way southwards. During Skanda
Gupta's lifetime they were kept in check ; but on his death Toramana
occupied the districts round Gwalior, where an inscription put up
by his son Mihirakula has been found. Advancing farther southwards,
Toramana and his son soon obtained a footing in Malwa, which by
500 was entirely in their power, the petty Gupta chiefs Budha Gupta
and Bhanu Gupta, of whom records dated 484 and 510 exist, becoming
their feudatories. On Toramana's death about 510, Mihirakula suc-
ceeded ; but his harsh rule caused a revolt, and about 538 he was
defeated by a combination of native princes under Nara Sinha Gupta
Baladitya of Magadha, and Yasodharman, a chief who seems to have
ruled at Mandasor, where the battle was fought. Yasodharman erected
two pillars at Mandasor, recording his victory, and appears then to
have become one of the principal chiefs in Malwa. In the seventh
century the famous king Harshavardhana of Kanauj (606-48) held
suzerainty over Malwa.

It is uncertain when the Malavas actually entered the tract. From
the second to the seventh century, while the country was under the
strong rule of the Kshatrapas, the Guptas, and Harshavardhana of
Kanauj, they must have held a subordinate position ; but on the fall
of the brief empire of Kanauj they probably acquired greater inde-
pendence, and rising in importance gave their name to the region.
What exactly happened is uncertain ; but it would appear that the
Malavas became gradually Hinduized, possibly from contact with
the Brahman rulers of Ujjain, and being a hardy race of warriors, and
as such desirable allies, were promoted to Kshattriya rank, and finally
absorbed into the great Rajput families which then began to be evolved
out of the heterogeneous elements of which the population of India
was composed.



In the tenth century the names of the Rajput clans begin to appear,
and Mahva fell ultimately to the Paramaras (800-1200), a section
of the Agnikula group, who fixed their head-quarters first at Ujjain
and later at Dhar. They rose to considerable power, so that ' the
world is the Paramara's ' became a common saying. The Paramara
lists give a line of nineteen kings whose known records range from
the tenth to the thirteenth century, and of whom several were famous
for their patronage of literature. The most notable was Raja Bhoja
(1010-53), '^^'"'O was both a great scholar and a great warrior. His
renown as a patron of literature and as an author still survives, and
he is now looked on as the Augustus of India, while many ancient
writers of note and works of merit are assigned to his period. He
was finally driven from his throne by a combination of the Chalukyas
of Anhilvada in Gujarat and the Kalachuris of Tripuri. From this
time the Paramara power declined, his successors being little more than
local chiefs.

In 1235 the Muhammadans first appeared under Altamsh, who took
Ujjain, demolishing the renowned temple of Mahakal, and sacked
Bhilsa, thus destroying the two principal towns of Malwa. From this
time the country was held in fief, with occasional lapses, by ofificers
of the Muhammadan court, till in 140 1 Dilawar Khan assumed the
insignia of royalty.

From 1 40 1 till 1531, when it was annexed to Gujarat, the province
of Malwa or Mandu, as it was often called after the famous fortress
which became its capital under these rulers, remained an independent
State. Its princes were incessantly at war with those of Gujarat, with
the Bahmani kings of the Deccan, and with other neighbouring chiefs.
Dilawar Khan Ghori (1401-5) had originally received Malwa as a fief
under Firoz Shah ; but during the confusion that followed the invasion
of Timur he became independent, making Dhar the capital of his
kingdom. He was succeeded by his son Alp Khan, better known
as Hoshang Shah (1405-34), the founder of Hoshangabad, who lies
buried in a magnificent marble tomb in the fort at Mandu, to which
place he moved the capital. He left a minor son, Muhammad Ghazni
Khan, whom his guardian, Mahmud Khilji, promptly murdered, seizing
the throne for himself. Under Mahmud Khilji's rule (1436-75) Malwa
reached the zenith of its power. His activity was unceasing, so that
it was said of him that his tent became his home and the field of battle
his resting-place, and yet his administration was marked by the absence
of all enmity between Hindus and Muhammadans. Mahmud extended
his dominions in all directions, seizing among other places Ajmer and
Ranthambhor in Rajputana, and Ellichpur in the Deccan ; and in
1440, at the invitation of certain nobles, he even advanced against
Delhi, but was successfully opposed by Bahlol Lodi. In 1440 he


attacked Rana Kumbha of Chitor. Both sides claimed the victory,
and the Rana erected the famous Tower of Victory, still standing in
the fort, in honour of his success. Mahmud was succeeded by his
son, Ghiyas-ud-din (1475-1500). Having undergone much toil and
anxiety during his father's lifetime, Ghiyas-ud-din soon handed over the
reins of government to his son, Nasir-ud-din, and retired to his harem.
Nasir-ud-dm (1500-10) has left a reputation infamous for cruelty.
He is said even to have poisoned his father, an act which roused such
indignation in the emperor Jahangir that, when visiting Mandu in
1616, he had the king's remains taken out of the tomb and thrown
into the Narbada. Nasir-ud-dm was drowned in a tank in the Kaliadeh
palace, near Ujjain, into which he had fallen in a drunken fit, no one
daring or caring to pull him out. He was succeeded by Mahmud H
(1510-31). Of him the historian relates that he imagined that king-
doms were ruled by the sword, and that he attempted to put this
maxim into practice with dire results. Distrusting his own people,
he introduced a Rajput, Medini Rai, into his State as minister. In
15 1 7, scared by the increasing power of this man, he called in Sultan
Aluzaffar Shah of Gujarat to assist in his expulsion. Later on, in
a fight with Medini Rai and Rana Sanga of Chitor, he was taken
prisoner, but was magnanimously released. This, however, did not
deter him from attacking the Rana's successor some years later, when
he was again taken prisoner by the Rana's ally, Bahadur Shah of
Gujarat, and put to death while attempting to escape. The Malwa
dynasty thus came to an end, the kingdom being annexed to Gujarat


In 1535 Humayun attacked Bahadur Shah and drove him out ot

Malwa, defeating him successively at Mandasor and Mandu. During
the rule of the Suri dynasty (1540-55), Malwa was held by Sher Shah's
right-hand man Shujaat Khan, known locally by the name of Shujawal
Khan, the founder of Shujalpur, and on his death by his son Baz
Bahadur, chiefly famous for his musical talent, and his romantic attach-
ment to the beautiful and accomplished Rupmati of Sarangpur. In
1562 Baz Bahadur was forced to submit to Akbar, and Malwa became
a Mughal province, continuing so until the eighteenth century. Abul
Fazl deals with the province at some length in the Ain-i-Akbari. The
Subah varied considerably in extent at different times. In 1594 it
contained twelve sarkdrs (districts), but in 1665 it had only nine.
Malwa possessed special importance from its position on the great
Mughal route, along which armies marched from Delhi to the Deccan,
the road passing by Dholpur, Gwalior, Narwar, Sironj, and Hindia.
Among the numerous governors of Malwa during this period were
prince Murad (1591), the first Nizam-ul-mulk (17 19), and Maharaja
Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur (1734).


The Maratha period of Mahva history forms the subject of Sir fohn
Malcolni's Central India, where it is treated in great detail. Briefly,
the Marathas gained a permanent footing in Malwa about 1743, when
the Peshwa was made deputy-governor of the Subah. By degrees the
whole country fell to the great Maratha generals, whose descendants
still hold most of it — Sindhia of Gwalior, Holkar of Indore, and the
Ponwars of Dhar and Dewas.

In the middle of the eighteenth century the British appeared as
actors on this scene; and Malwa from 1780 onwards, for a quarter
of a century, was a vast battle-field where Maratha, Muhammadan, and
European struggled incessantly, until the supremacy of the British was
finally established in 1818. During the next forty years the history
of Malwa was comparatively uneventful ; but in connexion with the
Mutiny of 1857 risings took place at Indore, Mhow, Nlmach, Agar,
Mehidpur, and Sehore. In 1 899-1 900 Malwa suffered from a severe
famine, such as had not visited this favoured spot for more than thirty
years. The people were unused to, and quite unprepared for, this
calamity, the distress being aggravated by the great influx of immigrants
from Rajputana, who had hitherto always been sure of relief in this
region, of which the fertility is proverbial. In 1903 a new calamity
appeared in the shape of plague, which has seriously reduced the
agricultural population in some districts.

[For Malavas and Kshatrapas, see Journal of the Royal Asiatic
Society, 1890, p. 639, 1897, p. 17, and 1899, p. 357 ; for Guptas and
Hunas, J. F. Fleet's ' Gupta Inscriptions,' vol. iii of the Corpus Liscrip-
tionum Indicarum ; Journal Asiatique, 1883 ; Journal of the Royal
Asiatic Society, 1893, p. 77, and 1897, pp. 19, 421, 850, and 882 ; for
Paramaras, Epigraphia Indica, vol. i, p. 222 ; for Muhammadan dynasty,
L. White-King, Nuniismatic Chronicle (1904).]

Malwa (2). — Tract in the Punjab, lying between 29° and 31° N.
and 74° 30' and 77° E., and comprising the area south of the Sutlej
occupied by the Sikhs. It includes the Districts of Ferozepore and
Ludhiana, and the Native States of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, and Maler
Kotla. The tract is a great recruiting ground for Sikh regiments,
being in this respect second only to the Manjha. It is said that the
name is a modern one, the title of Malava Singh having been conferred
on the Sikhs of the tract for their valour by Banda, Bairagi, who pro-
mised that it should become as fruitful as Malwa,

Mamandur. — Village in the Arcot taluk of North Arcot District,
Madras, situated in 12^45' N. and 79° 40" E. Population (1901), 1,884.
It is chiefly remarkable for its rock-caves. The embankment of the
large tank to which the village gives its name rests upon two low hills,
and in the eastern face of the more southerly of these are the
excavations. They were probably the work of the Jains ; and possibly


a party of monks from Conjeeveram, which is only 7 miles distant, may
here have hollowed out for themselves a retreat with narrow cells into
which each might retire to indulge in solitary meditation.

Mamdapur. — Historic village in the District and taluka of Bijapur,
Bombay, situated in 16° 32" N. and 75° 36' E., 6 miles north of the
Kistna and about 22 miles south-west of Bijapur town. Population
(1901), 2,232. The story goes that Muhammad (1626-56), the sixth
Bijapur Sultan, wished to know what the Konkan was like. His prime
minister, the celebrated Jagad-Murari, built ponds, laid out fields, and
planted trees and vegetables from the Konkan on the site of Mamda-
pur, which so pleased the Sultan that, about 1633, he united the
villages of Antapur, Barigi, Khasbagh, and Chavdapur, and named
the new village after himself, fulfilling the prophecy of a saint, Kamal
Sahib of Chavdapur, who had foretold the event. The saint's tomb
is in the middle of the market and is highly honoured. In the shrine
is the grave of another saint, Sadie Sahib of Mecca, who died here and
in whose honour a fair is held yearly. There are numerous temples.
Mamdapur contains two lakes made by Sultan Muhammad, when
the town was built. The great lake is probably the largest existing
reservoir of native construction in the Bombay Presidency, When full,
its surface area is 864 acres, or i\ square miles ; the dam is 2,662 feet
long, or just over half a mile, and its greatest height is 27 feet 9 inches.
Except in seasons of unusual drought the water in this lake lasts
throughout the year. The smaller lake, to the east of the large lake,
when full has a surface area of 428 acres and a greatest depth of
12 feet; the dam is 1,180 feet long. The inscriptions cut on the
dams show that both were built in 1633 at a cost of about 2 lakhs
(50,000 pagodas) by Sultan Muhammad.

Mamdot Estate [Afi/ha/iimado/). — Estate in the Ferozepore,
Muktsar, and Fazilka tahsils of Ferozepore District, Punjab. Area,
83 square miles of proprietary land, with 309 held in jag'u: It is held
by the minor Nawab of Mamdot, Ghulam Kutb-ud-din Khan, a Pathan,
whose ancestor Kutb-uddin Khan held the principality of Kasur, but
was expelled from it by RanjTt Singh in 1807 and retired to Mamdot,
which he had conquered from the Raikot chief in 1800. His son
Jamal-ud-din Khan held Mamdot as a fief of the Lahore kingdom
till 1848, when he received the title of Nawab, with the powers of
a ruling chief, from the British Government ; but the powers thus
conferred were abused by Jamal-ud-din Khan, and were therefore
withdrawn, the State being annexed to British territory in 1855. It
was, however, subsequently conferred as an estate on the Nawab's
younger brother Jalal-ud-din Khan, who had rendered good service
in 1848 and 1857. Jalal-ud-din died in 1875, leaving a minor son,
by name Nizam-ud-din Khan, and the estate was managed by the

iMAN I07

Court of Wards until 1884, when the ward came of age and took
charge of it. He died in 1891, leaving an infant son and the estate
heavily involved in debt. It is now again under control of the Court
of Wards, and the young Nawab is being educated at the Aitchison
College, Lahore. The gross income of the estate, which is the finest
in the Punjab, is now Rs. 3,80,000. It owes its prosperity mainly to
the Grey Canals.

Mamdot Village. — Village in Ferozepore District, Punjab, and
former capital of a State, situated in 30° 53' N. and 74° 26' E., on the
open plain, about 2 miles south of the Sutlej. Population (1901),
2,631. The walls rise to a height of 50 feet, and have a rectangular
form, with a round tower at each corner and in the middle of each
face. More than two-thirds of the fort was carried away in 1877-8 by
the Sutlej, and a branch of that river now flows under the walls of the
remainder. Anciently known as ^luhammadot, it formed the centre
of an ildka, which became depopulated during the Mughal period and
was occupied by the Dogars about 1750. Shortly afterwards, the
Dogars made themselves independent, but were reduced to subjec-
tion by Sardar Subha Singh, a Sikh chieftain. With the assistance of
the Rai of Raikot, they expelled the Sikhs ; but the Rai made him-
self supreme at Mamdot, and the Dogars then revolted with the aid of
Nizam-ud-din and Kutb-ud-din of Kasur. Nizam-ud-din was murdered
by his three brothers-in-law, whom he had ousted from their jdgirs.
Kutb-ud-din eventually submitted to Ranjit Singh, relinquishing Kasur,
but retaining Mamdot in jdgir subject to the service of 100 horse.
Nizam-ud-din's son received a corresponding jagir in Gogaira, but laid
claim to Mamdot. With the Dogars' aid he expelled Kutb-ud-din, but
was finally recalled by the Maharaja, who confirmed Jamal-ud-din, son
of Kutb-ud-din, in the succession. Jamal-ud-din sided openly with the
Sikhs in 1845, but rendered certain services towards the close of the
campaign to the British Government, which requited him by maintain-
ing him in possession of Mamdot as a protected chief with the title
of Nawab. Jamal-ud-din, however, was guilty of serious misgovern-
ment, and the Dogars especially, having incurred his resentment,
suffered grave oppression. The British Government therefore, after
an inquiry, deposed him in 1855, and annexed his territory. His
estates were in 1864 conferred on his brother J alal-ud-din, to the exclu-
sion of his sons. The present Nawab, Ghulam Kutb-ud-din, who
succeeded in 1891, is the grandson of Jalal-ud-din.

Man. — TCiluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying between 17*^ 27'
and 17° 56' N. and 74° 17' and 74^53' E., with an area of 629 square
miles. It contains one town, Mhasvad (population, 7,014), and
76 villages. The head-quarters are at Dahivadi. The population
in 1901 was 64,889, compared with 62,857 in 1891. It is the most



thinly populated tdliika in the District, having a density of only
103 persons per square mile. The demand for land revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 92,000, and for cesses Rs. 7,000. The climate is
decidedly hotter than the rest of the District, which is chiefly due to
the low level of the tdluka and the fact of its being shut in on three
sides by hills. Towards the north-west the hills form picturesque
groups, their highest peaks crowned by the Varugarh and Tathvada
forts, and to the east of Dahivadi is a fine gorge, traversed by streams ;
but, except for a sparsely-wooded tract near the Man river, the country
is barren, rocky, and desolate. The annual rainfall, which averages
20 inches at Dahivadi, is variable and scanty, and hardly suffices for
the proper cultivation of the small area of black soil in the taluka.

Mana. — Village in Garhwal District, United Provinces, situated in
31^ 5' N. and 79° 26'' E., on the SaraswatT, an affluent of the Bishan-
ganga, 10,560 feet above sea-level. It lies close to a pass of the same
name, also known as Chirbitya-la or Dungri-la, which has an elevation
of 18,650 feet. Though very lofty, it is one of the easiest passes into
Tibet from the south, and is therefore much used by Hindu pilgrims
to Lake Manasarowar. The village is chiefly inhabited by Bhotia
traders with Tibet.

Manaar, Gulf of. — A portion of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the
west by Tinnevelly and Madura Districts in the Madras Presidency, on
the north by the ridge of rock and islands known as Adam's Bridge,
and on the east by the coast of Ceylon. It lies between 8° and 9° N.
and 78° and 80° E. Its extreme breadth from Cape Comorin, the
southernmost point of India, to Point de Galle, the southernmost point
of Ceylon, is about 200 miles. The gulf abounds in dangerous shoals
and rocks at the northern extremity, and is exposed to the fury of both
the monsoons, being quite open towards the south-west and only
partially protected by the Ceylon coast on the north-east.