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tions. The former has an average attendance of 460 students, of
whom 60 are reading in the college classes. Mangalore was constituted
a municipality in 1896. The receipts and expenditure during the ten
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 48,600 and Rs. 48,200 respectively.
In 1903-4 the corresponding figures were Rs. 66,400 and Rs. 63,000,
the chief items in the receipts being the taxes on houses and land and
a grant from Government. There are two municipal hospitals with 32
beds for in-patients, and also two private leper asylums. A drainage
scheme for the western portion of the town, the estimated cost of which
is Rs. 1,46,000, is under consideration. An extension of the Madras
Railway from Kumbla to Mangalore (21 miles) will shortly be opened.



1 78 MANGAL VEDHA

Mangalvedha. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name
in the State of Sangli, Bombay, situated in 17° 31' N. and 75° 29' E.,
between the angle formed by the junction of the Bhinia and the Man,
about 13 miles south of Pandharpur and 15 miles north-east of Sangli
town. Population (1901), 8,397. Mangalvedha was founded before
the Muhammadan period by a Hindu prince named Mangal, whose
capital it was. Judging from the remains of an old temple, the place
must have been of some importance and wealth. After its destruction
by the Muhammadans, the materials were used in building the fort in
the centre of the town. The town is administered as a municipality,
with an income in 1903-4 of Rs, 4,000. The fort contains the Jama
Masjid and a citadel known as the Chauburji, said to have been built
by the Pandhres who were in charge of the pargana under the Satara
Rajas (1720-50). The town contains a dispensary.

Mangaon. — Eastern taluka of Kolaba District, Bombay, l\ing between
18° 6' and 18° 30' N. and 73° 3' and 73° 26' E., with an area of 352 square
miles. There are 226 villages, but no town. The population in 1901
was 83,415, compared with 83,837 in 1891. The density, 237 persons
per square mile, is much below the District average. The demand for
land revenue in 1903-4 was i'69 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 10,000.
The head-quarters are at Mangaon village. The Mandad river flows
through the north and west of the tah/ka, and the Ghod through the
centre. Except in the south, the country is broken up by a number of
detached hills. The rainfall during the ten years ending 1903 averaged
136 inches. Except in some of the western uplands, where the sea-
breeze is felt, Mangaon is hot during the summer.

Manglaur. — Town in the Roorkee /alisi/ of Saharan[)ur District,
United Provinces, situated in 29° 48' N. and 77° 53' E., 6 miles south
(^f Roorkee town and close to the Upper Ganges Canal. Population
(1901), 10,763. According to tradition, the town was founded by
Raja Mangal Sen, a Rajput feudatory of Vikramaditya, and the remains
of a fortress attributed to him can still be traced. A mosque in the
town was built by Balban in 1285. There is little trade ; but the crops
grown in the neighbourhood are irrigated from the canal and are
exceptionally fine, and there is a great demand for manure. The place
was formerly noted for carpentry. This industry, which had begun to
decline, has now revived ; and very good chairs and other articles are
made. The Muhammadan weavers are much impoverished. Manglaur
is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about
Rs. 3,500. Much has been done to improve its sanitary condition.

Manglon. — One of the Northern Shan States, Burma, lying astride
the Salween, between 21° 31' and 22° 54' N. and 98° 20' and 99°
18' E., and having, with its sub-feudatory States, an area of about
3,000 square miles. It is bounded on the north by South Hscnwi and



MANGLON 179

the Wa States ; on the east by the Wa States, China, and the Southern
Shan States of Kengtung (from which it is separated by the Nam Hka
river) ; on the south by Mongnawng ; on the west by Mongnawng,
]\Ionghsu, Kehsi Mansani, and South Hsenwi. The State proper is
divided into East and AVest Manglon by the Sahveen ; and the Sa\vb\va
has control over the sub-States of Mothai in the extreme north and
Mawhpa in the extreme south (both lying almost entirely east of the
Sahveen), also of Manghseng on the left bank of the Sahveen, and
Ngekting east of it. The country east of the Sahveen consists, in the
south, of the broad mountain mass separating the valleys of the Sahveen
and its important tributary the Nam Hka. The northern part is
drained by short tributaries of the Sahveen, and is composed of steep
hills and deep narrow \alleys. West Manglon is a narrow strip of hill
country, little wider than the ridge following the Sahveen river, and
cut up by a number of narrow valleys.

The authentic history of Manglon begins about eighty years ago with
the rise of a Wa chief, Ta Awng, who retained his hold on the State
by becoming tributary to Hsenwi. At the time of annexation, trans-
Salween Manglon was in charge of a Sawbwa named Ton Hsang, the
cis-Salween territory being administered by the Sawbwa's brother, Sao
Maha. Considerable difficulty was experienced by the British in
dealing with the latter, who refused to attend the darbdr at Mongyai
in 1 881. Acting under the influence of Sao Weng, the ex-Sawbwa of
Lawksawk, he persistently refused to come in, and deserted his State
in 1892 when a British party marched through it. Ton Hsang was
then put in charge of ^^'est Manglon as well as of his own country east
of the Sahveen, but had to suffer an attack by Sao Maha immediately
afterwards. One more chance of reforming was given to the latter and
he was then deflnitely expelled, and West Manglon has since remained
undisturbed in Ton Hsang's charge. East Manglon has suffered from
time to time from raids on the part of the independent Wa chiefs to
the east, but the State as a whole is gradually settling down. The
exact population is not known, as the State was wholly omitted from
the census operations in 1901 ; but it is probably not below 40,000.
The inhabitants of East Manglon and of the sub-States are mainly
Was, the Shans being confined to the valleys ) West Manglon is almost
wholly Shan. Lisaws and Chinese are found on both sides of the
Salween, and Palaungs in West Manglon. The capital, Takiit, is
situated in the mountains of East IManglon, but some of the officials
reside at Pangyang a few miles to the south. The revenue consists
entirely of fhafhai/icda, amounting in 1903-4 to Rs. 11,000. Of this
Rs. 4,200 went to the privy purse, and Rs. 4,200 towards administra-
tion and salaries, and Rs. 2,000 was spent on public works. The
tribute to the British Go\ernment i> onlv Rs. ^00.



t8o mango LI

Mangoli.; — Village in the Bagevadi tdliika of Bijapur District,
Bombay, situated in i6° 40' N. and 75° 54' E,, 15 miles south-east of
Bijapur town. Population (1901), 5,287. It was formerly the head-
quarters of the Bagevadi tdhika, but has now declined in importance.
The country round Mangoli is very fertile, and the village exports
a good deal of wheat, cotton, linseed, and jo7var.

Mangrol {Mangarol Bandar, apparently the Monoglossum of
Ptolemy) (i). — Seaport in the State of Junagarh, Kathiawar, Bombay,
situated in 21° 8' N. and 70° 14' E., on the south-west coast, a mile
and a half north-east from the bandar, which is washed by the Arabian
Sea. Population (1901), 15,016. The mosque here is the finest in
Kathiawar. A tablet in one part of the building records the date of
its foundation as 1383. The town belongs to a petty Musalman chief,
styled the Shaikh of Mangrol, who pays a tribute of Rs. 11,500 to the
Nawab of Junagarh. The harbour is much exposed, being open to all
but north-east and north-west winds, and will not admit more than
three or four kotiyehs or native vessels at a time. Soundings are
regular, over a muddy but rocky bottom, from one to one and a half
mile off shore. There is a manufacture of ivory and sandal-wood
inlaid boxes, and the ironsmiths are famous for their skill. The musk-
melons grown here are celebrated. A lighthouse, 75 feet above high-
water mark, shows a fixed light visible 4 miles at sea. The shrine
of Kamnath Mahadeo, situated about 5 miles from the town, is visited
annually on the 15th of the bright half of the month of Kartik
(November) and the last day of the dark half of the month of Shravan
(August). There is a well at a distance of about 200 yards. The
land surrounding this well forms a tract of about 5 or 6 miles in
circumference, and is called Labur Kua. Excellent cotton is grown
here, which finds a ready sale in the Bombay market. Betel-vine
plantations have been in existence for about thirty years.

Mangrol (2).- - Head-(]uarters of the district of the same name in the
State of Kotah, Rajputnna, situated in 25° 20' N. and 70° 31' E., on
the right bank of the Banganga, a tributary of the Parbati, about
44 miles north-east of Kotah city. The town is a commercial mart
of some importance, with a population in 1901 of 5,156. It possesses
a i)ost office, a vernacular school, and a hospital with accommodation
for six in-patients. Mangrol is the site of a battle fought in 1821
between Maharao Kishor Singh of Kotah and his minister Zalim Singh,
assisted by a detachment of British troops, 'i'he Maharao was defeated,
and his brother Prithwl Singh was killed. A mausoleum constructed
where the body of the latter was burnt still exists close to the river,
while to the east of the town are the tombs of two British officers
(Lieutenants Clarke and Read of the 4th Light Cavalry) who fell in
this engagement. Three miles to the south is the village of Bhutwara,



MANIAR i8i

where the Kotah troops defeated a much stronger army from Jaipur
in 1 76 1, and captured the latter's five-coloured banner. The valour
and skill of Zalim Singh (then Faujdar of Kotah) contributed greatly
to the victory, which put an end to Jaipur's pretensions to supremacy
over the Hara Rajputs. Ten miles to the west of Mangrol is the
ancient village of Siswali, said to have been founded by the Gaur
Rajputs of Sheopur. The Chhipas of the place carry on a fairly large
trade in dyed cloths.

Mangrul Taluk. — Formerly a taluk of Basim District, but since
August, 1905, the south-eastern taluk of Akola District, Berar, lying
between 20° 4' and 20° 80' N. and 77° 9' and 77° 42' E., with an area
of 630 square miles. The population rose from 82,446 in 1891 to
91,062 in 1901, its density, 144 persons per square mile, being the
lowest in the District. The fdluk contains 202 villages and only one
town, Mangrul Pir (population, 5,793). The demand for land
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,68,000, and for cesses Rs. 13,000. The
taluk lies in the Balaghat, or southern plateau of Berar, and its most
fertile tracts are those in the valleys of the streams running south-
wards to the Penganga river.

Mangrul Town (i). — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name,
Akola District, Berar, situated in 20° 19' N. and 77° 24' E. Popula-
tion (1901), 5,793. The town is distinguished from many other places
of the same name by the epithet Plr^ which has reference either to the
shrine of Hayat Kalandar, or to the shrines of several minor saints
buried here. The real name of Hayat Kalandar is said to have been
Shah Badr-ud-din, and he was also known as Baba Budhan and Saiyid
Ahmad Kabir. His native place is said to have been Bataih in Rum
(Asia Minor), and he is said to have died in 1253. The shrine at
Islangrul must therefore be a cenotaph ; and it is believed not to be
more than about four hundred years old. Of the minor saints buried
here, none has any celebrity beyond the neighbourhood.

Mangrul Town (2). — Town in the Chandur taluk of Amraoti Dis-
trict, Berar, situated in 20° 36' N. and 77° 52' E. Population (1901),
6,588. The town is distinguished from other towns and villages of
the same name by the epithet Dastgir.

Maniar. — Town in the BansdTh tahsil of Ballia District, United
Provinces, situated in 25° 59' N. and 84° 11' E., on the right bank
of the Gogra. Population (1901), 9,483. The houses of Maniar
cluster round high artificial mounds, formerly the sites of the fortified
residences of the principal zainiudars, but now waste and bare. It has
no main thoroughfares, nor does it possess any public buildings. Its
importance is derived from its position as a port on the Gogra, through
which rice and other grains are imported from Gorakhpur, Basti, and
Nepal, while sugar and coarse cotton cloth of local manufacture



1 82 MAXIAR

and oilseeds are exported to Bengal. Maniar is administered under
Act XX of 1856, with an income of Rs. 1,500. There is a school
with 50 pupils.

Manihari. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Purnea Dis-
trict, Bengal, situated in 25° 20' N. and 87° 37' E., on the north bank
of the Ganges. Population (1901), 3,759. It is a terminus of the
Bihar section of the Eastern Bengal State Railway, connected by ferry
steamer with the East Indian Railway station at Sakrigali Ghat, and
a place of call for river steamers.

Manikarchar. — Village in the extreme south-west of Goalpara
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25° 32' N. and 89°
53' E., near the Garo Hills frontier. Population (1901), 3,870. The
village contains a large bazar, and a bi-weekly market, where a con-
siderable trade is carried on in cotton and other products of the Garo
Hills, jute, and mustard. The principal merchants are Marwaris from
Rajputana and Muhammadans from Dacca. The public buildings
include a dispensary.

Manikcheri. — Village in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Eastern Bengal
and Assam, situated in 22° 51'' N. and 91° 51' E., on a stream of the
same name. Population (1901), 1,356. It is the residence of the
Mong Raja.

Manikganj Subdivision.— Western subdivision of Dacca District,
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 2-^ 37' and 24° 2' N, and
89^ 45' and 90° 15'' E., with an area of 489 square miles. The sub-
division is a level alhn ial plain, bounded on the west and south by the
Padma. I'he population in 1901 was 468,942, compared with 448,927
m 1 89 1, the density being 959 persons per square mile. It contains
1,461 villages, but no town. Since 1861, when the town of Manikganj
was swept away by flood, the head-cjuarters have been at Dasar.v,
a village 2 miles to the south of the old site. There is a large mart
at Jagir Hat, 2 miles from the subdivisional head-quarters.

Manikiala. — Village and group of ruins in the District and tahsll
of Rawalpindi, Punjab, situated in 33° 21' N. and 73° 17' E., midway
between Hassan Abdal and Jhelum. Population (1901), 734. The
remain J consist of a great tope or stupa south of the modern village,
together with fourteen smaller buildings of the same class, fifteen
monasteries, and many isolated massive stone walls. Local tradition
connects these ruins with the name of an eponymous Raja, Man or
Manik, who built the great stupa. According to the current legend,
an ancient city named Manikpur stood upon the site, inhabited by
seven Rakshasas or demons. Rasalu, son of Salivahana, Raja of
Sialkot, was the enemy of these demons, who daily devoured by lot
one of the people of Manikpur. .\rcordingly, Rasalu once took the
place of the victim, went out to meet the demons, and slew them all



}rAXTKTALA 183

save one, who still lives in the cavern of (landgarh. In this legend
Sir Alexander runningham saw a Hindiiized version of the Buddhist
story, in which Gautama Buddha offers up his l)ody to appease the
hunger of seven tiger cubs. Hiuen Tsiang places the scene of this
legend south-east of Shahdheri, which agrees with the bearing of
Manikiala from the latter ruins. At this spot stood the famous stupa
of the ' body-offering,' one of the four great stupas of North-Western
India. The stupa was explored by General Court in 1834, and
Cunningham states that the inscription on it twice makes mention of
the sacrifice of Buddha's body. All the existing remains present the
appearance of religious buildings, without any trace of a city or fortress.
The people point to the high ground immediately west of the great
stupa as the site of Raja Man's palace, because pieces of plaster occur
there only among the ruins ; but the Satraps of Taxila may very
probably have taken up their residence upon this spot when they came
to worship at the famous shrine. A town of 1,500 or 2,000 houses
may also have extended northward, and occupied the whole rising
ground now covered by the village of Manikiala. But the place must
be regarded as mainly an ancient religious centre, full of costly
monasteries and shrines, with massive walls of cut stone. The people
unanimously affirm that the city was destroyed by fire, and the quantit\-
of charcoal and ashes found among the ruins strongly confirms their
belief, Manikiala is one of the sites for which is claimed the honour
of being the burial-place of Alexander's horse Bucephalus.

Maniktala. — Town in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas,
Bengal, situated in 22° 35' N. and 88° 23" E. Population (1901),
32,387, of whom Hindus numbered 22,792, Musalmans 9,512, and
Christians 65. Maniktala is the great eastern industrial suburb of
Calcutta, wedged in between the Circular Canal on the west, the New
Cut on the east, and the Beliaghata Canal on the south. Beliaghata
in the south of the town is the seat of an extensive trade in rice
imported from the eastern Districts, while along the frontage of the
Circular Canal a brisk business is done in firewood, loose jute, and
rice. The other important wards are Ultadanga and Narikeldanga.
Factories are numerous, including a jute mill, a silk factory, bone-
crushing mills, shellac, saltpetre, castor-oil, and soap factories, and four
tanneries. The nursery gardens of two Calcutta florists are situated
in the town, which is within the jurisdiction of the Commissioner of
Police, Calcutta, and forms part of the * Suburbs of Calcutta ' sub-
division. Maniktala was comprised in the Suburban municipality until
1889, when it was constituted a separate municipality. The income
during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 63,000, and the
expenditure Rs. 59,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,14,000,
including a loan of Rs. 25,000 from Government, Rs. 31,000 derived



1 84 AfAXIKTALA

from a tax on houses and lands, Rs. 18,000 from a conservancy rate,

and Rs. 7,000 from a tax on vehicles. The incidence of taxation was

Rs. 2-1-10 per head of the population. In the same year the chief

items of expenditure were Rs. 5,000 spent on lighting, Rs. 3,000 on

drainage, Rs. 23,000 on conservancy, Rs. 1,800 on medical relief,

Rs. 16,000 on roads, and Rs. 1,300 on education ; total, Rs. 74,000.

Manipur. — Native State lying to the east of the Province of

Eastern Bengal and Assam, between 23° 50' and 25° 41' N. and 93° 2'

and 94° 47' E., with an area of 8,456 square miles. It is bounded on

the north by the Naga Hills District and by hilly country inhabited

by tribes of independent Nagas ; on the east by independent territory

and Burma ; on the south by Burma and the Lushai Hills ; and on the

west by the District of Cachar. The .State consists of a great tract

of hilly country, and a valley about 30 miles long and
Phvsic&l ...

asDects ^° miles wide, shut in on every side. The general

direction of these ranges is north and south, but in

places they are connected by spurs and occasional ridges of lower

elevation. The greatest altitude is reached to the north-east, about

fifteen days' journey fr(jm the Manipur valley, where peaks rise upwards

of 13,000 feet above sea-level. To the north of this the hills gradually

decrease in height till they sink into the flat plains of the Assam

Valley. Southwards, too, there is a gradual decline in altitude till the

sea is reached near Chittagong and Arakan. The general appearance

of the hill ranges is that of irregular ridges, occasionally rising into

conical peaks and flattened ridges of bare rocks. Sometimes, as in the

western ranges of hills overlooking the Manipur valley, the summit

of the hills presents a more open and rolling character.

The journey through the hills from Cachar to Manipur is one of
great interest. The path crosses five considerable ranges, covered with
forest and separated from one another by deep river valleys, and thus
possesses all the attractions which are conferred by stately timber,
luxuriant undergrowth of bamboos, creepers, and giant ferns, bold
cliffs, and rivers rushing through wild gorges. The general appearance
of the valley, as the traveller descends from the hills, has much to
please the eye. On every side it is shut in by blue mountains. To
the south the waters of the Loktak Lake sparkle in the sun, and all the
country in the neighbourhood is covered with waving jungle grass.
Farther east the villages of the Manipuris are to be seen buried in
clumps of bamboos and fruit trees, and lining the banks of the rivers
that meander through the plain. The jungle gives way to wide
stretches of rice cultivation, interspersed with grazing grounds and
swamps, and to the north-east are the dense groves which conceal the
town of Imphal.

The principal rivers of the valley are the Imphal, Iril, Thobal,



MANirUK T85

Nanibal, and Nambol. The last-named river falls into the Loktak
Lake, from which it emerges under the name of Kortak. This stream
eventually joins the Imphal and the Nambal, and their united waters,
which are known as the Achauba, Imphal, or Manipur river, finally fall
into the Kendat and thus into the Chindwin. The chief rivers crossed
in the hills by the traveller from Cachar are the Jiri, the Makru, the
Barak, the Irang, the Lengba, and the Laimatak. The Jiri, which
forms the boundary between British territory and Manipur, is about
40 yards wide where it is crossed by the Government road, and is
fordable in the dry season. The Makru, which runs parallel with the
Jiri, has a very clear stream, and is also fordable in the dry season.
The Barak is the largest and most important river in the Manipur hill
territory ; it receives the Makru, the Irang, the Tipai river, which flows
north from the Lushai country, and finally the Jiri. It is said to be
navigable for canoes for about one day above its junction with the
Tipai. The rivers in the [)lains are navigable by dug-out canoes at all
seasons of the year. It was at one time thought that the Manipur
valley originally consisted of a large lake basin, which gradually con-
tracted in size until nothing remains but the Loktak, a sheet of water
about 8 miles long and 5 miles wide, which occupies the south-eastern
corner of the valley. Further investigations by competent geologists
have shown that this hypothesis is not correct.

The soil of the valley is an alluvial clay washed down from the
surrounding hills. The mountains to the north are largely composed
of Pre-Tertiary slates and sandstones, with Upper Tertiary deposits on
the higher ridges and on the hills overhanging the Chindwin valley.

The inner hills are clothed with forest, but the slopes of the Laimatol
range, Nvhich overlook the valley on the west, are only covered with
grass. In the valley itself there is little tree growth. A great portion
of the plain is cultivated with rice, but near the Loktak Lake there are
wide stretches of grass jungle.

Wild animals are fairly common, and include elephants, tigers,
leopards, bears, deer, and wild hog. Rhinoceros and bison {Bos
i^aurus) are also found in the hills to the south-east, but are not
common, and serow or goat-antelope are occasionally met with on the
higher ranges. Hog, leopards, and deer are the only animals to be
seen in large numbers in the plains. Elephants used at one time to
be regularly hunted, but the herds have been considerably reduced in
numbers, and these operations are no longer profitable. Large flocks
of wild geese and ducks are to be found on the Loktak Lake, and
partridge, pheasant, and jungle-fowl are common.

The valley lies about 2,500 feet above the level of the sea, and the
climate is cool and pleasant. At the hottest season the nights and
mornings are always cool. In the winter there are sharp frosts at



1 86 M ANT PUR

night, and heavy fogs often hang over the valley till the day is well
advanced. The annual rainfall at Imphal town averages about 70
inches ; in the hills it is believed to be as much as roo inches.

Manipur, like the neighbouring Province of Assam, is subject to
seismic disturbances. A severe shock occurred in 1869 : but the earth-
quake of 1897, which did so much damage in other parts of Eastern
India, was only slightly felt.