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kerosene oil.

In 1903-4, 48 miles of metalled roads and 18 miles of unmetalled
roads were maintained from the District cess fund. In addition,
a number of unmetalled roads are kept up from Provincial funds,
but the numerous waterways provide the chief communications.
The majority of the larger creeks and streams, with which the
southern ureas are intersected, are navigable by light-draught steamers,
launches, and boats. Ma-ubin is well served by the steamers and
launches of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company, and to a small extent
also by launches and boats belonging to natives. There are 14
licensed ferries.

For administrative purposes the District is divided into two sub-
divisions : Ma-ubin, comprising the Ma-ubin and Pantanaw town-
ships ; and Yandoon, comprising the Yandoon
and Danup.yu townships. These are under the '° *

usual executive officers, assisted by 422 village headmen. The
District forms a subdivision of the Myaungmya Public Works divi-
sion, and is included in the Henzada-Thongwa Forest division.

Ma-ubin forms part of the Delta (judicial) Division, and the
Divisional Judge tries sessions cases. Till recently the judicial work
was performed by the executive staff: but the new scheme has pro-
vided a special District Judge, with head-quarters at Myaungmya,
who exercises jurisdiction in Ma-ubin, Myaungmya, and Pyapon,
a subdivisional judge for Ma-ubin, and three township judges, one
for Ma-ubin, one for Pantanaw and Yandoon, and one for Danubyu.
The crime of the District presents no special features.

The method of assessing land revenue under the Burmese regime
varied in different localities, but the recognized demand was based
on the number of yoke of plough cattle used by the cultivator, and
amounted to about half the gross out-turn. The first settlement was
made in 1868, when a uniform rate of Rs. 1-12 per acre was levied
on all classes of cultivation in the Danubyu township. In 1869-70
further portions of the District were settled. The rates of assess-
ment then imposed ranged from Rs. 1-4 to Rs. 2-4 per acre, accord-
ing to the distance of the land from Rangoon and the fertility of
the soil. In 1879-80 these were summarily enhanced in certain
circles by amounts varying from 6 to 25 per cent. ; and in 1889-91
the rates ranged from Rs. 1-8 to Rs. 2-8. The first regular
settlement of the whole District was made between 1888 and 1891,
when rates were fixed ranging from Rs. 1-8 to Rs. 3 per acre for
rice cultivation, and from Rs. 2 to Rs. 3 for orchards ; vegetables,
tobacco, &c., were assessed at Rs. 2 per acre.



The following table shows, in thousands of rupees, the growth of
the District revenue since 1881 : —

1 880-1.




Land revenue
Total revenue





The District cess fund is made up of a rate of 10 per cent, on
the land revenue, with receipts from markets and other sources,
bringing the total to i'4 lakhs in 1903-4. About a fourth of this
is contributed to Provincial funds, and Rs. 17,300 is spent on educa-
tion, Rs. 10,000 on District launches, Rs. 13,500 on postal com-
munications, Rs. 5,300 on hospitals, and the balance mostly on
roads and resthouses. Yandoon and Ma-ubin are municipalities,
and Danubyu is managed by a town committee.

Under the District Superintendent of police are 2 Assistant Super-
intendents in charge of the two subdivisions, with a subordinate
force consisting of 4 inspectors, 7 head constables, 30 sergeants,
and 203 constables, distributed in 6 police stations and 8 outposts.
The total strength of military police is 155 of all ranks, with 3 native
officers. Of these, 90 are stationed at the District head-quarters, the
rest being distributed at the three outlying township head-quarters ;
their duties are mainly the escort of prisoners and treasure.

Ma-ubin possesses a District jail, with accommodation for 389
prisoners. The usual industries are carried on ; but special reference
may be made to the manufacture of jute money-bags, which are
supplied by Ma-ubin to all the Government treasuries in the Pro-
vince. The jail is almost self-supporting, as it grows its own rice
and manufactures its own iigapi.

The percentage of literate persons in Ma-ubin District in 1901 was
41 in the case of males and 7 in that of females, or 25 for both
sexes, which for a delta District with a considerable Indian immi-
gration is fairly high. In 1904 the District contained 11 secondary,
185 primary, and 167 elementary (private) schools, with a total
attendance of 7,394 boys and 1,377 girls. The expenditure on edu-
cation amounted to Rs. 28,600, including Rs. 17,300 from T-ocal funds,
Rs. 4,300 from municipal funds, Rs. 5,100 from fees, and Rs. 1,700
from Provincial funds. Subscriptions amounted to only Rs. 200.

There are hospitals at Ma-ubin, Yandoon, and Pantanaw, and a
dispensary at Danubyu. The hospitals have accommodation for 52 in-
patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 22,420, including
659 in-patients, and 873 operations were performed. The income
amounted to Rs. 11,000, towards which municipal funds contributed
Rs. 8,000, and the District cess fund Rs. 2,500.

MAUD A Fl A TAHSin 231

Vaccination is compulsory witliin the limits of the Yandoon and
Ma-ubin municipalities. In 1903-4 the number of successful vacci-
nations was 6,136, representing 13 per 1,000 of population.

[H. M. S. Mathews, Settlement Report (1893); Major F. U. Maxwell,
Report on Inland and Sea Fisheries (1904); B. Samuelson, History
of Enibanknients, Henzada Division (1899).

Ma-ubin Subdivision. -Subdivision of Ma-ubin District, J.ower
IJurma, consisting of the Ma-ubin and Pantanaw townships.

Ma-ubin Township.- — Township of Ma-ubin District, Lower Burma,
lying between 16° 30' and 16° 56'' N. and 95° 27' and 95° 52' E., with
an area of 522 square miles. The head-quarters are at Ma-ubin
(population, 6,623), also the head-quarters of the District, in addition
to the town of Ma-ubin, it contained 118 villages in 1901, and at the
Census of that year had a population of 77,792, compared with 48,200
in 1891. The township, which is a dead level throughout, lies in the
heart of the delta country, being bounded on the west by the Irrawaddy
and traversed by the To or China Bakir river. The great majority of
the population are Burmans, about one-fifth being Karens. The area
cultivated in 1903-4 was 216 square miles, paying Rs. 3,44,000 land

Ma-ubin Town.— Head-quarters of the District of the same name,
Lower Burma, situated in 16° 44' N. and 95° 42' E., along the right
bank of the China Bakir stream, in the heart of the delta country.
Population (1901), 6,623. Approximately three-quarters of the popu-
lation are Burmans. Hindus number rather less than 1,000, and
Musalmans are about half as numerous as Hindus. The town is of
comparatively recent creation and had achieved no notoriety before
1874, when it was chosen as the head-quarters of the new delta District
of Thongwa. It is flat and barely above flood-level, and during the
greater part of the year swarms with mosquitoes. The jail and the
usual public buildings stand near the river bank. Ma-ubin was con-
stituted a municipality in 1888. 'i'he receipts of the municipal fund
during the ten years ending 1900-T averaged Rs. 24,500, and the
expenditure Rs. 24,600. In 1903-4 the municipal income amounted
to Rs. 54,000, the chief sources being markets, &c. (Rs. 18,000), and
area and frontage tax (Rs. 2,500) ; and the expenditure amounted to
Rs. 34,000, including conservancy (Rs. 7,300), hospital (Rs. 4,500),
and education (Rs. 2,500). The principal schools are those maintained
by the American Baptist and Roman Catholic Missions, while the
municipality keeps up a hospital. Ma-ubin is one of the principal
ports of call in the delta for the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla
Company, and is a thriving trade centre for paddy and ngapi.

Maudaha Tahsil. - Tahstl in Hamirpur District, United Pro-
vinces, comprising the parganas of Maudaha and Muskira, and lying


between 25° 30' and 25° 52' N. and 79° 43' and 80^ 21' M, with an
area of 452 square miles. Population fell from 103,900 in 1891 to
87,322 in 1 90 1, or by 19 per cent. There are 130 villages and one
town, Maudaha (population, 6,172), the head-quarters. The demand
for land revenue in 1904-5 was Rs. 1,76,000, and for cesses Rs. 36,000.
The density of population, 193 persons per square mile, is below the
District average. On the east the tahsil is bounded by the Ken, and
on the west by the Birma. It contains a large proportion of fertile
black soil ; but the north-west is very inferior, and the land near the
rivers is cut up by ravines. In 1902—3 the area under cultivation was
230 square miles, of which only 2 were irrigated.

Maudaha To^vn. — Head-cjuarters of the tahsil of the same name,
in Hamlrpur District, United Provinces, situated in 25° 40' N. and
80° 7' E., on the Cawnpore-Saugor road. Population (1901), 6,172.
According to tradition a Muhammadan, named Husain, with the help
of some Parihar Rajputs, expelled the Kols who resided here and took
possession of the place. In 1730 Diler Khan, a son of the governor of
Allahabad, was slain here, and his tomb attracts a considerable number
of votaries. The fort was first built by Khuman Singh and Guman
Singh of Charkhari, and on the same site All Bahadur of Banda
afterwards erected a stone fort. The town contains a fahslll, and
is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about
Rs. 1,100. The silver ware produced here in small quantities has
some merit. There is a branch of the American Mission, and a middle
school with 1 01 pupils.

Mauganj Tahsil.— North-eastern ta/is'il of Rewah State, Central
India, lying between 24° 32' and 24° 54' N. and 81° 41' and 82° 20' E.,
north of the Kaimur range, with an area of 784 square miles. Most of
the tahsil is part of the alluvial plain on which the town of Rewah
stands, and is covered with fertile soil. To the north it is traversed
by the easternmost section of the Panna range, known locally as the
Binjh hills. The population fell from 123,486 in 189 1 to 99,534 in
1 90 1, giving a density of 127 persons per square mile. There are 609
villages, the head-quarters being at Mauganj. The land revenue is
2-1 lakhs.

Mauganj Village. Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name
in Rewah State, Central India, situated in 24° 40'' N. and 81'' 52' E.
Population (1901), 1,804. ^he village is composed of the two separate
hamlets called Mau and Ganj. It stands on the great Deccan road,
40 miles to the east of Rewah town, 61 from Mirzapur, and 80 fronr
Satna. An inspection bungalow, a school, and a British post office are
situated at Mauganj.

Maulavibazar. — Head-quarters of the South Sylhet Subdivision,
Sylhet District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. !See Sylhet, South.

.\fAU-KAXIPrR 233

Maulmain. — Town in Amherst District, Lower Burma. See


Maungda'w. — ^\'estenlmost township of Akyab District, Lower
Burma, lying between so'^ 18' and 21° 27' N. and 92° 11' and 92°
43' E., with an area of 426 square miles. It consists of a strip of coast
land on the shore of the Bay of Bengal, abutting on the southern end
of the Chittagong District of Bengal, llie population was 65,407
in 1 89 1 and 83,247 in 1901, giving a density of 195 persons per
square mile. There are 377 villages. It is a favourite resort for
inmiigrants from Chittagong, and about three-fourths of its inhabitants
profess the Musalman faith. This foreign element has caused the
population of the township to increase during the last decade 27
per cent. The head-quarters are at Maungdaw (population, 1,735),
on the eastern shore of the Naaf estuary, which separates Burma
from Bengal. Away from the coast the land is hilly. The area
cultivated in 1903-4 was 128 square miles, paying Rs. 1,80,000 land

Mau-Ranipur. — Head-quarters of the Mau tahsU of Jhansi Dis-
trict, United Provinces, situated in 25^ 15' N. and 79° 9' E., on a
branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901),
17,231. The municipality includes two towns, Mau and RanTpur,
separated by a distance of about four miles. Mau was a small
agricultural village till the latter part of the eighteenth century, when
the exorbitant demands of the Raja of the neighbouring State of
Chhatarpur led to an exodus of merchants and others who settled
here. The place became noted for its manufacture of the coarse red
cotton cloth known as khariia. It was for long the chief town in the
District, but the restoration of Jhansi city to the British and the
alteration in trade routes made by railways have increased the impor-
tance of the latter place. Mau is also losing its trade in kkdriia, as
the vegetable dye which was used in its preparation is giving way
to aniline. Besides the ordinar)' offices Mau contains a dispensary.
It is a remarkably picturesque town : its houses are built with deep
eaves between the first and second storeys, and hanging balcony
windows of unusual beauty. The principal temple is that of the Jains
(who form an important commercial body), which is very little enclosed,
and presents a fine appearance with its two solid spires and many
cupolas. Mau has been a municipality since 1869. During the ten
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 16,000.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 21,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 15,000) ;
and the expenditure was Rs. 18,000. As stated above, the trade in
cloth is decreasing, but agricultural produce is still largely exported.
There is a small manufacture of brass, and an important cattle fair is
held here. Six schools have about 209 pupils.


Maurawan. — Town, in the Purwa /ahsi/ of Unao District, United
l^rovinces, situated in 26° 26' N. and 80° 53' E., on the road from
Unao town to Rae Bareli. Population (1901), 7,91 1. The place first
became of importance early in the nineteenth century as the resi-
dence of a Khattrl banker, who gradually accjuired a large iaiuka.
During the Mutiny the fa/iikddr, Gauri Shankar, behaved with
unshaken loyalty and was one of the five tali/kddrs whose estates
were exempted from confiscation. He was rewarded with the title of
Raja and a permanent settlement at a reduced revenue. Maurawan
contains a dispensary and three schools with 150 pupils, one school
being maintained by the talukdar. There is little trade, but the
jewellery and carpentry produced here have some reputation.

Maval. — Tdluka of Poona District, Bombay, lying between 18° 36'
and iS^ 59' N. and 73° 20' and 73° 46' E., with an area of 385 square
miles. It contains two towns, Eonauli (population, 6,686) and
Talegaon-Dabhade (5,238); and 162 villages. The population in
1901 was 65,176, compared with 66,876 in 1891. The density,
169 persons per square mile, is below the District average. The
demand for land revenue in 1903-4. was 1-2 lakhs, and for cesses
Rs. 8,000. Three leading spurs from the Western Ghats cross the
tdluka. The largest passes east and west across its whole length in
the south, a second penetrates to the centre, and the third forms the
north-east boundary for about 20 miles. Maval is fairly wooded.
The principal soils are red and grey ; black soil is found only on the
banks of rivers and large streams, of which the chief are the Indra-
yani and Andhra. Rice is everywhere the principal crop. The rainfall
varies greatly in different parts. It is heavy close to the Ghats and
considerably lighter near the eastern boundary. Hot winds are almost
unknown, and the climate is generally cooler than in the east of the
District. The south-east line of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway
and the Bombay road both cross the tdluka. The villages, along or
at short distance from the road, derive considerable advantage from the
sale of grass for the numerous droves of cart- and pack-bullocks that
daily halt at the different stages. 'I"he head-quarters are at Wadgaon,
a small village near the station of the same name on the Great Indian
Peninsula Railway.

Maw (Burmese, Baiv). — I'he northernmost and second largest of
the States of the Myelat division of the Southern Shan States, Burma,
lying between 21° 11' and 21° 43' N. and 96"^ 19' and 96° 50' E., with
an area of 550 sc^uare miles. It is bounded on the north by the
Yeyaman tract of the Kyaukse District of Upper Burma ; on the east
by Lawksawk ; on the south by Yengan ; and on the west by Kyaukse
District. The State falls into two natural divisions : the valley of the
Zawgyi, its only important waterway, with the hills to the north of that


stream ; and the Myelat ])lateau to the soutli. C)ii the north, east, and
west the State is bounded by mountain ranges, with peaks exceeding
5,000 feet in height. Rice, the chief crop, is grown in taungyas and on
irrigated land in the Zawgyi valley ; garden crops and thanatpet are
also cultivated, but the total area under cultivation is not much more
than 2,300 acres. The population in 1901 was 7,743 (distributed in
70 villages), of whom 6,884 were Burmese-speaking Danus, the rest
Shans, Taungthus, and Palaungs. The principal village, where the
Ngwegunhmu resides, is Myogyi (population, 1,002), close to the
borders of Kyaukse. The revenue in 1904-5 amounted to Rs. 11,000,
and the tribute to the British Government is Rs. 5,750.

Mawa. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Mawana Tahsil. — North-eastern tahsil of Meerut District, United
Provinces, comprising the /arga/ias of Hastinapur and Kithor, and lying
between 28° 50' and 29° 16' N. and 77° 47' and 78° 8' E., with an area
of 431 square miles. The population rose from 177,868 in 1891 to
200,399 in 1901. There are 248 villages and four towns, the largest
of which are Mawana (population, 9,207), the tahsil head-quarters,
ParIchhatgarh (6,278), and Phalauda (5,214). In 1903-4 the
demand for land revenue was Rs. 3,56,000, and for cesses Rs. 57,000.
The tahsil is the most sparsely populated in the District, containing
only 465 persons per square mile against an average of 654. It con-
sists of two distinct portions. The greater part lies in the upland area,
which descends by a series of ravines to the Ganges khddar on the
east. The uplands are intersected by well-marked ridges of sand, and
have profited enormously by the irrigation supplied from the Aniipshahr
branch of the Upper Ganges Canal, as wells are difficult and costly to
make. The khddar is damp, and immediately below the edge of the
upland lies a series of swamps marking an old bed of the Ganges,
which now flows on the eastern boundary ; a great part of it is fit only
for grazing. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 273 square
miles, of which 89 were irrigated.

Mawana Town. — Head-quarters of the fahsi/ of the same name in
Meerut District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 6' N. and 77° 57' E.,
17 miles north-east of Meerut city. Population (1901), 9,207. The
town, according to tradition, was founded by Mana, a huntsman
employed by the Kauravas. It contains a large brick-built tank, and
on the banks of another, now ruined, stands a fine temple built in the
sixteenth century. The municipality was constituted in 1886. During
the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged
Rs. 5,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,000, chiefly from a tax
on circumstances and property (Rs. 3,000) ; and the expenditure was
Rs. 8,000. There is little trade, and most of the inhabitants are
cultivators. The town contains two middle schools with 136 pupils,



besides six primary schools witli 164 pupils. The American Methodist
Mission has a branch here.

Ma"wkmai (Burmese, Maiikme). — State in the extreme south of
the eastern division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying astride
the Salween river, between 19° 35' and 20° 26' N. and 97° 25' and
98° 32' E., with an area (including the trans-Salween dependencies
of Mongmaii and Mehsakun) of 2,787 square miles. The State is
bounded on the north by Mongsit and Mongnai ; on the east by
Mongpan and its trans-Salween dependencies, which lie between it
and Siam ; on the south by Siam and Karenni ; and on the west by
Hsahtung. The central portion of the State proper is a wide fertile
rice plain, to the east of which are hills extending to the cultivated
Nam Teng valley. The lower part of this valle}' is chiefly given up to
rice cultivation, and the upper part to tobacco, though considerable
quantities of sesamum and sugar-cane are grown as well. Over the
east of the State taungya (shifting) cultivation prevails. A large area
is covered with forests, which in 1904 gave a revenue of Rs. 18,500.
The Mehsakun dependency across the Salween is comprised in the
basin of the Nam Hsakun, and is inhabited by Shans. West of it is
the Mongmaii dependency, a mountainous tract only the south-eastern
corner of which has any population. The title to these two dependen-
cies was finally affirmed by the Anglo-Siamese Boundary Commission
of 1892-3. The total population in 1901 was 29,454, distributed in
443 villages. About 23,000 were Shans, about 5,000 Taungthus, and
the remainder Karens and other tribes. The head-quarters of the
Sawbwa are at Mawkmai (population, 1,375), ^i^ ^^ Nam Nyim,
a tributary of the Nam Teng. The revenue in 1903-4 amounted to
Rs. 42,000 (mainly from thaihanieda) ; the chief items of expenditure
were Rs. 18,000 tribute to the British Government, Rs. 10,000 officials'
salaries and general administration charges, Rs. 9,700 privy purse, and
Rs. 4,000 public works.

Mawlu. — Northern township of Katha District, Upper Burma, lying
between 24° 18' and 25° 7' N. and 95° 50' and 96° 36' E., on both
sides of the Sagaing-Myitkyina railway, with an area of 1,344 square
miles. The population was 6,206 in 1891, and 17,178 in 1901, dis-
tributed in 281 villages. The head-quarters are at Mawlu (population,
581), on the railway. The township is situated in the Meza and upper
Namyin (or Mohnyin) valleys, and is separated from Katha by the
Gangaw range, on which the Kachin population lives. The rapid
increase of population and cultivation apparent since 1891 is due to
the railway, which has brought in a large number of immigrants. The
township contained 18 square miles under cultivation in 1903-4, and
the land revenue and ihathameda amounted to Rs. 46,400.

Mawnang (Burmese, Bazvni/i).— 'SimixW State in the Myelat divi-

Ar/lVAKI/^lAr TOIJW 237

sioti of ihc Southern Shan States, lUirnia, lyini; between 20^ 38' and
20° 44' X. and 96° 44' and 96° 51' E., with an area of 40 square miles.
It borders on Hsamonghkam on the west, and on the other sides on
Yawnghwe. Rice is grown in the swampy ground in the north, but
the rest of the State is rather arid, and the total cultivated area is only
about 700 acres. The population in 1901 was 3,755 (distributed in
43 villages), of whom more than 2,000 were Taungyos, and the rest
Taungthus, Shans, and Burmese-Shans. The residence of the Myoza
is at Mawnang (population, 198), a little south of the Thazi-Fort Sted-
man road. The revenue in 1904-5 amounted to Rs. 3,900, and the
tribute to the British Government is Rs. 2,000.

Mawson (Burmese, Baivzaing). — Small State in the Myelat divi-
sion of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 20° 52' and
21° 3' N. and 96° 43' and 96° 50' E., with an area of 40 square
miles. It is bounded on the north by Lawksawk ; on the east by
Yawnghwe ; on the south by Poila ; and on the west by Pangtara. The
country consists of open rolling downs, like the greater part of the
Myelat. The population in 1901 was 3,557 (distributed in 31 villages),
of whom about 1,500 were Danus, 1,300 Taungthus, and the rest
Taungyos, The residence of the Ngwegunhmu is at Mawson (popu-
lation, 203), in the south of the State. The revenue in 1904-5
amounted to Rs. 2,900, and the tribute to the British Government is
Rs. 1,500.

Mayavaram Subdivision. — Subdivision of Tanjore District,
Madras, consisting of the taluks of Mayavaram and Shiyali.

Mayavaram Taluk. — Coast taluk in the north-east of Tanjore
District, Madras, lying between 10° 58' and 11° 15' N. and 79° 31'
and 79° 52' E., with an area of 283 square miles. The population in
1901 was 247,019, compared with 244,835 in 1891. In density it
stands sixth of all the taluks in the Presidency, this being due to its
great agricultural advantages. It is situated wholly in the delta of the
Cauvery river, and more than 99 per cent, of the arable land is under