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under Hajor Billamore penetrated their hills. In April, 1840, a small
detachment was sent, under Captain Lewis Brown, to occupy Kahan
and guard the flank of the lines of communication with Afghanistan ;
but it was invested for five months and two attempts at relief were
beaten off. The fort was, however, only surrendered after a safe
retreat had been secured from Doda Khan, the Harri chief. In 1845
Sir Charles Napier conducted a campaign against the Bugtis, who fled
to the Khetrans, and the expedition was only a qualified success.
General John Jacob, after much trouble with both tribes, but especially
with the Bugtis, settled some of the latter on irrigated lands in Sind
in 1847, ^"t many of them shortly afterwards fled to their native hills.
Both tribes were subsidized by the Khan of Kalat after the treaty of
1854; but in 1859 Hlr Khudadad Khan was obliged to make an
expedition against the Harris, accompanied by Hajor (afterwards
Sir Henry) Green. Another unsuccessful campaign followed in 1862.



212 ^r.\RKl-n^GTT coryrRV

Anarrhy ensued ; and in 1867 Caplain (afterwards Sir Robert) Sande-
man, then I)eputy-("ommissioner of Dera (ihazi Khan, entered into
direct relations with them and took some of them into the service of
Government. The result of the Mithankot conference, which took
place between Punjab and Sind officials in 1871, was to place
Sandeman in political control of the Marri-Bugti country under the
orders of the Superintendent, Upper Sind Frontier.

On the establishment of the Baluchistan Agency in 1S77, British
relations with the Harris and Bugtis became closer, and service and
allowances were given to them. 'I'he Bugtis have throughout behaved
well. The Marris, in August, 1880, plundered a convoy marching
along the Harnai route and killed 42 men, whereupon a punitive
expedition was dispatched under General Sir Charles Macgregor, to
whom the Marri chief and his headmen tendered their submission.
They paid Rs. 1,25,000 in cash, out of a fine of Rs. 1,75,000 inflicted
on them, and agreed to surrender half of the revenue of the Kuat-
Mandai valley until the balance of Rs. 50,000 had been paid off.
Since then the Marris have given little trouble, with the exception
of the part they took in the Sunari outrage in 1896, when they
killed II men, and some unrest which occurred in 1898 and ulti-
mately ended in the son of the Marri chief emigrating temporarily
to Afghanistan.

Both tribes are under the control of the Political Agent in Sibi, with
the Extra-Assistant Commissioner of the Sibi subdivision in subordinate
charge. Direct interference in the internal affairs of the tribes is, so
far as possible, avoided, the chiefs being left to decide all such cases
in consultation with their sectional headmen and in accordance with
tribal custom. The task of tlie Political officers is chiefly confined
to the settlement of intertribal cases either between the Marris and
Bugtis themselves, whose relations are frequently strained, or with the
neighbouring tribes f)f Loralai District and the Punjab. A code of
penalties for the infliction of particular injuries, such as murder, the
loss of an eye or tooth, Szc, was drawn up between the Marris and
Bugtis in 1897, and is followed in ordinary circumstances. Cases of
extraordinary importance are referred to the S/nl/ii Jirga, and the
Political Agent sees that the award is carried out. Large services
have been given to l)oth tribes, to enable the chiefs to secure control
over their followers. The Marri tribal service consists of i head-
man, 206 mounted levies, 5 footmen, and 8 clerks and menials ; 35 of
these men are stationed at seven posts in Loralai District and 109 at
thirteen posts in the Administered area of Sibi District. The re-
mainder hold three posts in the Marri country. The total monthly
cost amounts to Rs. 5,600. 'I'he Bugti service includes 3 head-
men, 136 mounted levies. 4 footmen, and 6 clerks, costing Rs. 3,800



MASAR 2\i

monthly. The posts on the south of tlic I'.u^ti country are controlled
from the NasTrabad tahsil.

Marriw. — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and
Assam. The population in 1901 was 2,289, 3-"