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to the Mughal empire, from which it was detached in the early part of
the eighteenth century on the foundation of the Hyderabad State.

The District contains many places of archaeological interest. The
fort of Medak stands about 300 feet above the surrounding plain.
Patancheru, 16 miles north-west of Hyderabad, contains some old
Hindu underground temples, where ancient coins have recently been
discovered. Andol and Komatur have old mosques of note ; and
Chatkur, Kalabgur, Kandi, Nandi, Patancheru, and Venkatapur,
ancient Hindu temples. At Yedupailu, south-east of Medak, where
seven tributaries of the Manjra meet, a large religious fair is held
annually.

There are 634 towns and villages in the District. The total popula-
tion at each Census in the last twenty years was: (1881) 326,72c,
Po ulation ^^^90 364,735> and (1901) 366,722. The towns are
°P" * • Medak and Lingampet in the Medak taluk, Siddi-
PET ', and Sadaseopet. Sangareddipet is the District head-quarters.
About 90 per cent, of the population are Hindus, and nearly all the
rest Muhammadans. Telugu is the language chiefly spoken. The
following table shows the distribution of population in 1901 : —





t


Number of




k.


■~ ;■







a
3 .

•5'c

r

<






Population


a-S.

1-


Percentage <

variation in

population b

tween i8t)i

ami lyOi.


" : Number of
a. , persons able
1 read and
1 write.


Taluk.


c


H


1)

be
>


Medak


294


2


70


56,495


192


+ 4-4


Ramayampet


273




79


5.S485


203


+ 2.9


s


Baghat


25




J. 5


5,5-14


222


+ 125.3


r3


KalabgQr


2.^4


I


«.5


56,313


240


- 18.8


r >


Andol .


2J2




77


48,849


230


+ 3-7


cS


Teknial


III




45


20,684


186


- 1.1





Idgirs, &c. .

District total


856




260


123,352


144


+ 3-2


9.360


2,005


3


631


366,722


183


+ 0-5



' Siddipet was transferred to this District from Karlmnagar in 1905.



AGRICULTURE 247

In 1905 Tekmal was nieri^^ed in Andol, and Ramayampct partly in
Medak and partly in the Kamareddipct taluk of Ni/amabad (Indur)
District. Ibrahimpatan was transferred from Mahbubnagar District
and added to Baghat, while Siddipet was transferred to this District
from Karimnagar (Elgandal). In its present form the District consists
of five taluks : Medak, Siddipet, Baghat, Kalabgur, and Andol, besides
the four large estates of Hatnura, Narsapur, Narsingi, and Nawabpet,
and other mvaox jagirs.

The most numerous caste is that of the Kapus (69,000). Next
come the Madigas or leather-workers (40,300), and the Malas or Dhers
(32,400), both of whom work also as agricultural labourers. There are
37,400 Brahmans, 32,300 Gollas or shepherds, and 13,600 Komatis,
who form the trading and money-lending caste. Nearly 42 per cent,
of the population depend directly upon agriculture, and 1 1 per cent, on
general labour and earthwork.

The total number of Christians, according to the last Census, was
373, of whom 327 were natives. A Wesleyan mission at Medak town
was started in 1887, and has a staff of 8 Europeans and 45 natives.
The adherents are chiefly of the Mala caste. The mission maintains
a school and a hospital. The former was opened in 1887 and the latter
in 1895, a large zandna ward being added in 1902.

There is hardly any difference in the agricultural condition of the

several taluks. The soils on the highlands are mostly sandy and

gravelly, while black soil is found in small patches

, „ J J Agriculture.

\\\ hollows or depressed areas.

The tenure of lands is chiefly ryotwdri. In 1901 the District con-
tained 1,149 square miles of k/id/sa lands, of which 489 were cultivated.
Of the remainder, 114 were cultivable waste and fallows, 387 were
forests, and 159 were not available for cultivation. The staple food-
crops are rice, ddj'ra, and joivdr, the areas under which were 106,
207, and 168 square miles respectively. The rice in this District
compares favourably with the finest qualities produced elsewhere.
Next in importance are kodro, lachfia, and various pulses. Sugar-
cane is grown in all the tdluks, covering about one square mile.

The cattle are of the ordinary kind, and buffaloes are extensively
employed in rice and sugar-cane cultivation. No special breed of
ponies or horses is indigenous to the District, those found being very
inferior. At Rajampet, near Sangareddipet, there is a State stud farm,
where several stallions are kept with the object of improving the breed,
but ryots are slow in taking advantage of the facilities offered them in
this respect. Sheep and goats of the ordinary description are reared.

The total area of irrigated land in 1 900-1 was 109 square miles, or
more than 22 per cent, of the cultivated area. The different sources of
irrigation and the areas supplied by each are as follows : Canals and



248 MEDAK DISTRICT

channels, 17 square miles; tanks, 6S ; and wells, 24. Tank-irrigation
is the mainstay of the District, which contains 351 large and 1,658 small
tanks. The number of wells is 2,018 ; and the other sources of irriga-
tion are small anicuts, called mafkris, of which there are 74. The
Malkapur tank irrigates the lands of 12 villages. Generally two crops
of rice are raised with tank and well irrigation. Water is raised from
wells in leathern buckets. A large canal taking off from the Manjra
has been constructed at a cost of over 10 lakhs, which is estimated to
irrigate 10,000 acres of land, and to yield a revenue of 2 lakhs. It
was opened in 1904. Another project, called the Manjra Extension,
when completed will cost 6^ lakhs and irrigate 7,000 acres, securing
a revenue of 2^ lakhs. The District has always been immune from
famine, owing to the large number of tanks it contains.

Aledak contains no protected forests, but there are 387 square miles
of unprotected forest.

No minerals of any value are found. In the hills of Lingampet
nodular ironstone is smelted, and the iron is largely employed in the
local manufacture of agricultural implements.

There is no important hand industry in the District. Cotton cloth

is printed with fast dyes for use as screens, tablecloths, floor-cloths,

&c. Coarse cotton cloth and silk stuffs of superior

Irade and quality are made, the latter after European patterns,
communications. ,, ,ir o-r.

and are largely used for coats, sdfJs, &c. Brass

vessels are made at Lingampet and Ramayampet. Sivanagar and
Jogipet contain tanneries, whence leather is exported to Hyderabad,
Bombay, and Madras. The Chamars prepare leather for the manu-
facture of water buckets and sandals for the ryots. The Hyderabad
Spinning and Weaving Mill is situated near Mushlrabad, in the Baghat
faiuk, north of the city of Hyderabad.

The main exports are rice, both fine and coarse, unrefined sugar,
jaggery, jotvar, tobacco, mahud oil, cotton, gram, other cereals and
pulses, brass and copper vessels, cattle, and leather : while the chief
imports are salt, opium, salted fish, gold and silver, copper, brass,
sulphur, kerosene oil, refined sugar, silk and cotton piece-goods. Rice
is sent to Hyderabad and other parts of the State, and leather to
Madras and Bombay. Imported articles are brought to Sadaseopet
from Shankarpalli, on • the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway ; and
from Mirzapalli, on the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway to Rama-
yampet, and thence distributed to Sangareddipet, Jogipet, Lingampet,
Medak, &c., whence they find their way to distant parts through weekly
bazars. Komatis, Marwaris, and Baljawars are the trading castes,
and they also lend money.

Tiie Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway enters Medak from the west
at Gullaguda and passes out at Lingampalli in the east, a distance of



ADMINISTRATION 249

22 miles. The Hyderabad-Godavari \'alley Railway runs almost due
north and south through Manoharabad, Masaipet, and Mirzapalli on
the eastern border of the District.

The total length of roads is 183 miles, of which 81 miles are metalled.
The metalled roads are in three sections : Sadaseopet to Kukatpalli,
32 miles; Shankarpalli to Sangareddipet, 14 miles; and part of the old
Nagpur road, 35 miles. Unmetalled roads lead to the remaining head-
quarters of tdhiks.

This District, though a small one, has been divided into three sub-
divisions. The Medak and Siddipet taluks are under a Third Talukdar,
Andol under the Second Talukdar of Andol, and ....
Kalabgur and Baghat under another Second Taluk-
dar. There is also another Third Talukdar who acts as Assistant to
the First Talukdar, the First Talukdar or Collector overlooking the
revenue and magisterial work of his subordinates. Each taluk is under
a tahsildar.

The District civil court at Sangareddipet is presided over by the
Ndzim-i-Dlivdni or Civil Judge, who is also a Joint-Magistrate in
the absence of the First Talukdar from head-quarters. The First
Talukdar is the chief magistrate. The tahs'ildars exercise third-class
civil and magisterial powers, and preside over taluk civil courts. The
Second and Third Talukdars exercise second-class magisterial powers.
There is not much serious crime in ordinary years, but dacoities and
cattle-thefts increase in number during the dry season when the roads
are open.

Little information is available as to the revenue history of the
District. Formerly groups of villages or taluks were farmed out by
the State to contractors, who received 10 per cent, for collection.
This was followed by the batai or share system, under which the State
received three-fifths of the produce of lands irrigated from tanks, and
an equal share from lands supplied by wells. In 1866 the ryotwari
system was introduced, and revenue was collected in cash from indi-
vidual ryots. Kalabgur was regularly settled in 1892, Andol in 1898,
Ramayampet and Medak in 1900, Tekmal in 1901, and Baghat taluk
in 1905. Sugar-cane was charged Rs. 200 per acre under the old
system, but now water rates are levied for ' wet crops ' according to
the class of land. Before the commencement of the survey, the records
showed an area of 67,400 acres of 'wet' lands and 119,463 acres of
' dry.' The result of the survey was a decrease of 3 per cent, in the
'wet,' and an increase of 103 per cent, in the 'dry' lands, while the
settlement raised the revenue by 2 lakhs or 16 per cent, in tlie five
taluks surveyed. The average assessment on ' dry ' land is Rs. 2
(maximum Rs. 4, minimum R. 0-4), and on 'wet' land Rs. 13
(maximum Rs. 20 minimum Rs. 6). The rates given for 'wet' lands



250 MEDAK DISTRICT

are for the al>i (rainy season) crop, the tain (hot season) crop rates
being Rs. 35 maximum, Rs. 10 minimum, and Rs. 20 average.

The land revenue and the total revenue of the District for a series of
years are shown below, in thousands of rupees : —





1881.


1891.


igoi.


1903.


Land revenue
Total revenue


8,50
11.45


8,40
14,13


12,12

17.75


8.97
13,63



Owing to the changes in area made in 1905, the revenue demand is
now about 14-6 lakhs.

There is a municipality at Sangareddipet, and each of the other taluk
head-quarters has a small conservancy establishment. The District
board manages both the municipal and local affairs of the head-
quarters, and also supervises the work of the outlying taluk boards.
The expenditure in 1900-1 was Rs. 12,600, of which Rs. 497 was
laid out on roads. The income was, as usual, derived from a portion
of the land cess, levied at one anna in the rupee on the land revenue
assessments.

The First Talukdar is the head of the District police, with the Super-
intendent {Mohtainim) as his executive deputy. The force consists of
67 subordinate officers, 499 constables, and 25 mounted police, under
6 inspectors and one sub-inspector, distributed among 32 police
stations. There is a District jail at Sangareddipet, but only short-
sentence prisoners are kept there, the rest being sent to the Central
jail at Nizamabad.

The District takes a medium position in point of literacy, 2-6 per
cent. (4-6 males and 0-35 females) of the population being able to read
and write in 1901. The total number of pupils under instruction in
1881, 1891, 1901, and 1903 was 774, 2,293, 1,907, and 2,044 respec-
tively. In 1903 there were 25 primary schools and one middle school,
with 159 girls under instruction. The total expenditure on education
in 1901 was Rs. 13,100, and the fee receipts amounted to Rs. 731.

The District contains 4 dispensaries, with accommodation for 1 1 in-
patients. The total number of cases treated at these during 1901 was
200 in-patients and 31,422 out-patients; and the number of operations
performed was 920. The total expenditure amounted to Rs. 11,200.
The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1901 was 540, or
only 1-47 per 1,000 of population.

Medak Taluk.— 7;7///>^ in Medak District, Hyderabad State, with
an area of 359 square miles. Its population in 1901, including yVF^^/rj,
was 65,852, compared with 63,066 in 1891. The taluk contains two
towns, Medak (population, 8,511), the head-quarters, and Ijncampet
(5,102); and 89 villages, of which 19 ixxe Jaglr. The land revenue



MEDCHAL



251



in 1901 was 32 lakhs. The taluk is somewhat hilly, and its soils are
mostly sandy. Rice and sugar-cane are largely raised by tank-irriga-
tion. The Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway passes through the
eastern portion. Thepaigah idluks of Narsapur, Hatnura, and Nawab-
pet lie to the south, with populations of 15,567, 14,183, and 6,179
respectively. The two former consist of 39 villages each, and the
latter of 8 villages. Their respective areas are about 130, 128, and
26 square miles. 'Y\\q jaglr tdhik of Narsingi, with 11 villages and
a population of 8,093, ^^^o lies to the south, and has an area of about
36 square miles. In 1905 some villages were added to the taluk from
Ramayampet, while others were transferred from it to Kamareddipet
and Yellareddipet in Nizamabad.

Medak Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in
Medak District, Hyderabad State, situated in 18° 3' N. and 78° 26' E.
Population (1901), 8,511. The town is built on the northern and
eastern sides of a high hill, which was at one time strongly fortified.
The fortifications are said to have been built originally by a Warangal
Raja, but the present fort was constructed about the middle of the
sixteenth century. It contains a brass gun 10 feet long, cast at Rotter-
dam for the Dutch in 1620. A Persian inscription on a slab in the
tdluk office alludes to the building of a mosque in 1641, on the ruins
of a demolished temple. A large mission school, with 180 pupils, and
several mission buildings stand north-east of the town.

Medak Gulshanabad Division. — Division of the Hyderabad
State, formed in 1905 from the old Bid.\r Division. It includes four
Districts, as shown below : —



District.


Area in square
miles.


Population,
1901.


Land revenue

and cesses,

in thousands

of rupees.


Nizamabad (Indur)
Medak .
MahbQbnagar
Nalgonda

Total


3,282

3,447
5,842
4.913


467,367
536,027

613,771
823,121


16,11

15,52
8,86

15,53


17,484


2,440,286


56,02



The density of population is 1,396 persons per square mile; and the
Division contains 11 towns and 2,747 villages. The chief places of
commercial importance are the towns of Nizamabad, Medak, Sadaseo-
PET, SiDDiPET, Mahbubnagar, Naravanpet, Nalgond.a, and Bhon-
GiR. Medak, Nalgonda, and Bhonglr are also places of historic interest.
The head-quarters of the Subahdar or Commissioner are at Patancheru.

Medchal. — Crown tdluk in the north-east of the Atraf-i-balda Dis-
trict, Hyderabad State, also called the Shimdli or ' northern ' tdluk,
with an area of 634 square miles. The population in 1901, including

VOL. XVII. R



2C2



MEDCHAL



jaglrs, was 80,520, compared with 91,113 in 1891. The tdhik contains
167 villages, of which 106 Sixe Jdg'ir; and Medchal (population, 3,019)
is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was one lakh.
Medchal is well supplied with tanks from which much rice is irrigated.
The Jdglr faliik of Allabad, with a population of 3,201, 2 villages,
and an area of about 8 square miles, lies to the east of Medchal.

Medinipur. — District, subdivision, town, and canal in Bengal. See

MiDNAPORK.

Meeanee (i). — Village in the District and tdluka of Hyderabad,
Sind, Bombay. See Miani (2).

Meeanee (2). — Town in the Dasuya tahsll of Hoshiarpur District,
Punjab. See Miani (3).

Meeanee (3). — Town in Shahpur District, Punjab. See Miani (4).

Meean Meer. — Former name of Lahore Cantonment, Punjab.

Meerut Division. — Division on the north-western border of the
United Provinces, extending from the outer ranges of the Himalayas
across the valley of the Dun and its southern boundary, the Siwalik
range, to the middle of the Doab. It lies between 27° 29' and 31° 2' N.
and 77° 2' and 78° 38^ E., and is bounded throughout by the Jumna
on the west and the Ganges on the east. The head-quarters of the
Commissioner are at Meerut City. The total population of the
Division increased from 5,141,204 in 1881 to 5,326,833 in 1891, and
5)979j7ii ii^ i9oi> the increase during the last decade having been
greater than in any other Division of the Provinces. The total area is
11,302 square miles; and the density of population is 529 persons per
square mile, compared with 445 for the Provinces as a whole. The
Division is the fifth largest in area and the third in population. In 1901
Hindus numbered 75 per cent, of the total and Musalmans 23 per cent.;
other religions include Jains (37,941), Aryas (33,718), Christians (29,294,
of whom 22,864 ^^'ei'e natives), and Sikhs (4,148). The Division con-
tains six Districts, as shown below : —



District.


Area in square
miles.


Population,
1901.


Land revenue
and cesses,

1903-4,

in thousands

of rupees.


Dehra Dun

Saharanpur

Muzaffainagar .

Meertit ....

Bulandshahr

Aligarh ....

Total


1,209

2,2 28

1,666

2,354
1,899
1,946


178,195
1,045,230

877,iS8

1,540,175
1,138,101
1,200,822


1,09

17.76
17.57
32,61
23,31
27.97


11,302


5,979,711


1,20,31



Dehra Dun lies chiefly between the Siwaliks and the Himalayas,

stretching up into both ranges ; Saharanpur reaches the Siwaliks, but



}rEERUT nrsTRicr



253



lies chiefly in the great plain ; and the other Districts are entirely sepa-
rated from the hills. The Division contains iia towns and 7,713
villages. The largest towns are Meerut (population, 118,129 with
cantonments), AlTgarh (70,434), Saharanpur (66,254), Hathras
(42,578), Khurja (29,277), Dehra (28,095 with cantonments), Har-
DWAR (25,597), Muzaffarnagar (23,444), and Deoband (20,167).

The chief places of commercial importance are Meerut, Saharanpur,
AlTgarh (Koil), Hathras, Khurja, and Muzaffarnagar; but many other
smaller towns are important centres of the grain trade. Hardwar and
Garhmuktesar are famous for their religious associations. Hastina-
pur, now a tiny hamlet, is reputed to have been the capital of the
Pandava kingdom. At KalsI there is a rock inscription of Asoka ;
Baran or Bulandshahr, AlTgarh or Koil, and Sardhana have special
associations, referred to in the articles on those places, while Meerut
city was the place where the great Mutiny first broke out in Northern
India in May, 1857.

Meerut District (/I/tv-^///).— District in the United Provinces, lying
between 28° t,t,' and 29° 18' N. and 77° 7' and 78° 12' E., with an area
of 2,354 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Muzaffarnagar
District and on the south by Bulandshahr, while the Ganges divides it
on the east from Moradabad and Bijnor, and the Jumna on the west
from the Punjab Districts of Karnal and Delhi. On
the banks of these great rivers are stretches of Pnysical
inferior low-lying khddar land. The rest of the
District is, for the most part, a level upland, the edges of which are
scored by ravines. This may be divided into three main tracts. The
western division, stretching almost to the Upper Ganges Canal, has an
extraordinarily rich and uniform soil, except immediately above the
rivers Jumna and Hindan. East of this lies a shallow depression with
poor natural drainage. The third tract, extending to the high banks
of the Ganges, is characterized by the presence of sandy dunes, which
are scattered in various directions in the eastern portion, but form
a well-defined ridge in the west.

Besides the Jumna and the Ganges, the most important river is the
Hindan, which runs through the west of the District and has a con-
siderable area of khadar land. Two small streams called Chhoiya, and
a cut called the Abu Nala, carry off part of the drainage of the central
depression and the eastern tract into the ill-defined bed of the East
Kali Nadl. In the extreme east of the District the Burhganga, or
' Old Ganges,' forms a chain of swamps close below the old high bank.

Meerut is situated entirely in the Ganges alluvium, and kankar and
saline efflorescences are the only minerals.

The botany of the District presents no peculiarities. There is very
little natural jungle, and grazing land is chiefly found in the Ganges

R 2



2 54 MEERUT DISTRICT

and Jumna khddars, and to a less extent along the Hindan. The
District is, however, well wooded, and groves cover 21 square miles.
The commonest tree is the mango ; but the bel and guava are largely
grown for fruit, and the shisham is planted in the road and canal
avenues.

Leopards are fairly common in the Ganges khddar and ravines, but
tigers are extremely rare. Antelope are numerous in most parts of
the District ; Meerut is famous for wild hog, and the pig-sticking com-
petition held annually for the Kadir (khddar) Cup in March or April is
well-known. Other animals found include the wolf, fox, jackal, hog
deer, and ffilgai. Game-birds are numerous. Duck and teal are found
along the Burhganga and other rivers, and in the' larger swamps in the
interior. Snipe, geese, black and grey partridges, quail, pigeons, and
sand-grouse are also common.

The comparatively high latitude and elevated position of Meerut
make it one of the healthiest Districts in the plains of India. From
November to March the weather is cool and invigorating, hoar-frost
being frequently found in January at an early hour of the day. The
hot westerly winds begin in April, and the rains set in about the end
of June. The mean temperature is about 77°, ranging from 57° in
January to 91° in May or June.

The District is practically the meeting-place of the Bengal and
Bombay monsoon currents. The annual rainfall for thirty years has
averaged 29 inches ; but it varies in different parts, and the south-west
of the District receives less than the north-east. Considerable fluctua-
tions occur ; during the five years ending 1895 the rainfall averaged
as high as 47 inches, while it sometimes falls below 20 inches.

The District is connected with the earliest traditions of the Lunar
race of the Hindus. A small hamlet on the high bank of the Ganges
is believed to mark the main site of Hastinapur, the
capital of the Kauravas and Pandavas, which was
washed away by the Ganges. The Asoka pillar, now standing on the
Ridge at Delhi, is said to have been removed from near Meerut city,
and remains of Buddhist buildings have been discovered near the
Jama Masjid. \x\ the eleventh century a.d. the south-western part of
the District was held by Har Dat, the Dor Raja of Baran or Buland-
SHAHR, who was defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018. According
to tradition, the north of the District was held by the Tagas, who were
driven south and east by the Jats. The Meos were called in by the
Gahlots and expelled the Dors. The first undoubted Muhammadan
invasion was that of Kutb-ud-dln, the general of Muhammad Ghorl,
in 1 192, when the city of Meerut was taken and all the Hindu temples
were converted into mosques. Under succeeding Sultans we hear little
of the District, which may therefore be considered to have escaped



HISTORY 25s

any notable misfortune, until the Mongol invasion of 1398. Tiniur
swooped down upon Meerut with more than ordinary barbarity, and
was met with equal Hindu obstinacy. At the fort of Loni, many of the
Rajputs burned their houses, with their women and children within,
and then sallied out to sell their lives as dearly as they could. After
the capture, Timur ordered the massacre of all the Hindu prisoners in
his camp, whom he himself represents as numbering 100,000 persons.
He then went on to the sack of Delhi, and returned to the town of
Meerut, then ruled by an Afghan chief named Ilias. Timur first made