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under a European Inspector. Three schools in the cantonment — the
ParsI school with 400 boys and 60 girls, the railway school, and the
convent school — receive grants-in-aid from cantonment funds. Besides
the military hospitals, a civil hospital is maintained by local charity
and a grant from cantonment funds.

Miani (i). — Port in Las Bela State, Baluchistan. See SOxNMIani.

Miani ('Fishing village') (2). — Village in the Hyderabad tdluka of
Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay, 6 miles north of Hyderabad city.
Population (1901), 962. It was here that Sir Charles Napier, on
February 17, 1843, ^^''^"'^ '^ force of 2,800 men and 12 guns, en-
countered a Baloch army numbering 22,000, strongly posted on
the banks of the Fuleli. The enemy were totally routed, 5,000 men
being killed and wounded, and the whole of their ammunition, stan-
dards, and camp taken, with considerable stores and some treasure.
A monument marks the scene of the battle, and on the eastern side of
the pillar are inscribed the names of the officers, and the number of
rank and file, who fell. The village contains three schools, one of which
is for girls.

Miani (3). — Town in the Dasuya /it/w/V of Hoshiarpur District, Pun-
jab, situated in 31° 43' N. and 75° 34' E., on the Beas river. Population
(1901), 6,118. It is of no commercial importance. The municipality
was created in 1874. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3
averaged Rs. 1,700, and the expenditure Rs. 1,600. In 1903-4 the
income was Rs. 1,800, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure
was Rs. 2,300. It maintains a Government dispensary.

VOL. XVII. X



3i6 MIAXT

Miani (4). — Town in the Bliera taJtsil of Shahpur District, Punjab,
situated in 32° 34'' N. and 73° 5' E., on the left bank of the Jhelum,
opposite Pind Dadan Khan. Population (1901), 7,220. It was formerly
the depot to which all the salt from the Khewra mines was brought for
dispatch down country, but its trade has been ruined by the extension
of the North-Western Railway across the Jhelum to Khewra. The
original town, called Shamsabad, having been swept away by a flood,
Asaf Khan, father-in-law of Shah Jahan, founded the present one. It
was plundered by Nur-ud-din, general of Ahmad Shah, in 1754, taken
in 1783 and restored in 1787 by Mahan Singh, father of Ranjlt Singh, •
who reopened the salt mart. The municipality was created in 1867.
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 8,000,
and the expenditure Rs. 7,600. In 1903-4 the income amounted to
Rs. 10,000, chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 8,400.
The town possesses an Anglo-vernacular high school, maintained by
the municipality, and a Government dispensary.

Mian Mir. — Former name of Lahore Cantonment, Punjab.

Mianwali District. — North-westernmost District of the Multan
Division, Punjab, lying between 30° 36' and 33° 14' N. and 70° 46'
and 72° o E., \vith an area of 7,816 square miles. Of this vast area
about three-fourths are east of the river Indus, comprising the tahs'ih
of Mianwali, Bhakkar, and Leiah, which lie in that order from north to
south along the river. On the east, the District is bounded by the
Districts of Attock, Shahpur, and Jhang, while on the south it adjoins
Muzaffargarh. The cis-Indus portion of the District is bounded on
the west, for the greater part of its length, by the Indus, which divides
it from Dera Ghazi Khan and the North- West Frontier District of Dera
Ismail Khan. To the west of that river lies its remaining portion, the
iahsll o{ Lsa Khel, bounded to the west and north by the Bannu and
Kohat Districts of the North-West F'rontier Province. This consists
mainly of a semicircle of level plain enclosed between the Chichali and
Maidani hills and the Indus. North of Kalabagh, and between the
termination of the Khattak hills and the Indus, lies the outlying
tract of Bhangi Khel, a rugged area broken up by rough lines of hills,
irregular but with a main direction from north to south. Mshorgun
(4,001 feet above sea-level) is the highest point. The Lsa Khel
iahsll is the only tract with a Pathan population which the Punjab
has retained west of the Indus.

The cis-Indus territory has a maximum lengtli from nortli to south
of 180 milfs, and attains a width of 70 miles in Bhakkar, its cen-
tral tahsii, which stretches eastwards almost to the
ysica Jhelum river. Thus the three cis-Indus tahslls of

Aspects. ,

Mianwali comprise the greater part of the Smd-
Sagar Doab, the country which lies between the Indus and tlie



MIANWALI DISTRICT 317

Jhelum. It includes two distinct tracts. Along the Indus lies a
strip of riverain land, locally called the Kachhi, which is flooded by
that river, and is of great fertility, though the action of the floods is
often capricious, fields and hamlets being sometimes swept away in a
few hours. About half the area is cultivated, the rest being covered
with tall Saccharum grass and tamarisk scrub. The other tract is the
vast barren upland known as the Thal, a desolate waste of shifting
sandhills on a level surface of hard clay. On this upland brushwood
grows sparsely, and the only cultivation is that round the scattered wells
sunk amid the sandhills. A great part of this tract will be commanded
by the projected Indus Canal. The monotony is unbroken by hills or
rivers ; but its north-eastern corner runs up into the western flank of
the Salt Range and the south-western slopes of the Sakesar hill, on
which stand the summer head-quarters of the officials.

The Indus issues from the hills at Kalabagh in a narrow channel,
but rapidly spreads till above Isa Khel its width from bank to bank is
nearly 13 miles. The whole of the Kachhi is intersected with straggling
branches of the Indus, chief of which is the Puzal.

The District is of considerable geological interest, for it includes
both cis-Indus and trans-Indus portions of the Salt Range. The
chief points of interest in the series as exposed here are the disappear-
ance of the older palaeozoic beds, and the development of Jurassic
and Cretaceous rocks. The salt marl and rock-salt still form the lowest
member of the series ; but as a rule all overlying formations, found in
the eastern part of the range between the .salt marl and the boulder-bed,
are absent. The Jurassic beds are well seen in the Chichali pass, where
they contain ammonites and belemnites, and are overlain by rocks with
Lower Cretaceous fossils. Coal of fair quality occurs in the Lower
Tertiary beds in the Isa Khel fa/isU, and salt is quarried at Kalabagh '.

The flora is in part that of the Western Punjab, but there is a strong
admixture of West Asian and even Mediterranean forms. Trees are
scarce, except where planted ; but the fdH {Dalbergia Sissoo) is frequent
along the Indus, and the Mesopotamian aspen {Populus euphratica) is
reported from the south of the District. The Salt Range at Kalabagh
has a flora of its own, corresponding to that of like situations on the
ranges east of the Indus. The Thai sandhills are an extension of
the Great Indian Desert, and their flora is largely that of North-western
Raj pu tana.

An occasional leopard on the Salt Range and a few wolves are the
only representatives of the fiercer beasts. Urial are to be found on

■ See Manual of Geology of India, passim ; Wynne, ' Geology of the Salt Range,'
Memoirs, Geological Survey of Itulia, vol. xiv, and ' Trans-Indus Extensions of the
Salt Range,' ibid., vol. xvii, pt. ii ; C. S. Middlemiss, 'Geology of the Salt Range,
Records, Geological Survey of India, vol. xxi, v, pt. i.

X 2



31 8 MIAN \V A T.I DISTRICT

the Salt Range and in the Bliangi Kliel liills, where mdrkJior are also
sometimes seen. 'Ravine deer' (Indian gazelle) are found in numbers
in the Thai and along the foot of the hills. A\'ild hog are met with in
a few islands in the south.

The greater part of the District is situated in the Thai, and has a
fiercely torrid and long hot season, with extreme cold in the winter
months. At Sakesar in the Salt Range the elevation is sufficient to
make punkahs a luxury only, but the heat is considerable until the rains
break. The District is on the whole healthy, but the neighbourhood
of the Indus is malarious. Goitre is not uncommon near Kalabagh,
and guinea-worm is prevalent in the Mianwali and Isa Khel tahslls.
The annual rainfall is slight, varying from ii^ inches at Mianwali town
to 7 at Leiah.

Nothing is known of the early history. The remains at K.\hrkot
in Dera Ismail Khan and Mari in this District appear to testify to the
existence in the north of a Hindu civilization pos-
sessed of considerable resources and architectural
skill. The only other archaeological remains of any antiquity are some
statues of Grecian type excavated at Rokhri, two erections near Nam-
nial in shape like sentry-boxes and supposed to be dolmens, and several
massive tombs of dressed stone in the Salt Range. There are no
remains in the Thai earlier than the fourteenth century, and there is
every reason to suppose that this area was previously an uninhabited
desert. The country ai)pears to have been colonized in the beginning
of the fifteenth century by an immigration of Jats from the south,
followed by the Baloch, who came in large bands under recognized
leaders and took possession of the country as a military caste and over-
lords of the Jat cultivators, founding the towns of Karor, Bhakkar,
and Leiah. At the beginning of the seventeenth century we find the
Jaskani Baloch ruling from the Indus to the ("hcnab, and from Bhak-
kar to Leiah, with their capital at Mankkra. In the north the earliest
inhabitants were the Awans, who were driven back to the Salt Range
by the Niazai inmiigration in the sixteenth century. The Gakhars
seem to have exercised an overlordshij) in the Mianwali /(///.sv/ as feuda-
tories of the Mughal empire until 1748, when they were expelled by a
Durrani army. The rest of the District was incorporated in the Durrani
kingdom in 1756, and towards the end of the century became the
province ruled over by Nawab Muhammad Khan Sadozai, whose suc-
cessor annexed Isa Khel in 181 8. 'i'he cis-Indus portion was seized by
the Sikhs in 1822, after the fall of Maxkkra, and Isa Khel in 1836.
On the outbreak of the second Sikh War a force of local levies was
raised by Sir H. lulwardes at Leiah, which took part in the siege of
Mulinn. The territories now comprised in Mianwali were annexed in
1849. 'i'he cis Indus portion of the present District, together with the



POPULATION



319



Sanawaii (or Kot Adu) tahsll of Muzaftargarh, formed the Leiah Dis-
trict, and Isa Khel formed part of Dera Ismail Khan, Sanawan was
transferred to Muzaffargarh in 1859 ; and in 1861 Leiah District was
abolished, the Bhakkar and Leiah tahsils going to Dera Ismail Khan,
and Mianwali and Isa Khel forming part of the new District of Bannu.
In 1901 the present District of Mianwali was constituted, being the
original Leiah District without Sanawan and with Isa Khel. During
the Mutiny the District was generally quiet ; a detachment of irregular
cavalry mutinied at Mianwali, but the rising was quickly suppressed.

The population of the area now included in the District at the last
three enumerations was: (1881) 365,621, (1891) 400,477, and (1901)
424,588, dwelling in 5 towns and 426 villages. It
has increased by 6-i per cent, during the last decade, Population.
the increase being greatest in the Leiah tahsll, and least in Isa Khel.
The District is divided into the four tahs'ils of Mianwali, Isa Khel,
Bhakkak, and Leiah, the head-quarters of each being at the place
from which it is named. The towns are the municipalities of Isa
Khel, Kalabagh, Bhakkar, Leiah, Karor, and Mianw.\li \

The following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : —



1 'ahsil.



Mianwali
Isa Khel
Bhakkar
Leiah .

District total



D
3


Number of


Area in sc
miles


c


H


4J

>


1,478

678

3,212


I


69

43
196


2.433


2


118


7,8 16


5


426



111,883

6-1,224

125,803

122,678



424,588



if i
94-7
39-2
50-4

54-3



D.0.2 - o-



0^-73
li .-3 rt ii

S g n ^
S )i V



7-7

.5*5
8.1



3,564

2,227

5.589
4>345



+ 6.1 I 15,725



Note. — The figures for the areas of ta/isils are taken from re\enue returns. The
total District area is that gi\en in the Census Report.

Muhammadans number 371,674, or over 87 per cent, of the total:
Hindus, 50,202 : and Sikh.s, 2,633. Pashtil is spoken by some of the
Pathan inhabitants of the Isa Khel tahsll. Elsewhere various dialects
of Western Punjabi are used.

The most numerous tribe is that of the agricultural Jats, who number
138,000, or 32 per cent, of the total population. Next to the Jats
come the Pathans (47,000), Baloch (27,000), Awans (23,000), and
Rajputs (6,000). But one commercial money-lending caste, the Aroras
(42,000), is of numerical importance, the number of Khattris being
only 2,000. Saiyids number 10,000. Of the artisan classes, the Julahas
(weavers, 13,000), Mochis (shoemakers and leather-workers, io,coo),
Tarkhans (carpenters, 10,000), and Kumhars (potters, 7,000) are the
' Mianwali has been oicatcd a niuniciialit}- since the Ctnsiis of 1901.



MlAXU'ALI DISTRICT



most important ; and of the menials, the Machhis (fishermen, bakers,
and water-carriers, 8,000), Chhimbas and Dhobis (washermen, 8,000),
Chuhras and Kutanas (sweepers, 7,000), and Nais (barbers, 7,000).
Kaneras, a caste which is found only in two other Districts, but is
strongest here, number 2,000. Their original occupation was plaiting
mats from grass and leaves, making string, and generally working in
grass and reeds ; but they ha\"e now taken to w-eaving generally, and
even cultivate land. Of the total population, 57 per cent, are sup-
ported directly by agriculture. The District contained only 16 native
Christians in 1901.

The semicircle of plain on the west bank of the Indus enclosed
between the river and the hills is level and open, has a good soil,
and where irrigated by hill streams produces excel-
lent crops. In the stony hills of the Bhangi Khel
tract, on the other hand, a crop of the coarsest grain can be raised
only in favourable seasons. Cultivation in the Kachhi depends entirely
on inundation from the Indus, and the westerly trend of the river
necessitates increased artificial irrigation by means of water-cuts and
dams. The soil of the Thai is light and sandy, and cultivation is
impossible without the aid of well-irrigation.

The area for which details are available from the revenue records
of 1903-4 is 7,707 square miles, as shown below : —



Agriculture.



rahsU.


Total.


Cultivated.


Irrigated.


Cultivable
waste.


Mianwali
Isa Kliel .
Hliakkar
I.eiah .

Total


1,478

67S

.3,1.34

2,417


432
170

301
259


5

30

47

132


614
182

2,70.=;

2,000


7,707


1,162


214


.5,501



The chief crop of the spring harvest is wheat, which occupied
341 square miles in 1903-4. llarley and gram occupied 45 and T19
square miles respectively. Spiked millet {/xljra) is the principal staple
of the autumn harvest (203 square miles). Pulses occupied 87 square
miles, and great millet (Joivdr) and oilseeds 45 square miles each. Dittle
cotton, no rice, and practically no sugar-cane are grown.

The area cultivated has increased by 47 per cent, since the settle-
ment of 1878, and tends to rise, owing to the extension of irrigation
from wells and cuts from the hill streams or the Indus. Nothing
has been done to improve the quality of the crops grown. Advances
for the construction of wells and dams are readily taken from Govern-
ment, about Rs. 29,000 having been advanced during the three years
ending 1903-4.

The ])Oj)ulalion ol' the Thai is largclx pastoral : AwiS. cattle, sheep.



MINERALS 321

and goats are bred in large and increasing numbers. The local breed
of cattle is, however, not of large size, and for the severe work of well-
irrigation bullocks are generally imported from the south. Sheep-breed-
ing is the principal means of livelihood of the inhabitants of the
southern Thai ; the sheep are of the ordinary thin-tailed breed. Camels
are also bred in the Thai in large numbers. Buffaloes are found in
all villages of the Kachhi. The people possess a good many horses,
and the District board maintains one pony and three donkey stallions.
A small cattle market is held weekly at Isa Khel.

Of the total cultivated area in 1903-4, 214 square miles, or 18 per
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 185 square miles were
irrigated from wells, and 29 from canals, and in addition 444 square
miles, or 40 per cent., are subject to inundation from the Indus. The
District possesses 7,310 masonry wells, besides 993 unbricked wells,
water-lifts, and lever wells. Nearly the whole of the Kachhi is inter-
sected by branches of the Indus ; and in the higher portions dams
are thrown across these streams and a few small canals excavated?
but for the most part the people trust to inundation and percola-
tion. The Kot Sultan Canal, which belongs to the Muz.\ffargarh
Inundation Canals, takes off from the Indus in the extreme south
of the District ; but with this exception the channels irrigating from
the Indus are all private. Canal-irrigation in the Isa Khel tahsil
consists of cuts from the hill streams, one channel being under the
management of the Deputy-Commissioner. Well-irrigation is the great
feature of agriculture in the Thai. In the north-east the spring-
level is so deep that wells are used only for watering cattle, but in
the west and south they supply a good deal of cultivation. In certain
parts level strips are found free from sandhills, and these are full of
wells. In the two southern tahslls the Kachhi is dependent on the
overflow from the Indus, and considerable improvements in the man-
agement of its irrigation have been made in recent years, the westerly
trend of the river necessitating more and more attention to this
subject. It has been proposed to irrigate the greater part of the Thai
by a perennial canal taking off from the Indus at Kalabagh.

The forest lands comprise 1,235 square miles of ' unclassed ' forest
and Government waste under the control of the Deputy-Commissioner.
In the Mianwali and Isa Khel tahslls these consist chiefly of gro\es of
shisham {Dalheri^ia Sissoo), while in the Thai they are patches of waste
land leased for grazing. The forest revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 28,000.

Rock-salt occurs at many places in the Salt Range and in the

Maidani range across the Indus. It is, however, worked only along

the right bank of the river near Kalabagh, where

iVLiii6rfl.ls
the salt stands out in the form of solid cliffs and

is (juarried on the surface. Alum, which is abundant throughout



322 .]//A\U'AlJ DISTRICT

llic whole Salt Range, was formerly nianufaclurcd at Kalabagh and
Kotki (at the mouth of the Chichali pass), the jjrocess being almost
identical with that in Kurope : but the industr) has almost died out,
owing to competition with other sources of cheaper supply. The
shale from which alum was extracted was dug from shafts in the hill-
side, sometimes of considerable depth. Coal or lignite of the oolitic
period occurs at Jaba (cis-Indus), at Kalabagh, Choi)ri, Chasmian,
and Sultan Khel (trans-Indus), and crops out in many other parts
of the Salt Range. The largest outcrop is in the hills between
Kalabagh and the Chichali pass in Isa Khel. It is found in lumps
of various si/es among dark bituminous shales, not in beds, but in
detached masses, which ai)pear to be compressed and fossilized trunks
of trees. The occurrence of these masses is altogether uncertain
and irregular, so that nothing like a systematic working or shaft-
cutting would be remunerative. The coal itself is hard and light,
very black, but marked with brown streaks, and often encloses nests of
half-decomposed wood resembling peat. It is not so easily inflam-
mable as good coal ; it burns quickly, without coking, to a light-
coloured ash, and emits a large amount of smoky yellow flame with
but litde heat, A seam of coal of some value was discovered in
1903 near Malla Khel.

Rock oil or petroleum is found at Jaba in Masan (cis-Indus), near
Kundal in the Khisor range, and in lesser quantities elsewhere in
the hills of Isa Khel and Mianwali. The Jaba reservoir was tapped
scientifically about twenty years ago, and the oil drawn up sent to
Rawalpindi for lighting purposes ; but the experiment was not re-
munerative. It is used for treating itch on camels and sheep, and
also to light the Kalabagh mines when men are at work in the tunnels
excavating shale for the alum manufactory. The hill al the foot of
which the springs lie is said to contain sulphur, (iold is found in
minute quantities, mixed with the sand of the Indus, and is extracted
by a laborious process of washing ; Init the yield is \er\ small. Salt-
petre is made from the earth of old village sites, and h'mestone and
building stone are found.

Iron vessels and instruments are manufactured at Kfdabagh, and

striped cotton cloth (.s77.f/) is made there in considerable quantities.

A particularly excellent form of cotton check {khes)

ra ean j^ made at Leiah. The weaving of baskets and

communications. '^

other articles from the dwarf-palm employs a fair

number of workers. Water-mills for grinding corn are workiil in

large numbers on the hill streams of Isa Khel.

The chief exports are salt, alum, iron vessels, sFist, coal, articles made

from the dwarf-palm, wheat and other grain, oilseeds, wool, and hides.

The principal imj)orts are iron, cotton piece-goods and thread, silk.



A DMINISTRA TION 3 2 3

sugar, ricCj potatoes, and timber. Ex|)ort.s go chiefly by rail and river
to Multan and Karachi. The chief centres of trade are Mianwah',

Kalabagh, Isa Khel, Bhakkar, Leiah, and Karor.

The line of the North-Western Railway running from Multan to
Rawalpindi passes through the I )istrict, with a short branch to Mari
opposite Kalabagh, and is joined at Kundian by the Sind-Sagar branch
from Lala-Musa. There are 2 miles of metalled road under the Public
Works department, and 200 miles of unmetalled roads maintained by
the District board. The principal road runs parallel to the railway
through Mianwali, Bhakkar, and Leiah. There is no wheeled traffic,
camels, mules, and donkeys being the means of conveyance. A great
deal of traffic is carried on the Indus to Multan and Sukkur. The
Indus is crossed opposite Dera Ismail Khan by a bridge of boats
in the cold season, replaced by a steam ferry in the hot season, and
by thirteen ordinary ferries. Inflated skins are largely used by the
natives for crossing the river.

The District has never suffered seriously from famine. The Kachhi

and a large proportion of Isa Khel are rendered secure by irrigation

or floods, while the scattered cultivation in the

,„, , . ... , ..... ^ Famine.

1 hal IS entirely dependent on well-irrigation. In

the famine year of 1 899-1 900 the area of crops matured exceeded

70 per cent, of the normal area.

The District is divided for purposes of administration into the four
tahslls of Mi.\NW'ALi, Is.\ Khel, Bh.\kkar, and Lei.'\h, each under
a taJislldar and a iiaib-tahsilddr. The two last form , . •
the Bhakkar subdivision, under the charge of an
Assistant Commissioner. The Deputy-Commissioner is aided by three
.i\ssistant or Extra-Assistant Commissionens, one of whom is in charge
of the District treasury. For the prevention of the illicit extraction
of salt, a preventive establishment supervised by a European officer
is located at selected points among the hills, from which all exposed
salt can be seen.

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for
criminal justice. The District Judge is in charge of civil judicial work,
and both officers are under the supervision of the Divisional and
Sessions Judge of the Shahpur Civil Division. There are three
Munsifs : one sits at head-quarters, one at Bhakkar, and one at Karor.
The Frontier Crimes Regulation is in force throughout the District.
The Isa Khel tahs'il is subject to inroads from trans-border outlaws
and their confederates in Kohat and Bannu. Cattle-stealing is the
principal crime. Besides the facilities which the great Thai desert
affords for transporting cattle into other Districts, the high jungle
along the bank of the Indus makes a most effective hiding-place,
especially in the flood season. Crime in the Thai also is very hard



324 MIANWALI DISTRICT

to detect, owing to the great distances between police stations. Pro-
fessional trackers are largely employed, and occasionally accomplish



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