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found very near the surface and the roof in many instances is of hard
stone, and the system of working by means of inclines is practicable.
Shafts are never of the depths common in most collieries in England,
and the mines are consequently free from the danger arising from gas ;
the deepest shaft in the Jherria field is one of 320 feet belonging to
the Bhaga colliery.

Many of the labourers employed are local residents, but a large
number also come from Hazaribagh ; they generally belong to the
aboriginal tribes or low Hindu castes. The relations between capital
and labour appear to be on the whole satisfactory, and as the demand
for labour is very great, a colliery manager has every inducement to
treat his miners well ; they are generally paid by piece-work at rates
varying from 12 annas to Rs. 1-4 per 100 cubic feet of coal raised, the
wages earned usually amounting to 7 or 8 annas a day.

About three-fourths of the coal produced is purchased by large
European firms who carry it by rail to Calcutta. A small quantity
is used by mills and steamships there ; but by far the greater portion
is shipped to Bombay, Karachi, Madras, Penang, Singapore, and
other ports. About one-fourth of the output is consumed by different
railways and by mills in the Upper Provinces.

A clay ironstone, constituting a large proportion of the ironstone
shales, is especially rich and plentiful in the Ranlganj coal-field, where
it is sometimes associated with carbonaceous matter forming a black-
band iron ore. Among the gneissose and schistose rocks there are



ii8 MANBHUM

magnetic and titaniferous iron ores. Red hematite occurs in the

siliceous fault breccias of the same areas, and lateritic iron ores also

exist. The rocks on the southern boundary of the District constitute

part of the northern edge of the auriferous tract of Chota Nagpur.

They are traversed by innumerable gold-bearing quartz veins, from

which has been derived the alluvial gold obtained in all the rivers that

drain the schist area. The Patkum prospecting syndicate attempted

to work the gold on an extensive scale, but failed, and the careful

investigation to which the area has been subjected of late years leaves

very little hope of extracting the gold at a profit. A vein of argenti-.

ferous galena occurs about a mile east of Dhadka, in the south-east

of the District. Several small soapstone quarries are worked, and

rubble, quartz, kankar, sandstone, trap, and basalt are also quarried.

Shellac is largely manufactured, especially in the Jhalida and Bala-

rampur f/id/ias, and 54 factories employing 1,400 hands were at work

in 1903-4. The manufacture of /'ai'a;' silk is carried

Trade and ^^^ chieflv in the Raghunathpur thdna, and was
communications. - . p , .

formerly an nnportant mdustry ; but m t 903-4 the

estimated out-turn was only 16,000 yards. Coarse cotton cloths are

woven all over the District, and are preferred by the lower classes

to the imported machine-made article on account of their superior

durability. Brass and bell-metal utensils and rough brass ornaments

are also manufactured in several places. Soapstone found in the

Chandil thdtia is made into cups, images, &:c., but the industry is

small. An inferior quality of rope is made from sabai grass, which

grows extensively in the Patkum, Baghmundi, Barabhum, and Hesla

pargatias. Cutlery and guns are made at Jhalida.

The chief exports are coal and coke ; and the chief imports are salt,
rice, gram, pulses, kerosene oil, cotton twist and cotton piece-goods,
molasses, sugar, and tobacco. Most of the imports come from Calcutta
and Burdwan, with the exception of gram, pulses, tobacco, and molasses,
which come chiefly from Bihar. The coal exported by rail in 1903-4
amounted to over 2,000,000 tons, of which nearly three-quarters was
sent to Calcutta and Howrah. The principal trade centres are Purulia,
Jhalida, Chas, Raghunathpur, Chandil, Chirkunda, Cobindpur, Man-
bazar, Ichagarh, Barabazar, Dubra, and Nirsa. Most of the external
trade is carried on by rail ; bullock-carts are extensively used for local
traffic. The greater part of the trade is carried on by Marwaris and
Gandhabaniks.

The Bengal-Nagpur Railway traverses the head-quarters subdivision
from north-east to south-west. The Jherria extension of the East
Indian Railway with its numerous sidings connects the coal-fields of
the Gobindpur subdivision with Asansol and Calcutta, and has been
carried on to Bankura and Midnapore, intersecting the Bengal-Nagpur



A DM I. VIS TR. \ TION 1 1 9

Railway at Adra station. Anotlier line recently constructed links up
Jherria with Gaya. Tlie District contains 818 miles of road, of
which 682 miles are under the control of the District board and the
remainder are Provincial, 59 miles being maintained by the District
board and 77 being in charge of the Public Works department. The
Provincial roads, of which 119 miles are metalled, include 41 miles of
the grand trunk road in the Gobindpur subdivision, 42 miles of the
Purulia-Barakar road, and 36 miles of the Purulia-RanchT road. Of
the District board roads 363 miles are metalled, the principal being
those from Purulia to Chaibasa, Manbazar, and Bankura, and from
Raghunathpur to Raniganj. The District board maintains six ferries
on the more important roads.

The undulating character of the surface and the consequent rapid
drainage render Manbhum peculiarly liable to drought, and it suffered
severely during the general famines of 1866, 1874,
and 1897. The distress in 1866 was felt over
almost the whole District. Rice rose to the excessively high price
of 3^ seers to the rupee in the month of August, and in the aifected
area as many as 33,296 persons, or 6-55 per cent, of the population,
died from starvation and its indirect effects. In 1874 the north and
north-east of the District suffered most. In addition to a cash expen-
diture of 2-7 lakhs, more than 8,000 tons of grain was distributed
by Government, and thus the price of rice never exceeded the rate
of 12 seers to the rupee. The famine of 1897 was felt over the greater
part of the District, but was most intense in the Gobindpur subdivision.
The price of grain was highest in July, when rice sold at 7 seers to the
rupee. The total expenditure on relief works amounted to 2-8 lakhs,
and Rs. 42,000 was spent in advances for village works. The aggregate
number of persons relieved on works, expressed in terms of one day,
was 1,311,569, and 1,456,105 persons received gratuitous relief.

For administrative purposes the District is divided into two sub-
divisions, with head-quarters at Purulia and Gobindpur. Subor-
dinate to the Deputy-Commissioner at Purulia is a ...
staff of five Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors ; the sub-
divisional officer of Gobindpur is assisted by a Sub-Deputy-Colleclor,

The chief civil court is that of the Judicial Commissioner of Chota
Nagpur, For the disposal of civil work a Subordinate Judge and two
Munsifs sit at Purulia, and a Munsif each at Raghunathpur and
Gobindpur. The Munsif of Raghunathpur also tries rent suits under
Act X of 1859, and exercises the powers of a third-class magistrate.
Deputy-Collectors try rent suits under Act X of 1859 at Purulia and
Gobindpur. The Deputy-Commissioner exercises special powers under
section 34 of the Criminal Procedure Code. As Additional Sessions
Judge of Chota Nagpur, the Sessions Judge of Bankura tries all



I20 MANBHUM

sessions cases and criminal appeals arising within Manbhum and
Singhbhum ; for the disposal of sessions cases he sits at Purulia, and
for the hearing of appeals sometimes at Purulia and sometimes at
Bankura. Of late years Manbhum has been notorious for the number
of dacoits it shelters; in 1905 more dacoities were committed than in
any other Bengal District. These crimes are confined mainly to the
coal-fields, and are the work of up-country criminals who congregate
there.

At the time of the Permanent Settlement the smaller chiefs in
Manbhum were considered to be independent landholders and were
admitted to separate settlements. Succession to land follows the cus-
tom of primogeniture ; there has thus been no subdivision of property,
and in 1903-4 there were in all only 29 revenue-paying estates with
a current demand of Rs. 84,000 ; of these all but two are permanently
settled, the largest being Panchet with a demand of Rs. 58,000. The
Permanent Settlement was extended to the District at a time when
it was unprepared for such a measure, and the assessment is therefore
disproportionately light, amounting to only R. o-i-i per cultivated
acre. Special tenures are the ghatwali and other service tenures,
maintenance grants to the younger members of a zaminddr's family,
and mdnki and murdri tenures, a survival of the aboriginal village
system {see Kolhan). The ghdhvdls hold a certain quantity of land
on a quit-rent, as a remuneration for police duties which they are
required to perform on behalf of Government. Other service tenures
are those of \he. jdgirddrs in Panchet, who retain one-third or more of
the produce of the villages included in their holdings ; goraiti tenures,
or grants made to the gorait or village messenger ; and Idydli grants
made to layas or priests of the aboriginal deities. Petty service, or
chdkrd/i, grants with no specific name are often made to barbers,
potters, washermen, smiths, and others performing menial services for
their landlords ; as a rule, they are given free of rent.

Maintenance tenures granted for the support of the younger members
of a Raja's or zaminddr's family are of two kinds, khorposh and hiki-
mdli. The latter, which are confined to the Barabhum and Manbhum
parganas, are grants of land assigned for the maintenance of the hikim
or second brother and the kiimvdr or third brother of the zanniiddr for
the time being. On the death of the zaininddr, the brothers of his
successor lake up the lands attached to the office of hikim or kunwdr,
and perforin the services in consideration of which those lands are
held. A liikimdli tenure is thus dependent on the life of the zarntnddr
and not on that of the tenure-holder. But each zaminddr, when he
succeeds to the estate, is bound to make suitable provision in the
form of ordinary khorposh grants for the hikims who have vacated the
hikimdli grants derived from their relationship to his predecessor.



ADMINISTRA TION



Such maintenance grants arc held during the Hfe of the grantees, and
are liable to lapse at their death to the parent estate. The incidence
of rental for the whole District is estimated at Rs. 1-12-3 per culti-
vated acre ; but owing to the fact that land is seldom assessed on
measurement, any statement of rates is only an approximation. In
Barabhum the generally accepted rates of rent payable by the cultivator
to his landlord are Rs. 4-12-9 per acre of bahal or low-lying rice-land ;
Rs. 3-9-7 per acre of kandli or moderately high rice-land \ Rs. 2-6-5
per acre of baid or high land ; Rs. 1-3-2 per acre of gord or the worst
cla.ss of land. A substantial cultivating ryot pays about Rs. 2-2 for
his bdstu or homestead land, a non-cultivating ryot Rs. i-i, and
a ryot of the poorer class about 8i annas. Similar rates prevail in
the other parganas in the south of the District, but in Panchet and
in other estates in the north they are from 50 to 100 per cent, higher.

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total
revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : —





i88()-i. 1890-1.

!


1 900- 1. 1 1903-4.


Land revenue
Total revenue


83
3,07


82
4.25


80
6,97


84
8,91



Outside the municipalities of Purulia, Jhalida, and Raghunath-
PUR, local affairs are managed by the District board, with a subordinate
local board at Gobindpur. In 1903-4 its income was Rs. 1,42,000,
half of which was derived from rates ; and the expenditure was
Rs. 1,19,000, including Rs. 74,000 spent on public works and
Rs. 32,000 on education.

The District contains 24 police stations or thdnas and 3 outposts.
In 1903 the force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted
of 3 inspectors, 36 sub-inspectors, 24 head constables, and 297 con-
stables. In addition, there was a rural police force of 4,360 chaiikiddrs,
of whom 1,720 held service tenures, and 1,972 glidhvdis of different
grades. The District jail at Purulia has accommodation for 276
prisoners, and a subsidiary jail at Gobindpur for 32.

The District is very backward in respect of education, and in 1901
only 40 per cent, of the population (7-7 males and 0-3 females) could
read and write. The number of pupils under instruction increased
from 10,563 in 1883 to 15,578 in 1892-3 and to 20,535 in 1900-1.
In 1903-4, 24,751 boys and 2,058 girls were at school, being respec-
tively 25-2 and 2- 1 per cent, of the children of school-going age. The
number of educational institutions, public and private, in that year was
799, including 26 secondary, 761 primary, and 12 special schools.
The expenditure on education was Rs. 1,28,000, of which Rs. 14,000
was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 32,000 from District funds, Rs. 600



122 MANBHUM

from municipal funds, and Rs. 51,000 from fees. The chief educational
institution is the Purulia Government school.

In 1903 the District contained 8 dispensaries, of which 5 had
accommodation for 64 in-patients. I'he cases of 41,000 out-patients
and 641 in-patients were treated during the year, and 1,623 operations
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 12,600, of which Rs. 800
was met from Crovernment contributions, Rs. 2,000 from local and
Rs. 6,100 from municipal funds, and Rs. 5,300 from subscriptions.
A leper asylum 2 miles south-west of Purulia town is managed by
the German Evangelical Lutheran Mission. Its grounds cover about
400 acres and it has 509 inmates, including 83 children. Untainted
children of leprous parents are received in a special home at some
distance from the asylum.

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. In 1903-4 the
number of persons successfully vaccinated was 39,000, or 30-7 per
1,000 of the population.

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Accoioit of Bengal, vol. xvii (1877);
F. B. Eradley-Birt, Chotd Ndgpur (1903).]

Manchar. — Village in the Khed tdluka of Poona District, Bombay,
situated in 19° N. and 73° 57' E., on the right bank of the Ghod,
about 12 miles north of Khed town. Population (1901), 5,300. The
place is surrounded by a wall and belonged to Holkar till 1868-9, when
it became British by exchange. To the west, beyond a watercourse,
is a fine Hemadpanti reservoir about 25 yards square, with two flights
of steps leading to the water. Except the west wall, which has a small
niche with carved sideposts and sculptured foliage, the walls of the
reservoir are plain. Within the niche is a much-worn inscription.
Manchar appears to have been a Musalman town of some importance,
and has a small mosque at its south-west entrance. The mosque is
entered by a fine single arch, surmounted by a projecting and bracketed
cornice with a small minaret at each of the four corners. The village
contains a school with 176 boys and 10 girls.

Manchhar. -Lake in the .Sehwan tdluka of Larkana District, Sind,
Bombay, lying between 26'^ 22' and 26° 28' N. and 67° 37' and
67° 47' E. It is formed by the expansion of the Western Nara and the
Aral streams, and is fed by hill-torrents. The first flows into it from
the north, and the latter from the Indus westward at a distance of
about 12 miles; but the supply from the Nara is trifling in quantity
when compared with that from the Aral. It is, however, this latter
stream which affords a means of discharge for the redundant waters
of the lake. During the period of inundation the Manchhar may be
estimated at from 15 to 20 miles in length, with a breadth of about
10 miles; but when the water is low, this area is greatly contracted,
and is then probably not more than 10 miles in length. The space



.\r.\xnAi..\y nirismx



123



left uncovered by the receding water is sown with grain, especially
wheat, yielding magnificent crops.

Although shallow at the sides, the lake has a considerable depth of
water in the middle ; and so great is the quantity of fine fish that
hundreds of men and boats are employed. The fish are taken chiefly
by spearing, but also in nets. In the season when the lotus is in
blossom the lake presents a very beautiful appearance, as its surface,
farther than the eye can reach, is covered with an unbroken succession
of flowers and leaves.

The fisheries of the lake, which are let out on contract, yielded an
average annual revenue of Rs. 5,091 during the five years ending
1905-6. The principal fish are : the dambhro (or chelri), a reddish-
coloured fish often attaining an enormous size, and ranking, according
to native taste, next to the palla in excellence ; the inorako ; the gandan,
a long, sharp, and very bony fish, of a silver colour, in length from 3 to
5 feet ; the shakar, the ' murrel ' of the Deccan ; ihejerkho or fresh-water
shark, the largest fish in Sind ; goj and lor, or eels ; khaggo, or catfish ;
the popri^ the ddlu, the thcH ; ga/igaf, or prawns ; the dam/r, and the
singdri.

Manda. — Village in the Naogaon subdivision of Rajshahi District,
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24° 46' N. and 88° 39' E., on
the west bank of the Atrai river. Population (1901), 356. It is the
site of an annual fair held in March or April on the occasion of the
Hindu festival, Sri Ram NabamI, in honour of Ram (the seventh
incarnation of Vishnu). The fair is attended by about 25,000 people
from all parts of the District.

Mandal. — Town in the Viramgam tdluka of Ahmadabad District,
Bombay, situated in i'^ if N. and 71° 55' E., 15 miles north-west
of Viramgam station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India
Railway. Population ([901), 5,091. The municipality, established in
1889, had an average income during the decade ending 1901 of
Rs. 5,000. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 5,230. The town contains
some mosques of archaeological interest : notably, the Jama Masjid,
the Saiyid Masjid, the KazT Masjid, and the Ganjni Masjid. It also
contains a dispensary, and three boys' and one girls' school, attended
respectively by 255 and 54 pupils.

Mandalay Division. — North-eastern Division of Upper Burma,
lying between 21° 42' and 27° 20' N. and 95° 6'' and 98° 20' E., with
an area of 29,373 square miles. It is c()m[)osed of five Districts
(all abutting on the Irrawaddy) : Maxdai.av and the Ruby Mines on
the east of the river, and Katha, Bhamo, and Mvitkvina astride of it.
On the north it is bounded by unadministered territory ; on the east
by China and the Northern Shan States ; on the south by the Kyaukse
District of the Meiktila Division : and on the west by the Sagaing

vol,. XVII. I



124



J/. / y/x I LA ) ' nnvsioN



Division, from which ii is separated by the Irrawaddy and the water-
shed severing the basins of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin. The
head-quarters are at Mandalay City in the extreme south of the
Division ; but all the District head-quarters, with the exception of
Mogok, are readily accessible by rail and river. The Commissioner
exercises a nominal control over the Hkamti Long (Shan) States on
the upper reaches of the Malikha. The population of the Division
was returned at 592,625 in 1891 and 777,338 in 1901. The earlier
Census, however, excluded a large part of Katha District, then forming
the Wuntho vState, and also portions of Bhamo and Myitkyina Districts.
The distribution of the population in 1901 is shown in the table
below : —



Land revenue

A„a;„.,,.»„i Pop„.,„„, :"^'— -:

^ in tnousands |
I of rupees.

111!


Mandalay

Bhamo .

Myitkyina

Katha .
1 Ruby Mines (includ-
1 ing Mongmit)

Total


2,117

4,146

10,640

6,994

5,476


366,507
79.515
67,399

176,223

87,694


8,42

1,31

93

5,34

90*


29>373


777,338


16,90



* Excluding revenue of Mongmit.

The Division contains seven towns — Mandalay (population,
183,816), Amarapura (9,103), Maymyo (6,223), Bhamo (10,734), and
Mogok, Katha, and Myitkyina: and there are 5,413 villages.
Mandalay, Mogok, and Bhamo are important industrial and trade
centres. Burmans predominate largely, numbering 451,161 in 1901.
They form almost the whole population of Mandalay District, and the
larger part of that of Katha, and are well represented in the Ruby
Mines and Bhamo, but are comparatively scarce in Myitkyina. The
Shans numbered 110,728 in 1901, distributed over all the five Districts,
but nowhere in the majority. In Mandalay District they are confined
to the hilly Maymyo township. The number of Kachins in 1901 was
87,790. They form the greater part of the population of Myitkyina
District, are the prevalent race in Bhamo, and are common in Katha
and the Ruby Mines. A portion of the north-western area of Katha is
peopled by the Kadus, who numbered 34,521 in 1901. Danus to the
number of 6,276 inhabit the hills in Mandalay District. Chinamen
are numerous in all the Districts excepting Katha, and aggregated
9,463 at the last Census. Natives of India are distributed all over
the Division, for the most part in or near the towns and District
head-quarters. They include 25,391 Musalmans, 21,894 Hindus, and



Ar.Lyp.lLAY DTSTRTCT



T25



2,149 Sikhs, or the indigenous races, tin- IJurnians and Shans profess
Buddhism, which had 634,000 adherents in 1901, while the Kachins
for the most part are to be reckoned among the Animists, who
numbered about 88,000. Christians numbered 5,663.

Mandalay District (Burmese, Mandale). — District of the Mandalay
Division of Upper Burma, lying between 21° 42' and 22° 46'' N. and
95° 54' and 96° 46' E., with an area of 2,117 square miles. It is
bounded on the north by the Ruby Mines District ; on the south by
the State of Lawksawk and by Kyaukse and Sagaing Districts ; on the
east by the State of Hsipaw ; and on the west by the Irrawaddy, which
divides it from Sagaing and Shwebo Districts.

The main feature of the District is the wide plain, about 700 square

miles in extent, which occupies about one-third of the area, spreading

from the Irrawaddy eastwards to the foot of the

Shan plateau, and gradually increasing in width from i'nysical

cispccrSa
north to south. This wedge-shaped level slopes both

southward and westward, and is, with the exception of portions that
are irrigated by canals or tanks, liable to drought by reason of the
uncertainty of the rainfall. The area flooded by the rivers during
the rains is about 150 square miles. To the north and east of the
plain are the hills forming the western edge of the Shan plateau, which
run for the most part in broken parallels north and south. Those
in the north, however, taking off from the Ruby Mines mountain group,
end abruptly north of the Sagyin hill, and cover about one-half of
the northernmost township. The highest points in this system are
from 2,000 to 3,600 feet above the sea. The elevated ground to the
east takes in the whole of the Maymyo subdivision. It rises very
steeply from the plain, and develops into a picturesque plateau, 3,000
feet high, bounded on the east by a deep steep-sided gorge. Con-
spicuous hills in this plateau tower to a height of 4,000 and 4,700 feet.
From the level plain in the Irrawaddy valley rise isolated limestone
hills, of which the best known are the Sagyin hill (800 feet), famous
for its alabaster quarries ; Mandalay hill (954 feet), at the north-east
corner of the city, of which it commands a noble view ; and the
\'ankin hill, due east of the city, interesting for its images of fish,
carved in a natural cave, which are worshipped in times of scarcity
of rain.

The main rivers are the Irrawaddy, the Myitnge, and the Madaya.
The two latter are tributaries of the former, which .skirts the western
boundary of the District throughout its entire length (75 miles), and
is studded with rich alluvial islands, whose movements from one side
of the channel to the other give considerable trouble to the officials
concerned in the administration of the Districts abutting on the stream.
The MviTNGE (or Doktawadd\ ), known as the Nam I'u by the Shans,

I 2



126 MA NBA LAY DISTRICT

forms part of the eastern and practically the whole of the southern
boundary of the District, sweeping round in a narrow canon from south
to north-west, and emerging from the hills at the foot of a striking
bluff, about 2,000 feet high, locally known as Kyvvetnapa, or ' rat's
snout.' It is navigable only to the foot of the hills, its course above
being full of rapids and falls. The Madaya river, known by the Shans



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