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murders, though not on such a wholesale scale, still take place. Civil
suits are generally of a petty character.

Under native rule, the ryots paid revenue in kind and labour.
Officials, instead of receiving salaries in cash, were remunerated by
allowances in land and rice ; and public buildings, bridges, and roads
were constructed or repaired by unpaid labour. Since the adminis-
tration has been controlled by the British, the system of forced labour
has been almost entirely abolished, and land revenue has been assessed
at the rate of Rs. 2 per acre. The valley has been divided into five
divisions or pannahs, each in charge of a collecting officer. A survey
establishment has been organized, and the occupied area is being
gradually measured, the result of these operations being to disclose
a large area of unassessed cultivation. House tax is levied in the
hills, and no attempt is made to ascertain the area actual!)- under

There are practically no excise arrangements in the State. The
Manipuris abstain from both liquor and intoxicating drugs. A little
opium is used by Muhammadans ; and the hill tribes prepare alcoholic
liquors, both fermented and distilled, but no restriction is placed upon
this practice. Salt is obtained from brine wells leased from the State,
and is also imported from Bengal in considerable quantities.

The total revenue and e.xpenditure of the State in 1903-4 and the


principal items were as follows, in thousands of rupees. Receipts :
total, 3,95 i including land revenue 2,77, house-tax 46, fisheries 24,
forests 26, salt 6. Expenditure : total 3,88 ; including State works
1,48, Raja's civil list 50, police 60, tribute 50, land revenue 28,
education 15.

A police station at Iniphal town is ilie centre of the whole investi-
gating agency. The civil police force consists of 19 men under
a sub-ins[)ector. In addition to the regular police, one chaukiddr has
been appointed to every hundred houses. A battalion of military
police is kept up by the State. The Assistant to the Political Agent
acts as commandant, and the sanctioned strength is 13 native officers
and 364 non-commissioned officers and men. Thirteen outposts along
the main roads and in the hills are held by this force. There is one
jail in the valley, at Imphal.

Education has made very little progress in Manipur. At the Census
of 1 90 1 only 1-9 per cent, of the male population was returned as
literate. An English middle school is maintained at Imphal ; and in
1903-4 there were 29 primary schools in the State, two of which are
located in the hills. The total number of pupils on March 31, 1904,
was 1,629. -^11 except 46 of these were reading in primary schools.
The girls' school has recently been closed, as it was considered that
the advantages it conferred were out of all proportion to the cost of its

There is one hospital at Imphal town, with accommodation for 14 in-
patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 10,000, ol which
300 were in-patients, and 400 operations were performed. The total
expenditure amounted to Rs. 4,000.

\'accination is not compulsory, but the Rukis are the only in-
habitants of Manipur who object to the process, and even their dislike
is wearing off. The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4
represented 58 per 1,000 of the population, which was considerably
above the proportion in Assam as a whole.

[E. \\'. Dunn, Abridged Gazetteer of Manipur (Calcutta, 1891);
Dr. R. Brown, Annual Report of the Manipur Political Agency for
1868-9 ; Sir J. Johnstone, My Experience in Manipur and the
Ndgd Hills; B. C. Allen, Gazetteer of Manipur (1905).]

Manjarabad. — Western taluk of Hassan District, Mysore, lying
between 12° 40' and 13° 3' N. and 75° 33' and 75° 57' E., with an
area of 438 square miles. The population in 1901 was 59,304, com-
pared with 55,862 in 1891. The taluk contains one town, Sakleshpur
(population, 2,140), the head-quarters; and 277 villages. The land
revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,78,000. The whole taluk lies
in the Malnad, and contains some of the finest scenery in Mysore,
flanked by the slupendouo luuuiitaiii range of the ^\'ebtern Ghats,


whose slopes are covered with magnificent forest. The Hemavati
flows through the east,. and, after receiving the Aigur and Kotehalla,
turns east along the southern border. East of this river the country
is more open. Streams from the ^Vestern Ghats run west to the
Netravati in South Kanara. The soil on the hills is generally a rich
red, in the valleys red or nearly black. The principal cultivation is
rice, which grows luxuriantly in the valleys and on the terraces cut
on the hill-sides. The abundant rain makes irrigation unnecessary as
a rule. ' Dry ' cultivation is found to the east of the Hemavati. In
the west rdgi is grown in small patches once in two or three years,
or at longer intervals. During the past half-century coffee cultivation
has spread over the whole taluk, and through the investment of
European capital and the settlement of European planters has changed
the face of the country, revolutionizing its old feudal customs. Carda-
moms are also grown on the Ghats.

Manjeri. — Village in the Ernad talitk of Malabar District, Madras,
situated in 11° 7' N. and 76° 7' E. Population (1901), 4,000. It is
the head-quarters of the tahsildar, of a stationary sub-magistrate, and
of a District Munsif, and is notable as the scene, in 1849, of one of
the worst of the Mappilla outrages. The native troops sent against
the rioters were routed and Ensign Wyse was killed. Another outbreak
occurred here in 1896, when 99 fanatics were shot.

Manjha. — A tract of country in the Lahore and Amritsar Districts
of the Punjab, lying between 30° 52' and 21° 35' N. and 73° 45' and
75*^ 2\' E., and forming a portion of the uplands of the Bari Doab.
In shape it is, roughly speaking, a triangle, whose base may be taken
as the grand trunk road crossing Lahore and Amritsar Districts from
the Ravi to the Beas, and whose sides are the high banks marking the
ancient courses of those rivers. From the point where the Beas now
joins the Sutlej, the old Beas bank diverges from the present course
of the Sutlej and approaches the old bed of the Ravi near the borders
of Montgomery District. This is the apex of the Manjha, for, though
the upland ridge is continued as far as Multan, from this point it bears
the name of the Ganji Bar. Before the construction of the Bari Doab
Canal the Manjha was an ill-watered and infertile expanse, described
by the Settlement officer of Lahore in 1854 as a jungle in which only
the poorer cereals and pulses could be grown. Now, however, the
Bari Doab Canal runs through the whole length of the tract, which is
.second in fertility to none in the Province. The Sikhs of the Manjha
are some of the finest specimens of the Jiit race, and the tract is one
of the most important recruiting grounds for Sikh regiments. The
expression ' Sikhs of the Manjha ' is, however, sometimes loosely used
to denote all Sikhs recruited north of the Sutlej. Punjabi of the
Manjha is the phrase used to express the dialect of Punjabi spoken


in and about the Manjha, as contrasted with Western Punjabi, the
Punjabi of the submontane tract, the Punjabi of the Jullundur Doab,
and Mahva Punjabi, or that spoken south of the Sutlej.

Manjhand. — Town in the Kotri taliika of Karachi District, Sind,
Bombay, situated in 25° 55' N. and 68° 17' E., close to the Indus, on
the North-Western Railway, 43 miles north of Kotri. Population
(lyoi), 2,862. Coarse cloth and shoes are manufactured here. The
municipality, which dates from 1856, had an average income during
the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 2,400. In 1903-4 the income was
also Rs. 2,400. The town contains one boys' school, with an average
daily attendance of 92 pupils.

Manjhanpur. — South-western tahs'il of Allahabad District, United
Provinces, comprising \\\& parganas of Karari and Atharban, and lying
north of the Jumna, between 25° 17' and 25° 32' N. and 80° 9' and
81° 32' E., with an area of 272 square miles. Population fell from
131,688 in 182 1 to 129,798 in 1901. There are 269 villages and one
town, Manjhanpur (population, 3,221). The demand for land revenue
in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,38,000, and for cesses Rs. 38,000. The density
of population, 477 persons per square mile, is considerably below the
District average. A high cliff scored by deep ravines borders the
Jumna. The upland country beyond is at first sandy, but contains
small jhils used for irrigation, the largest being the Alwara jhil. The
soil then changes to the ordinary fertile loam of the Doab, where wells
supply most of the irrigation. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation
was 180 square miles, of which 51 were irrigated. The Fatehpur
branch canal supplies about one-fourth of the irrigated area ; and tanks
ox jhils and wells the remainder in almost equal proportions.

Manjra. — River of Hyderabad State, rising on the plateau of
Patoda in Bhir District. After flowing through or along the Districts
of Osmanabad, Bidar, and Medak, generally in a south-eastern direction,
it takes a sudden turn 10 miles east of Kalabgiir in the last-named
District and thence flows almost due north, forming the boundary
between Nander and Indur Districts, till it joins the Godavari from
the right near Kondalwadi, after a course of 387 miles. During its
course it receives the Tirna on the right bank in the Nilanga tdliik
of Bidar District, and 18 miles farther down, the Karanja on the same
side. In Nander two smaller streams, the Lendi and the Manar, join
it on the left bank. The banks of the Manjra are nowhere steep, and
are earthy. Several ferries are maintained, and its waters are largely
used for irrigation. Two new projects, known as the Manjra and the
Manjra Extension, which are in course of construction, comprise
extensive schemes for irrigating lands in Medak District.

Mankachar. — Trade centre in Goalpara District, Eastern Bengal
and Assam. See Ma\ikarch.\k.


Mankarnacha. — Highest peak in the Oribsa State of Bonai, Bengal,
situated in 21° 47' N. and 85° 14' E., and rising to a height of 3,639
feet above sea-level.

Mankera. — Village in the Bhakkar iahs'tl of Mianwali District,
Punjab, situated in 31° 23' N. and 71"^ 27' E. It lies in the heart
of the Thai, the desert of the Sind-Sagar Doab. A large fort, said to
have been founded by the Sials of Jhang, still exists in the village.
Mankera was once the great stronghold of the Jaskani Baloch, who
in the beginning of the seventeenth century held the country from
the Indus to the Chenab, and from Bhakkar to Leiah on the Indus.
They appear to have lost Mankera to the Bhangi Sikhs about 1772,
but to have soon recovered it. In 1792 it became the capital of the
Pathan Nawab, Muhammad Khan Sadozai, who governed the Sind-
Sagar Doab, and subsequently also Dera, for the Durrani kings of
Kabul, Bhakkar being his second capital. Muhammad Khan gradually
became independent, and was not molested by the Sikhs ; but after
his death in 181 5 Ranjit Singh invaded his territories, and in 1821
took Mankera by siege. Mankera then became the seat of a Sikh
governor, and at the annexation of the Punjab was made the head-
tiuarters of a tahsll iiW 1853-4.

Manki. — Village in the Honavar taluka of North Kanara District,
Bombay, situated in 14° 11' N. and 74° 32' E. Population (1901),
6,co8. The remains of several Jain temples point to the fact that
Jain influence was formerly paramount in Manki, while several in-
scriptions show that the place was once of considerable importance.
A dilapidated fort on the coast is traditionally reported to have been
the former stronghold of the Karagars (now a degraded class) ; but
more probably it was held on behalf of the rulers of Vijayanagar by
the Sheorogars, a class claiming Kshattriya descent, who are more
numerous in Manki than in any other part of the District. After the
fall of Vijayanagar, Manki was possessed by the chiefs of Bednur and
eventually passed into the hands of Hyder All. The downfall of
Tipu added it with the rest of Kanara to British territory. Manki
contains three old Hindu temples of uncertain date. It formerly
possessed a large export trade in rice, raw sugar, and coco-nuts ; but
at present the annual imports amount to only Rs. 1,270 and the
exports to Rs. 180.

Mankur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Burdwan
District, Bengal, situated in 23° 26' N. and 87° 34' E. Population
(1901), 7,206. Mankur is a station on the chord-line of the East
Indian Railway, 90 miles from Calcutta, and has a considerable trade ;
it is also a local seat of the silk-weaving industry. The Church
Missionary Society maintains a medical mission, at which 11,000
palienls were treated in 1901.


Manmad. — Town in the Chandor taliika of Niisik District, IJomlxiy,
situated in 20° 15' N. and 74° 26' E., on the north-eastern line of the
Great Indian I'eninsula Railway. Population (1901), 7,113. Manmad
is the junction of the Dhond-Manmad State Railway with the Great
Indian Peninsula Railway, and also the starting-point of a metre-gauge
railway to Hyderabad. Much cotton from Khandesh and Malegaon
is carried by rail here. A remarkable pyramidal hill near Manmad,
about 750 feet high, is notable for a tall, obelisk-like rock on its
summit, at least 60 feet high, known locally as Ram-gulhni. At the
back of this hill are the peaks known as Ankai and Tankai. The
town contains an English school and two dispensaries, one of which
is maintained by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway.

Mannargudi Subdivision. — Subdivision of Tanjore District,
Madras, consisting of the taluks of Mannargudi and Tirt^ttur-

Mannargudi Taluk. — Central taluk of Tanjore District, Madras,
lying between 10° 26' and 10^ 48' N. and 79° 19' and 79° 38' E., with
an area of 301 square miles. The population in 1901 was 188,107 ;
and this has remained practically stationary since 1891, when it was
188,112. It contains 193 villages, besides the municipal town of
Mannargudi (population, 20,449), the head-quarters. The demand
for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 6,28,000.
The south-western part of the tahik is unirrigated, while the remainder
lies within the Cauvery delta, though it contains no alluvial soil.

Mannargudi Town (also called Ma7i)iarkoinl or Raja Mannar-