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of the Thathanabaing, or head of the Buddhist Church, from 1859 to
the annexation. The Myadaung monastery, situated on A Road, a
mile to the south-west of the fort, is also profusely carved and gilded,
though the gilding on the outside is now nearly worn off through
exposure to the weather. The builder was Thibaw's favourite queen
Supayalat. The Salin monastery, near the racecourse to the north
of the fort, contains what is probably the finest carving in Burma. It
was built in 1873 by the Salin princess.

On the highest point of Mandalay hill is a pagoda which once
contained the Naungdaw and Nyidaw images referred to above.
A little lower, at the southern end of the ridge, stood, until it was
burnt in 1892, a great wooden image called Shweyattaw, erected by
king Mindon on the foundation of Mandalay. It represented Buddha
pointing to the palace as the future site of the capital. Preparations
are being made to erect a new figure in place of that burnt.

An interesting morning may be spent on the top of the hill with a
good glass. The whole f)f Mandalay lies at one's feet, and every building
of importance may be identified. Conspicuous to the south-east are
the Kuthodaw and the walls of the Incomparable Monastery. Far
beyond them to the south, at the edge of a cultivated plain, the white
pagodas on Kyaukse hill may be seen, backed by the Shan range.



T44 JM.yn,i/..n' cirv

Maymyo lies due east, hidden by several ranp;cs of hills. On the
north a conical hill marks the marble quarries of Sagyin, and far
beyond are the mountains of the Ruby Mines District. West, across
the broad Irrawaddy, the huge mass of brickwork erected by king
Bodawpaya at Mingun may be seen, with innumerable white pagodas
dotted over the hills southward to Sagaing. On the east bank, opposite
Sagaing, the pagodas of the old city of Ava, and farther to the k-ft
those of Amarapura, rise above the trees.

Half a mile to the west of the south-west corner of the fort is the
main bazar, called the Zegyo. The buildings of this huge mart, which
covered 12 acres, were erected under king Mindon, and utterly
destroyed by fire in 1897. They have since been replaced by a
masonry bazar, costing 8 lakhs, where almost everything obtainable
in Mandalay may be bought. The bazar sellers are mostly women :
and unmarried Burman girls of all classes may be seen displaying
their good looks as well as their wares, and .sharpening their wits in
competition with natives of India, against whom they can hold their
own much better than their men-folk.

Within the fort walls are barracks and officers' quarters for one
British and two Native infantry regiments. The jail is in the north-
west corner, and near it Government House overlooks the moat from
the north wall. To the north of the fort, skirting Mandalay hill, are
the Burma Sappers' lines, and quarters for a mountain battery. To the
.south, outside the walls, lie the courthouses, municipal office, and
circuit-house ; and farther west the hospital, the dak-h\\x\^c\o\s , and the
railway station. On the west, in the business quarter of the city, are
the post and telegraph offices, and the main bazar. There are twelve
markets besides the Zegyo witliin municipal limits, and seventeen
police stations and outposts.

Of European religious buildings the chief is the Roman Catholic
cathedral, situated in the business quarter. It was comi)leted in 1898,
the entire cost being borne by a wealthy l^urman convert, 'i'he
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has a church and school,
built by king Mindon, across the Shwetachaung in the west ; the
mission of the English Wesleyans is south of the fort, and that of
the American Baptists a mile to the south-west. 'J'he St. Joseph's
Orphanage, opened in 1904, gives free board and teaching to 150
Chinese boys. The St. John's Leper Asylum, a Roman Catholic
in.stitution, was built in 1902 at a cost of 3 lakhs through the energy
of the late Father Wehinger. It contains seven wards accommodating
50 patients each, and in 1904 had 323 inmates. The asylum is main-
tained at a cost of Rs. 34,000 a year. Expenses are met by a Govern-
ment grant of alxnil Rs. 6,000 a year, contributions from municipal
and other Local funds amounting to over Rs. 10,000, and private



POrUT.ATrON 145

subscriptions. A little to the west are the wards of the Mission to
Lepers in the East, of which the local superintendent is at present
a Wesleyan missionary. In 1904 there were 138 inmates in this
asylum, besides 11 untainted children of lepers kept separately. The
annual cost of maintenance is Rs. 15,000, defrayed from a Government
grant of Rs. 3,300, municipal and Local fund contributions (Rs. 4,000),
the mission fund (Rs. 2,200), and local subscriptions (Rs. 6,000). The
mission has been at work in Mandalay since 1890. The city con-
tains over a hundred Buddhist monasteries and schools, and several
mosques.

The pojnilation of Mandalay in 1901 was 183,816, a decrease of
4,999 since the first Onsus taken in 1891. Of this number, 166,154
persons were living within municipal limits and
17,662 in cantonments. Half of the decrease was
in cantonments, and was due mainly to the reduction of the garrison,
the falling off in the city itself being little more than i per cent. Of
the people living within municipal limits, 91 per cent, were returned
as speaking Burmese, \\ per cent. Hindustani, less than i per cent.
English, and 3^ per cent, other languages, mostly Indian. A large
proportion, however, of the Burmese-speaking people have Indian
blood in them. While the number of those speaking Indian languages
cannot exceed 8 per cent., those returning themselves as Muham-
madan or Hindu in religion are no less than 13 per cent, of the total
population ; consequently, it would seem that at least 5 per cent, of
the Burmese-speaking people must be partly Indian in race. The
proportion is possibly greater, for there are many Buddhists of mixed
descent. The Chinese in the District numbered 1,365 males and
211 females in 1901, and probably nearly all these were in Mandalay
city. The city has several colonies of Manipuris and Hindus from
Manipur, Assam, and Arakan, brought as captives after the invasions
of those countries, and now called indiscriminately Ponnas. They
are all of the Hindu religion, and do not as a rule intermarry with
Burmans, but their women wear Burmese dress. Of the 9,000 Ponnas
enumerated in the District in 1901, the majority were residents of the
city. Christians numbered 2,470, or \\ per cent, of the total popula-
tion. Roman Catholic missionaries have been established in Upper
Burma since the eighteenth century ; the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel has had a school in Mandalay from the time of king
Mindon ; and the American Baptists and English A\'^esleyans also have
churches and schools. Of the cantonment population, nearly two-
thirds were returned as Burmans.

The census returns show that unskilled labourers and their depen-
dents in 1901 numbered 18,000, religious devotees (monks, cS:c.)
11,000, and Government servants, including th.e troops, 9,000.



146 M.lX/ht/.AY CITY

Nearly 8,000 persons were connected with agriculture, and about
ro.ooo with personal services of various kinds. Of the industries,
cotton-weaving ranked first, with close upon ir,ooo representatives.
Tailors and sempstresses, with their dependents, numbered 10,000.
Next came sawyers, carters, and workers or dealers in the precious
metals, each with 7,000, sandal-makers with 6,000, and silk-weavers
with 5,000. Tanners and lacquerers accounted for more than 2,000,
and blacksmiths for a similar number.

The arts and crafts of Mandalay include nearly everything that the
Burmese race is capable of producing. The use of machinery is
almost unknown ; and with the exception of a
brewery belonging to a European firm, and a few rice
and timber-mills, almost all the industries are carried on in the home.
Among the arts may be included hammered silver-work, wood-carving,
iron-work, painting, and a kind of embroidery, called sJnvechido, of
gold and silver thread and spangles. The silver-work now consists
mostly of bowls with figures in relief. It is of unequal merit, but good
work can be got if demanded. The wood-carving, though the most
national of all the arts practised, is in its decadence. The work of the
old craftsmen was intended for the open air, where it was exposed to
the elements and needed to be effective at a distance. The best work
still shows its origin in its bold free lines and vigour of execution.
The ironwork chiefly consists of htis, intended to ornament the tops
of pagodas. The painting produced in the city is not of a high order,
but the work on silk is in demand among Europeans. The sJnvechido
work is the most characteristic of all. It is gorgeous and effective,
being used for the palls at the cremation of monks and for the dresses
of royal personages on the stage ; but it does not last well, nor does it
lend itself to fine detail. Equally rich in effect is a rough kind of
gold lacquer interspersed with coloured glass, a fiivourite material for
monastic furniture. The ordinary lacquer-work is inferior to that
of Pagan, and is used mostly for platters, the designs on which are
effective but wanting in variety. The material used is not lac but
thitsi, the gum of the Me/a?wrr/2oea usitatn. The patterns of the
silk pasos anfl ta7neins, including the beautiful achcik work, are con-
stantly varying, and the fashions change as quickly as in any European
capital. The making of brass and marble images of Buddha can
hardly be called an art, as there is no variation in the type. Brass-
work is moulded by the cire perdu process. The figure is modelled in
wax and encased in a shell of clay. It is next subjected to an intenst-
heat, which expels the wax. The molten brass is then poured in and
takes the place of the wax. \ pure white marble is obtained from the
quarries at Sagyin, 20 miles to the north ; and the images made of it,
sometimes of great size, are sent all over Burma. Among the minor



.in.]/i.\isTR. / rrox 147

industries of the city may he mentioned the making of gongs, circular
or three-cornered, and the preparation of sacred writings with orna-
mental lettering on brass or lacquer.

A municipal committee was formed in Mandalay in 1887, and has
members representing the European, Burmese, Muhammadan, Hindu,

and Chinese communities. The principal sources of .

, , , , 1 / ,-11 Administration,

revenue are the house and land tax, which has risen

steadily from i-6 lakhs in 1888-9 to 24 lakhs in 1903-4, and market
dues, which yielded 1-4 lakhs in 1888-9, 2-7 lakhs in 1902-3, and
2-T lakhs in 1903-4. Of this amount the Zegyo bazar contributed
r'5 lakhs in 1902-3, and 1-2 lakhs in T903-4, the falling off in the
latter year being due to a fire in 1903. .Slaughter-houses yielded
Rs. 44,000 in 1903-4. Other sources of income are the cart tax and
toll, which has increased in the last five years from Rs. 23,000 to
Rs. 31,000; and the hackney-carriage tax, which has fallen off from
Rs. r 1,000 to Rs. 9,000. The principal item of expenditure is con-
servancy, which cost I -I lakhs in 1903-4, while Rs. 14,000 was received
as conservancy fees. Roads are a varying item of expenditure. The
average for the past five years is Rs. 1,30,000, besides Rs. 26,000 for
establishment. The maintenance of the hospital costs about Rs. 65,000
yearly, the fees received being about Rs. 5,000. About Rs. 50,000
a year is devoted to education. There is no municipal school, but the
Educational department divides the grant among mission and other
schools. The lighting of the town costs Rs. 43,000, which amount
is just covered by a tax levied for the purpose. The expenditure on
general administration rose from Rs. 28,000 in 1899-1900 to Rs. 36,000
in 1903-4, and that on the collection of taxes from Rs. 15,000 to
Rs. 19,000. The survey costs about Rs. 16,000 a year, and the fire
brigade Rs. 20,000. Vaccination and registration of births and deaths
each cost about Rs. 4,000. Other items are Rs. 20,000 payable to
Government to defray the annual cost of the embankment surround-
ing the city, and grants of Rs. 10,000 to the cantonment fund and
Rs. 10,800 to the leper asylums. The total income and expenditure
during the ten years ending 1901 averaged 5-4 lakhs. In 1903-4 they
were respectively 15 lakhs and 12 lakhs. The incidence of taxation
in the city is Rs. 1-8-4, or about 2s. per head. Income tax is levied
by Government, but not thathanieda, so that persons with incomes
of less than Rs. 1,000 are more lightly taxed than in the villages
outside municipal limits. The length of roads within the municipality
is 117 miles, of which, however, only 51 are metalled. An electric
tramway, opened in 1904, runs along 12 miles of road; and it is pro-
posed to light the city, or part of it, by electricity, in place of oil.
Both conservancy and water-supply are capable of great improvement.
Night-soil is removed in carts, but only when the houseowner chooses



T48 .]r.l.Y/).l/..IV CITY

to pay a fee. In the business quarter, however, a tax has been sanc-
tioned. The water-supply is from the moat and river, and from wells.
A scheme for sinking new wells at a cost of 2,\ lakhs is under con-
sideration. The average death-rate during the five years ending 1903-4
was 38-2, and the birth-rate 40-72 per 1,000. The hospital, which was
built in 1891, had 2,482 in-patients in 1903-4, and medicines were
dispensed in over 17,000 cases. In addition to the hospital, there
is a dispensary near the Zegyo ba/.ar, at wliich a somewhat larger
number of cases were attended to.

The cantonment fund is chiefly maintained by grants-in-aid from the
Ciovernment and the municipality, amounting in 1903-4 to Rs. 54,000.
These are supplemented by house, conservancy, and other taxes, yield-
ing in all about Rs. 16,000, a sum of Rs. 7,000 from market dues, and
other collections amounting to about Rs. 4,000. The chief items of
expenditure are conservancy (Rs. 31,000), police (Rs. 17,000), and
hospital (Rs. 8,000). There are 26 miles of metalled roads within
cantonment limits, maintained from Imperial funds. The Upper Burma
Volunteer Rifles, 560 strong, have their head-quarters at Mandalay.

Statistics regarding the educational institutions of the city (vernacular
and Anglo-vernacular) are given in the District article. Of Anglo-
. vernacular schools, there are eight secondary and

three primary. Of these, the principal are St. Peter's
high school and St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic), the American Baptist
Mission high and European schools, the Royal school of the Society
for the Propagation of the (iospel, and the high school of the Euro-
pean Wesleyan Mission. Special schools include a survev schof)l and
a normal school for teachers.

Mandalay Canal. — An irrigation canal in Mandalay District,
Upper Burma, running north and south, parallel to the Irrawaddy,
and watering a level plain in the centre of the District, which is
bounded on the north by the Madaya stream, on the south by the
Myitnge river, on the east by the Shan Hills, and on the west by the
Irrawaddy. The canal, which derives its water from the Madaya
stream, is 39 miles in length, has 86 miles of distributaries, and is
capable of irrigating 80,000 acres of land. It was commenced in
1896 and was opened in 1902, its cost having been nearly 51 lakhs.
It irrigated 30,000 acres in 1903 4. It waters much the same country
as a canal dug for irrigation during Burmese rule, which, owing to
faulty alignment and the inability of the Burmans to deal with the
cross-drainage from the Shan Hills in the; cast, failed of its object.
The revenue derived from the work in 1903 4 was nearly a lakh.

Mandalgarh. — Head-quarters of a zila or district of the same
name in the State of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 25° 13' N.
and 75° 7' E., about 100 miles north-east of Udaipur city. Popu-



MANDASOJ^ /.ir.A 149

lation (1901), 1,462. To the north-wcsi is a fort about half a mile
in length, witli a low rampart wall and bastions encircling the crest
of the hill on which it stands ; it is strong towards the south, but
assailable from the hills to the north. The fort is said to have
been constructed about the middle of the twelfth century by a chief of
the Kalnot clan of Rajputs (a branch of the Solankis). According to
the Musalman historians, it was taken by Muzaffar Shah of Gujarat
at the end of the fourteenth century, and twice by Mahmud KhiljT of
Malwa in the middle of the fifteenth century. Subse(|uently, it be-
longed alternately to the Ranas of Udaipur and the Mughal emperors.
In or about 1650 .Shah Jahan granted it in jagir to Raja Rup Singh
of Kishangarh, who partially built a palace there, but Rana Raj Singh
retook it in 1660. Twenty years later, Aurangzeb invaded Mewar
and captured Mandalgarh, and in 1700 he made it over to Jujhar
Singh, the Rathor chief of Pisangan (in Ajmer District), from whom
it was recovered by Rana Amar Singh in 1706; and it has since
remained in the uninterrupted possession of his successors. In the
town are a primary school, attended by about 60 boys, and a dispen-
sary. Iron mines are still worked at Bigod and other places in the
district.

Mandapeta.^ — Town in the Ramachandrapuram taluk of Godavari
District, Madras, situated in 16° 51' N. and 81'' 55' E. Population
(1901), 8,380. Local affairs are managed by a \]x\\o\\ paiicJtayat.

Mandargiri. — Hill about 700 feet high, in the Banka subdivision
of Bhagalpur District, Bengal, situated in 24*^ 50' N. and 87° 2' Tv,
about 40 miles south of the town of Bhagalpur. The hill, which
consists of a huge mass of granite overgrown near the summit with
low jungle, is a sacred spot to the Hindus, who consider it the
mythological mountain Mandar, which was used in churning the
ocean. The oldest buildings are two ruined temples near the top
of the hill, which are ascribed by local tradition to a legendary
Chola king who was cured of his leprosy by bathing at a tank
here. There are two inscriptions and some rude carvings on the
rock, and numerous artificial tanks have been cut in the side of the
hill, some of which go back to the time of Aditya Sen (a.d. 675).
The largest of these, known as the Sitakund, is too feet long by 500
feet wide and stands 500 feet above the surrounding plain.

[M. Martin, Eastern India, vol. ii, pp. 60-3.]

Mandasor Zila. — District of the Gwalior State, Central India,
lying between 23*^ 33' and 25° 19' N. and 74° w' and 75° 54' E.,
with an area of 1,721 square miles. The population in 1901 was
196,434, giving a density of 114 persons per square mile. The
district contains three towns — -Mandasor (population, 20,936), the
head-quarters, NImach (including the cantonment, 21,588), and



I50 }rAyr>.isoR ztla

Jawad (8,005) — ^'""d 7 75 villages. It is divided into seven par^mias,
with head-quarters at Mandasor, Nimach, Bhaogarh, Jawad, Nahargarh,
Singoli, and Gangapur. The land revenue is Rs. 9,03,000. Mandasor
lies on the Malwa plateau, and, except for the range which runs
east and west to the north of Nimach, consists of a level plain
covered with black cotton soil. Poppy is largely grown.

Mandasor Town. — Head-quarters of the district of the same
name in Gwalior State, Central India, situated in 24° 4' N. and
75° 5' E., on the bank of the Siwana (Seuna or Sau) river,
a tributary of the Sipra, and on the Ajmer-Khandwa branch of the
Rajputana-Malwa Railway, 1,516 feet above sea-level. The popula-
tion fell from 25,785 in 1891 to 20,936 in 1901. The town is
a centre of the opium trade, one of the Government depots at
which duty is levied on the drug being established here. Another
industry of some importance is the manufacture of coloured cloth
for quilts and chi/nris (a piece of printed cloth worn by women
to cover the arms and upper part of the body). Local affairs are
managed by a municipality constituted in 1902. The income amounts
to Rs. 1,300, derived mainly from octroi. Besides the usual offices,
a combined British post and telegraph office, a State post office,
a police station, a dispensary, a school, and an inspection bungalow
are situated here.

Mandasor is a place of considerable antiquity and of historical
and archaeological importance. Its name in former days was Dasha-
pura, or the 'township of ten hamlets,' and it appears to be referretl
to in an inscription found at Nasik, which dates from early in the
Christian era. An inscription near Mandasor refers to the erection
of a temple of the Sun in 437, during the rule of Kumara Gupta I,
which was repaired thirty-six years later. As the town stands now,
it is entirely Muhammadan, though Hindu and Jain remains are
numerous. The fort on the east of the town is said to have been
founded by Ala-ud-dln Khiljl in the fourteenth century, but it was
considerably increased and made a place of importance by Hoshang
Shah (1405-34) of Malwa. Many of the stones used in the con-
struction of the wall seem to have been brought from Afzalpur,
ri miles to the south. Owing to its position, Mandasor figures
continually in history. Xear the big tank, outside the city, Humayun
surrounded the camp of Bahadur Shah in 1535 and defeated him,
tlriving him out of Malwa. ^^'hen Malwa was taken by Akbar in
1562, Mandasor became the head-quarters of the Mandasor sarkCv
of the Siibali of Malwa. In the eighteenth century it fell to Sindhia,
in whose possession it has since remained. After his defeat at
Meliidpur, Holkar came to terms with the British, and the treaty
by which Malwa was settled was signed at Mandasor early in r8i8.



.V.lXDAirjR 151

In the Mutiny of 1S57 one vSahibzada Firoz Shah, a member of the
Delhi house, raised his standard here and collected a considerable
following, among whom were a large number of Rohillas. As their
presence endangered the safety of Nimach, the Malwa field force
made a rai)id advance on the fort, which was captured on November
:;i, 1857. A fierce fight took place three days later at the village
of Guradia, 5 miles north-west of Mandasor, in which the Rohillas
fought bravely ; but their defeat broke up the forces of Firo/. Shah
and completely cleared this part of the country.

In Mandasor itself and in the neighbourhood there are numerous
remains of archaeological interest. The village of Sondani (or
S(jngnl), 3 miles to the south-east, contains two magnificent mono-
lithic sandstone pillars with lion and bell capitals. An inscription
incised on both of them recc^rds that Va.sodharman, king of Malwa,
defeated at this spot the Huna adventurer Mihirakula. probably
in 528. Great importance attaches to these for their use in settling
the commencement of the Gupta era.
[J. F. Fleet, Indian Anti(jiiarv, vol. xv.]

Mandawa. — Town in the Shekhawati nizai/iaf of the State of
Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 28° 4' N. and 75° 9' E., about 90 miles
north-west of Jaipur city. Population {1901), 5.165. A combined
post and telegraph ofifice and several schools are maintained here.

Mandawar. — Town in the District and ta/is'il of Bijnor, United
Provinces, situated in 29'" 29' N. and 78"" 8' E., 8 miles north
of Bijnor town. Population (1901), 7,210. It was identified by
St. Martin and by General Cunningham with the Motlpura visited
by Hiuen Tsiang in the seventh century ; but this identification
rests entirely on its distance from various places, and no excavations
have been made^ According to tradition, some Agarwal Banias
.settled here in the tv.-elfth century, when the)- found the place
deserted. The town was captured by Timur in 1399, and was the
capital of a malial ox pargaua under Akbar. In 1805 it was pillaged
by Amir Khan, the Pindari, and during the Mutiny it suffered at the
hands of J at marauders. A mound half a mile square rises some
10 feet above the rest of the town, containing large bricks. The
Jama Masjid stands on this, constructed from the materials of a Hindu
temple. North-east of the town is another large mound, and there
are two tanks in the neighbourhood. Mandawar is administered
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,200. There
is a small industry in papier mache ; and boxes, pen-trays, paper-
knives, (S:c., are made. A primary school has 126 pupils, and two
aided schools have 85 pupils. The American Methodist ' Mission
has a branch here.

' ArJiacoU'gical Survey Ki/'oiis, vol. i, p. ^48.



152 MAXBHATA

Mandhata. — Village in ihc Khandwa tahsil of Niniar District,
Central Provinces, situated in 22'^ 15' N. and 76° 9' E., 2,- miles from
Khandwa and 7 miles east of Mortakka station on the Rajputana-



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