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Kashmir border. Population (1901), 5,087. A few resident Khattri
traders do a considerable business in grain and country produce. The
chief institutions are an Anglo-vernacular middle school maintained
by the District board, and a Government dispensary. Near the village
are two rocks on which are inscribed in the Kharoshthi character
thirteen of the edicts of Asoka.

Manthani. — Head-quarters of the Mahadeopur tdiuk, Karimnagar
District, Hyderabad State, situated in 18° 39' N. and 79° 40' E., about
one mile south of the Godavari river. Population (1901), 6,680. The
town contains a dispensary, a school, and a post office.

Manu. — River of Assam which rises in the State of Hill Tippera,
and, after flowing in a tortuous north-westerly course through Sylhet
District, falls into the Kusiyara branch of the Surma a little to the east
of Bahadurpur. Almost the whole of its course in the plains lies
through cultivated land, and it is largely used for the carriage of forest
produce of all kinds, tea, rice, and oilseeds. Boats of 4 tons burden
can proceed as far as the frontier of Hill Tippera in the rainy season,
but during the dry season traffic is carried on in vessels of lighter
draught. The river passes a large number of local centres of trade, the
most important of which are Lai bag and Maulavi Bazar. A little to
the east of the latter place it receives a considerable tributary, the
Dholai. The total length of the river is 135 miles.

Manvi T2ihi\i. -Td/iik in Raichur District, Hyderabad State.
Including Jdglrs, the population in 190 1 was 70,773, and the area
573 square miles, while the population was 58,828 in 189 1. It con-
tained one town, Maxvi (population, 6,253), '^e head-quarters; and
140 villages, of which 3 were Jdglf. In 1905 part of the Yergara tdiuk
was incorporated in Manvi. It is separated from the Madras District
of Kurnool in the south by the Tungabhadra river. The land revenue
in 1 90 1 was 2 lakhs. The soil is chiefly regar or alluvial.

Manvi Town. — Head-quarters of the taiiik of the same name in
Raichur District, Hyderabad State, situated in 15° 59' N. and
77° 3' E. Population (1901), 6,253. It contains temples of
Marothi, Ramasimha, and Venkateshwara, and a Jama Masjid.
Opposite the temple of Marothi, which is erected on a hill to the
west of the town, is a large block of stone bearing a lengthy Kanarese
inscription. Another stone bearing an inscription stands near a well
in the fort, which is now in ruins.

Manwat. — Town in the Pathri idluk of Parbhani District, Hyder-
abad State, situated in 19° 18' N. and 76° 30' E., tive miles south of



the llyderabad-Godavari \'alley Railwa)-. Topuldtiun (1901), 7,,>y5-
It is a busy centre of the grain trade, and contains a State post office,
a British sub-post office, and four schools.

Maodon.^Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and
Assam. The population in 1901 \sas 296, and the gross revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 1,490. The principal products are millet, oranges,
areca-nuts, pineapples, and bay leaves. ])c[)Osits of lime and coal
cxi-st in the State, but are not worked.

Maoflang. — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and
Assam. The population in 1901 was 947, and the gross revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 145. The principal products are millet, rice, coal,
and potatoes.

Maoiang. —Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and
Assam. The population in 1901 was 1.S56, and the gross revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 300. The principal products are potatoes, millet, and
honey. Lime and iron are found in the State, but are not worked.

Maolong.— Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and
Assam. The population in 1901 was 1,472, and the gross revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 1,800. The principal products are oranges, millet,
areca-nuts, and pineapples. There is some trade in lime, and the
coal-mines of the State have been leased to a company for thirty

Maosanram. — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and
Assam. The population in 1901 was 1,414, and the gross revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 2,930. The princi{)al products arc potatoes, millet,
and honey. Lime, coal, and iron are found in the State, but are not

Mapuga. — Chief town in Barde^ ]-)istrict, (loa, Portuguese Lidia,
situated in 15° 36' N. and ^2)° 5-' ^-^ about S miles north of Panjim.
Population (1900), 10,733. Mapuc^ia was celebrated in ancient times
for the great weekly fair on Fridays. It takes its name, according
to some, from /niij>, 'measure,' and sa, 'to fill up, that is, the place
of measuring or selling goods. It is now one of the most im[)ortant
commercial places in the territory of (ioa. The church, dedicated to
Our Lady of Miracles, was built in 1594, and is held in great venera-
tion not only by Christian converts but also by Hindus. On the feast
of Our Lady of Miracles men of every class and creed come in crowds,
bringing offerings to the Virgin. On the same occasion a fair is
held, which lasts five days. Besides the church, Mapu(^'a contains six
chapels, an asylum for the poor and destitute, a town hall, and a jail.
To the west of Mapu(;a arc military barracks, where a regiment was
stationed from 1841 to 1S71, when it was disbanded. The barracks
arc now occupied by the i)olice force, ])Ost office, and schools.

Marahra (or Marhara). — Town in the District and /ahsU of Etah,


Unitt;d I'riniiiccs, silualed in 27° \\' N. and 78° 35' E., on the
Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway. Population (1901), 8,622. The Musal-
man residents, who form more than half the total population, have
great influence throughout the District. The name is said to be
derived from the mythical destruction of a former village (war,
'killing,' and hara^ 'green,' i.e. jungle). During Akbar's reign the
town was the head-quarters of a dastiir. In the eighteenth century it
belonged to the Saiyids of Barha in Muzaffarnagar, and then passed to
the Nawabs of Farrukhabad and of Oudh. The town is scattered and
of poor appearance, but contains the ruins of two seventeenth-century
tombs, and another tomb and a beautiful mosque built in 1729 and
1732 respectively. There is also a dispensary. Marahra was a muni-
cipality from 1872 to 1904, with an income and expenditure of about
Rs. 5,000, chiefly derived from octroi. It has now been constituted
a 'notified area," and octroi has been abolished. The trade is entirely
local, but glass bangles are made. Marahra contains four schools with
100 pupils, and a small branch of the Allgarh College.

Marang Buru. — Hill on the edge of the plateau of Hazaribagh
District, Bengal, situated in 23° 12! ^- ^"d 85^ 27' E., on the
boundary line between Hazaribagh and Ranch! Districts. It rises
2,400 feet above the valley of the Damodar and 3,445 feet above
sea-level. It is an object of peculiar veneration to the Mundas,
who regard Marang Buru as the god of rainfall, and appeal to him
in times of drought or epidemic sickness.

Marble Rocks. — The well-known gorge of the Narbada river,
in Jubbulpore District, Central Provinces, situated in 23° 8' X. and
79° 48' E., near the village of Bheraghat, 13 miles from Jubbulpore
city by road, and 3 miles from Mirganj station on the Great Indian
Peninsula Railway. The river here winds in a deep narrow stream
through rocks of magnesian limestone 100 feet high, giving an ex-
tremely picturesque effect, especially by moonlight. One place where
the rocks approach very closely is called the Monkey's Leap. Indra
is said to have made this channel for the waters of the pent-up
stream, and the footprints left on the rock by the elephant of the
god still receive adoration. The greatest height of the rocks above
water-level is 105 feet, and the depth of water at the same place
48 feet, but the basin near the travellers' bungalow is 169 feet deep.
On a hill beside the river are some curious remains of statuary. A
modern temple is surrounded by a high circular wall of much more
ancient date, against the inside of which is built a veranda supported
by columns set at regular intervals. The pilasters built against the
wall opposite each of the pillars divide the wall space into panels,
and in each of these on a pedestal is a life-sized image of a god,
goddess, .^c, for the most part in a very nmtilatcd condition. Most

o 2


of the figures arc four-armed goddesses, and the name of the temple
is the Chaunsath JoginI, or 'sixty-four female devotees.' The statues
have symbols in the shape of various animals carved on their pedestals.
Bheraghat is sacred as the junction of the little stream of the Saras-
wati with the Narbada ; and a large religious fair takes place here
in November for bathing in the Narbada, the attendance on the
principal day being about 40,000. The marble obtained from these
rocks is coarse grained and suitable only for building stone. It is
very hard and chips easily, and is therefore not well adapted for
statuary. l"he colours found are canary, pink, white, grey, and
black. Soapstone or French chalk is found in pockets in the bed
of the Narbada.

Mardan Tahsil. — Tahsll oi Peshawar District, North-AVest Frontier
Province, lying between 34"^ 5' and 34° 32' N. and 71° 49" and
72° 24' E., in the centre of the part of the District which lies north
of the Kabul river, with an area of 6ro square miles. It comprises
the greater portion of the Yusufzai plain, and with the Swabi tahsil
forms the Yusufzai subdivision of Peshawar District. The population
in 1 90 1 was 137,215, compared with 113,877 in 1891. It contains
the cantonment of Mardan (3,572) and 130 villages, including Hoti
and Rustam. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted
to Rs. 1,76,000.

Mardan Town. — Cantonment in Peshawar District, North-West
Frontier Province, and permanent head-quarters of the Queen's Own
Corps of Guides. It is also the head-quarters of the Mardan tahsil
and the Yusufzai subdivision. Population (1901), 3,572. The can-
tonment is situated in 34*^ 12' N. and 72° 2' E., on the right bank
of the Kalpani river, 2)Z niiles north-cast of Peshawar and 15 miles
north of Naushahra, on the North-Western Railway. The fort was
built by Hodson of the Guides in 1854. The civil lines lie in the
southern part of the cantonment on the Naushahra road, and contain
the Assistant Commissioner's bungalow, court-house, tahslli, Govern-
ment dispensary, and other public offices. An Anglo-vernacular
middle school is maintained by the District board. The village of
Hoti, from which the station is sometimes called lloli Mardan, lies
2 miles from the cantonment.

Margao. — Town in Salsette district, Goa, Portuguese India, situated
in 15° 18' N. and 74° 1' E., in a beautiful plain in the centre of the
district, on the bank of the Sal river, and about 16 miles south-east
of Panjim. It is a station on the West of India Portuguese Railway.
Population (1900), 12,126. Margao, according to tradition, was one
of the early seats of the Aryan settlers of Goa, and the site of the
chief ifiath or convent, whence its name Mathagrama, or ' the village
of the convent,' corrupted into Margao. Though for some time


exposed to the incursions of Miihammadans cand Manithas, Margao
was inhabited by many rich famih'es. Of late many pubh'c: and i)rivate
buildings have been erected. Christianity was introduced into Margao
in 1560, and the first church was built in 1565. The Jesuits in 1574
built a college, which was subsequently removed to Rachol, a village
about 6 miles north-east. Margao contains a town hall, Government
schools, a theatre, and an asylum. The military barracks, built in
181 r, were formerly occupied by a regiment, but at present by the
police, a small military detachment, and the post office. From Margao
a good road leads south to Karwar, the chief town of the adjacent
British District of North Kanara, distant 44 miles.

Margherita. — Village in the Dibrugarh subdivision of Lakhimpur
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 27° 17' N. and
95° 47' E., on the left bank of the Buri Dihing river. Margherita
lies at the foot of the Patkai range, and is surrounded on every side
by forest. The village owes its prosperity to the coal-mines in the
neighbourhood. The coal measures consist of beds of alternating
shales, coal, and sandstones, and are known as the Makum field.
Five mines have been opened — the Tikak, Upper Ledo, Ledo Valley,
Tirap, and Namdang— which in 1903 gave employment to r,2oo
coolies working under 9 Europeans. The output in that year was
239,000 tons. The coal is on the whole fairly hard and compact,
but after extraction and exposure to the air it breaks up into small
pieces. Mining is conducted on the ' square or panel ' system, a
modification of the system known in England as ' pillar and stall.'
Margherita is connected with Dibrugarh by the Dibru-Sadiya Railway,
which crosses the Dihing river by a fine bridge. The Coal Company
has opened a large pottery, in which bricks, pipes, and tiles are made.
A police station and stockade are held by military police in the
vicinity. The weekly market is much frequented by the hill tribes,
who bring down rubber, amber, wax, and vegetables.

Mari. — Village in the District and tahsll of Mianwali, Punjab,
situated in 32° 57' N. and 71° 39' E., on the east bank of the Indus.
Population (1901), 1,490. Mari is the terminus of a branch line
of the North-Western Railway, and serves as a depot for the salt
and alum of Kalar.\gh. Near it are the ruins of several Hindu
temples, similar to those at Kafirkot in Dera Ismail Khan, but
larger and better preserved.

Mariahu. — Southern tahsll of Jaunpur District, United Provinces,
comprising i\\Q. pargana of Mariahu and tappas Barsathl and Gopalpur,
and lying between 25° 24' and 25° 44' N. and 82° 24' and 82° 44'' E.,
with an area of 321 square miles. Population fell from 253,402
in 1891 to 243,792 in 1901. There are 676 villages and only one
town, Mariahu (population, 3,626), the tahsll head-quarters. The


demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Ivs. ^, nnd for cesses
Rs. 44,000. 'I'he density of population, 759 persons per square mile,
is slightly below the District average. Mariahu is divided into two
nearly equal portions by the Basuhl river, while the Sai and Barna
form its north-eastern and southern boundaries. The area under culti-
vation in 1903-4 was 212 square miles, of which 116 were irrigated.
There are about 1,200 small tanks; but wells are by far the most
important source of irrigation.

Markandi. — Village in the CarhchirolT tahs'il of Chanda District,
Central I'rovinces, situated in 19° 41' N. and 79° 50' I'"., 56 miles
south-east of Chanda town by road. Population (1901), 211. 'J'he
village stands on a bluff overlooking the "\^'ainganga, and is remarkable
for an extreniely picturesque group of temples. They are enclosed
in a quadrangle 196 feet by 118, and there are about twenty of dif-
ferent sizes and in different stages of preservation. They are richly and
elaborately sculptured, and are assigned to the tenth and eleventh
centuries. The wall surrounding them is of a primitive type, and
probably much older. The largest and most elaborate temple is that
of Markanda Rishi. There are also some curious square pillars
sculptured with figures of soldiers, and probably more ancient than
the temples. A religious fair is held annually at Markandi in February
and March, lasting for about a month. The great day of the fair
is the Sivaratri festival, when the attendance amounts to 10,000

Markapur Subdivision. — Subdivision of Kurnool District, Madras,
consisting of the Mark.^pur and Cumbum taluks.

Markapur Taluk. — North-eastern taluk of Kurnool District,
Madras, lying between 15° 37' and 16° 18' N. and 78° 50' and
79° 34** R., with an area of 1,140 square miles. The population
in 1901 was 94,293, compared with 99,971 in 1891 ; the density
is only 83 persons per square mile. It contains 76 villages, 12 of
which are 'whole inams.^ Most of these latter are uninhabited.
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to
Rs. 1,13,000, which is lower than in any other taluk in tlie District.
This t'lluk and Cumbum are situated to the east of the Xallamalais,
which separate them from the rest of the District, and their physical
aspects are very different from those of their neighbours. The greater
])art of Markapur is hill\-. Several low ranges intersect it ; and down
the valleys formed by these flow the chief rivers, namely, the Duv-
valeru, the Ralla Vagu, the Tigaleru, and the Kandleru, which drain
the taluk and flow into the Gundlakamma river. The soil is mostly
rocky and gravelly, about 89 per cent, being red earth of a poor
description. There are great natural fixcilities for impounding rain-
water in tanks; but owing to the sparseness of jiopulation and the


consi^quent d('arih of labour, 'wet' niltivation is not ])oi)nlar and
the tank projects arc unrenninerative. The Idliik contains the largest
number of wells in the District, and nearly two-thirds of its irrigated
area is watered from these sources. The very large extent of 'reserved'
forests (557 square miles) affords ample grazing ground for cattle and
sheep, for which Markapur is noted. The cattle of the coast Districts
of Nellore and Guntur are driven to the Nallamalais to graze during
the hot season. The climate in the western half of the taluk bordering
upon the Nallamalais is unhealthy, but that of the eastern half is
comparatively salubrious. The annual rainfall averages 25 inches.

Marmagao. — Peninsula, village, and port in Salsette district, Goa,
Portuguese India, and the terminus of the \\'est of India Portuguese
Railway, situated in 15° 25' N. and 73° 47' E. The peninsula of
Marmagao is situated on the southern side of the harbour of Goa,
on the left bank of the Zuari river, and is connected with the mainland
by a narrow strip of sand about a quarter of a mile broad, and elevated
about 10 feet above the sea. The whole peninsula is composed of
laterite, and the shore is fringed with heavy boulders, which have
crumbled and fallen from the cliff. The summit of the peninsula is
a table-land, about t8o to 200 feet high, composed of bare laterite
covered with loose stones, with patches of grass. The slopes of the
hill, which are steep, and present a bold appearance seaward, are
covered with thick jungle and scrub.

The village and port of Marmagao are situated at the eastern
extremity of the peninsula, about 5 miles south of Panjim. Population
(1900), 750, mostly Christians. In the last half of the seventeenth
century the Portuguese Viceroy, the Count of Alvor, resolved to
abandon Goa, and transfer the seat of the government to the peninsula
of Marmagao. In 1684-5 the foundations of a new capital were laid
and the work progressed fevourably. In 1686 the works were stopped
by his successor. During the next fifteen years orders were repeatedly
received from Portugal to demolish the public buildings of Goa, and
to apply the materials to the construction of new ones at Marmagao,
while the Viceroys were directed to transfer their residence to that
place. During the Viceroyalty of Caetano de Mello e Castro, the
works were pushed on with vigour, and several buildings were com-
pleted, among which may be mentioned the palace and the hospital.
The Viceroy himself resided at Marmagao for a few months in 1703.
.Suddenly the works were stopped by a royal letter of March 8, 1712.
In 1739, when Goa was in danger of falling into the hands of the
Marathas, the nuns and other helpless members of the population
sought refuge at Marmagao.

The Government buildings are now mere heaps of ruin. The only
relic of importance is a fine old church. The fortress has been

2IO ^rAR^^AGAo

converted into an liotel. In anticipation of the trade which, it is
hoped, will be developed, now that goods can be shipped direct from
Marmagao to Europe, measures have been taken to improve the
harbour. Since 1903 the management of the port, as well as of
the railway, has been entrusted to the Southern Mahratta Railway
Company. The imports in the year 1903-4, by sea and land,
amounted to close on 35 lakhs, while the exports were valued at
I r lakhs.

Marot. — Ancient fort in the Khairpur taJisiI of Bahawalpur State,
Punjab, situated in 29° 10' N. and 72° 28' E., on the south bank of the
Hakra depression. It was probably erected by Mahrut, king of Chitor,
an opponent of Chach, the Brahman usurper of the throne of Sind.
It was a place of some importance in the early Muhammadan period,
lying on the direct road from Multan to Delhi via Sarsuti (Sirsa). It
was wrested by the Nawab of Bahawalpur from Jaisalmer in 1749.

Marri. — Tahs'il and town in Rawalpindi District, Punjab. See


Marri-Bugti Country. — A tribal area in Baluchistan, controlled
from Sibi District, lying between 28° 26' and 30° 4' N. and 67° 55'
and 69° 48' E., with an area of 7,129 square miles. The northern
part, the area of which is 3,268 square miles, is occupied by the Marris,
and the southern part, 3,861 square miles, by the Bugtis. The country
is situated at the southern end of the Sulaiman range. It is hilly,
barren, and inhospitable, and supplies are scarce. Here and there are
good pasture grounds, and a few valleys and plains are gradually being
brought under cultivation. The valleys and plateaux include Nisau
(3,000 feet), Jant All (2,847 feet), Kahan (2,353 feet), Mawand
(2,620 feet), and Marav (2,195 feet). The rainfall is scanty and is
chiefly received in July.

The Marris and Bugtis are the strongest Baloch tribes in the
Province. The total population of their hills was 38,919 in 1901, or
about five persons to the square mile. The Marris, including those
living in the British tahsil oi Kohlu, numbered 19,161, with 140 Hindus
and 1,090 other persons living under their protection {JiainsayaJi). The
population of the Bugti country amounted to 18,528, comprising 15,159
Bugtis, 272 Hindus, 70S hamsdyahs, and 2,389 maretas or servile
dependants. The population are essentially nomadic in their habits,
and live in mat huts. The total number of permanent villages
decreased from eight in 1901 to five in 1904; the most important
are Kahan (population, about 400) in the Marri country, and Dera
Bugti (population, about 1,500) in the Bugti country.

Jioth tribes are organized on a system suitable to the predatory
transactions in which they were generally engaged in former times.
Starting from a small nucleus, each uraduallv continued to absorb


various elements, often of alien origin, which participated in the
common good and ill, until a time arrived when it was found necessary
to divide the overgrown bulk of the tribe into clans {fakkar), the clans
into sections {phalli), and the sections into sub-sections {para ox firka).
At the head of the tribe is the chief {tumandar), with whom are asso-
ciated the heads of clans {nuikaddam) as a consultative council. Each
section has its 7vade?-a, with whom is associated a mukaddam, who acts
as the wadera's executive officer and communicates with the motabars
or headmen of sub-sections. Each tribe was thus completely equipped
for taking the offensive. In pre-British days a share of all plunder,
known as pa?iJof/i, was set aside for the chief ; headmen of clans then
received their portion, and the remainder was divided among those
who had taken part in an expedition. Side by side with this system
there still exists, among the Harris and the Pairozani Nothani clan of
the Bugtis, a system of periodical division of all tribal land. The
three important clans of the Harris are the Gaznis (8,100), to whom
the Bahawalanzai or chief's section belongs ; the Loharani-Shirani
(6,400); and the Bijrani (4,700). The Bugtis include the clans of
Pairozani Nothani (4,700), Durragh Nothani (1,800), Khalpar (1,500),
Hassori (2,900), Hondrani (500), Shambani (2,900), and Raheja (880).
The chief's section belongs to the latter. The chiefs levy no revenue,
but usually receive a sheep or a goat from each flock when visiting
different parts of their country.

The early history of both tribes is obscure. The Harris are known
to have driven out the Kupchanis and Hasnis, while the Bugtis
conquered the Buledis. Owing to the great poverty of their country,
both tribes were continuously engaged in plunder and carried their
predatory expeditions far into the adjoining regions. They came in
contact with the British during the first Afghan War, when a force

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