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cuts off a small portion on the north. The greater part of it is thus
situated on the ^'indhyan plateau, the southern portion oi which is
drained by the Belan. In the extreme south-west the Kaimur hills
rise abruptly from the plateau. The area under cultivation in 1903-4
was 429 square miles, of which 45 were irrigated, ^^'ells are the
chief source of supph'.

Mirzapur City. -Head-quarters of Mirzapur District, United Pro-
vinces, situated in 25° 9' X. and 82*^ 35' E., on the right bank of the
Ganges, and on the East Indian Railway, 509 nu'les from Calcutta and
891 from Bombay, and connected by short branches with the grand
trunk road. The population (including Binclhachal) has fluctuated
considerably. The numbers at the four enumerations were as follows :
(1872) 67,274, (1881) 85,362, (1891) 84,130, and (1901) 79,862.

The earliest mention of Mirzapur is by Tieffenthaler between 1760
and 1770, who refers to it as a mart on the Ganges. Its importance
increased rapidly towards the close of the eighteenth century, and
during the first half of the nineteenth century it was the most important
trading centre in U[)per India. Although the District was not separated
from Benares till 1830, the Icjwn became the head-quarters of a Judge-
Magistrate as early as 1788, and contained an important custom-house.
The cotton of the Deccan and Central India was brought here on pack-
bullocks and the grain of the Doab in country boats, to be conveyed by
ri\er to Calcutta ; while sugar, piece-goods, and metals were carried
up stream for distribution. As the trade of the place depended largely
on its position at the highest point on the Ganges reached by large
steamers, the opening of the East Indian Railway as far as the Jumna
opposite Allahabad in 1864 marked the first step in its decline. The
town has a handsome river-front lined with stone ghats or landing-
places, and possesses numerous mosques, temples, and dwelling-houses
of the wealthier merchants, with highly decorated fac^ades anJ richly


carved balconies and door frames. The civil station stretches east-
wards along the river. It is the head-quarters of the usual District
staff, of the Deputy-Superintendent of the Family Domains (Benares
Estate), of two Opium officers, and also of the London Missiou.
There are male and female hospitals and a town hall, besides the usual
public offices. Mirzapur has been a municipality since 1867. During
the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged about
Rs. 62,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 83,000, chiefly derived
from octroi (Rs. 69,000) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 67,000, including
conservancy (Rs. 19,000), public safety (Rs. 12,000), administration
and collection (Rs. 11,000), and public works (Rs. 10,000). A drainage
scheme to cost 3-2 lakhs has recently been undertaken. The small
town of Bindhachal, a few miles south-west of the city, is included
within municipal limits. It contains the celebrated shrine of Vin-
dhyeshwari or Vindhyabasini, which is annually visited by large crowds
of pilgrims from Central and Southern India. In former years the
goddess was especially venerated by the Thags. Close to Bindha-
chal are found extensive ruins believed to be those of I'ampapura,
the ancient city of the Bhars. Bindhachal contains a dispensary.
^^'hile Mirzapur no longer holds its former importance as a centre of
commerce, it still absorbs the greater part of the trade of the District.
It is also the seat of the largest brass industry in the United Provinces,
as far as the production of domestic vessels is concerned. There arc
eighty factories for the preparation of shellac from stick-lac found in the
jungles of the south of the District or imported, which give employment
to about 4,000 workmen. Mirzapur is celebrated for the woollen
carpets produced here, and six of the largest factories employ 700 to
800 hands. There is also a cotton-spinning mill, which employed
560 workers in 1903. The principal schools are the ordinary District
and town schools, and a school and orphanage supported by the
London Mission : the municipality maintains six and aids fifteen other
schools, attended by 881 pupils.

Mishmi Hills. — A section of the mountain ranges on the northern
frontier of Assam, which shut in the eastern end of the valley of the
Brahmaputra, between the Dibang and the Brahmaputra. These hills
are occupied by the Mishmi tribe, and have never been properly
explored. They consist, as far as is known, of steep ridges, covered
as a rule with tree forest, and some of the peaks are over 15,000 feet
in height. Geologically, these hills seem to be a continuation of the
Burmese axials. The higher ranges are probably composed of gneiss
and granite, and there are reasons for supposing that they may contain
deposits of economic value. Limestone boulders are found in the
beds of the rivers issuing from them.

The Mishmis are divided into four tribes : the Chulikatta or ' crop-


haired,' the Bebejiya, the Digaru, and the Migu or Midhi. They are
a short, sturdy race of the Tibeto-Burman stock, with features of a
MongoUan type. They are keen traders and devoted to a pastoral
rather than to an agricultural life, cattle and wives being the chief
outward sign of wealth. The first expedition into the Mishmi country
was in 1827, and further attempts were made in 1836 and 1845 ; but
none of the explorers succeeded in getting more than three-quarters
of the way to Rima, the frontier town of Tibet. In 1851 M. Krick,
a French missionary, reached that place and returned in safety to
Assam ; but on his revisiting the country in 1854 he was treacherously
murdered by a Mishmi chief. The offender was captured and taken
to Dibrugarh, where he was duly convicted and hanged ; and attempts
were again made in 1869 and 1879 to reach the valley of the Zayul, as
the eastern arm of the Brahmaputra is called, but they were unsuc-
cessful. In the cold season of 1885-6, Mr. Needham and Captain
Molesworth marched from Sadiya to Rima, but were prevented from
going beyond that place by the obstructive attitude of the Tibetan
authorities. The path followed ran along the north bank of the
Brahmaputra, the total distance traversed being 187 miles. For the
first 46 miles it lies entirely in the plains, and for this portion of
the journey elephants can be used for transport. From thence to the
Tibetan border, 26 miles west of Rima, travelling is somewhat difficult.
The track is rugged and uneven, and crosses ranges of hills varying
from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in height ; but these difficulties disappear on
entering the Zayul valley. The upper portion of this valley was described
by M. Krick as a tract cultivated as far as the eye could see, and
abounding in herds of oxen, asses, horses, and mules, and in groves
of bamboo, laurel, orange, citron, and peach trees. Pandit A. K., who
entered the valley from the east, described the winter crops as rice,
millets, and pulses, while wheat, barley, and mustard ripened in the
spring. The Mishmis do a good deal of trade both with the Zayul
valley and with Assam. They receive from the Tibetans cattle,
woollen coats, swords, metal vessels, and other articles, and give them
in exchange Mishmi teeta (a plant much valued as a febrifuge), musk,
and Mishmi poison.

In 1899 the Bebejiya Mishmis murdered three Khamti British
subjects and carried off three children. An expedition was dis-
patched against them in the following cold season, which, after a
tedious and difficult march, succeeded in recovering the captives and
burning the guilty villages. The Bebejiya country lies to the east
of the Dibang river, and was entered by the Maizu pass, which is
8,900 feet above sea-level.

[An account of the Mishmis will be found in Colonel Dalton's
Ethnology of Bengal. \

.VITIir TOJTW ■ 379

Misrikh. — Western taJisi/ of Sltapur District, United Provinces,
comprising the pa7-ganas of Aurangabad, Chandra, Korauna, Gundla-
mau, Machhrehta, Misrikh, and MaholT, and lying between 27° 12'
and 27° 49' N. and 80° 18' and 80° 50' E., along the GumtT, with
an area of 613 square miles. The Kathna traverses the north-west
of the tahsl/, and the Sarayan forms part of the eastern boundary.
Population increased from 243,207 in 1891 to 267,440 in 1901.
There are 649 villages and three towns, including Misrikh (popula-
tion, 2,966), the fahsil head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 3,88,000, and for cesses Rs. 66,000. The density
of population is only 436 persons per square mile, a figure much
below the District average. Along the Gumti is found a considerable
area of light sandy soil, which is liable to fall out of cultivation in
years of either excessive or deficient rainfall. The rest of the tahsll
is composed chiefly of good loam. In 1903-4 the area under cultiva-
tion was 432 square miles, of which 94 were irrigated. Wells supply
rather more than half the irrigated area, and tanks most of the

Mithankot. — ^Town in the Rajanpur fa/isl/ of Dera Ghazi Khan
District, Punjab, situated in 28° 57' N. and 70° 22' E., on the west
bank of the Indus, 83 miles from Dera Ghazi Khan town, and a few
miles below the confluence of the Panjnad and Indus. Population
(1901), 3,487. The town was once the centre of a large trade, and
head-quarters of what is now the Rajanpur subdivision ; but the
station was abandoned in 1862, when the old town was destroyed by
an encroachment of the Indus. The new town was built 5 miles
from the river, but, being so far away, speedily lost the commercial
importance of its predecessor. The municipality was created in 1873.
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,300,
and the expenditure Rs. 3,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,800,
chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 3,500.

Mithi Taluka.— rj////^a of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bom-
bay, lying between 24° 17' and 24° 57' N. and 69° 30'' and 70° 34' E.,
with an area of 1,563 square miles. The population fell from 36,445
in 1891 to 26,154 in 1901. The tdluka contains one town, Mithi
(population, 2,806), the head-quarters ; and 46 villages. The density,
17 persons per square mile, is below the District average. The land
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 26,000. Cultivation
depends upon rainfall, and to a small extent upon well-irrigation, the
principal crop being bajra. The tahika is liable to famine.

Mithi Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name in
Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 24° 44" N. and
69° 51' E., about 60 miles south of Umarkot. Population (1901),
2,806. The trade, both local and transit, consists of grain, cotton,

VOL. xvii, r, b

38o ^fITT^ TOWN

rattle, camels, ^hi, dyes, hides, oil, piece-goods, sugar, tobacco, and
wool. 'Hie town was constituted a municipality in i860, and had
an average income of about Rs. 4,000 during the decade ending 1901.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,000. The municipality was abolished
in 1905. The town contains two primary schools, one for boys and
the other for girls, attended respectively by 143 and 93 pupils.

Mithila (or Videha). — Ancient kingdom in North Bihar, Bengal.
It included the modern Districts of Darbhanga, Champaran, and
North Muzaffarpur, and was a great seat of Sanskrit learning ; it is
mentioned in the Saiapaiha Brahmana. The capital was at Janak-
pur, in Nepal ; and the boundary seems at one time to have extended
as far east as the Kosi river, so that the kingdom included, besides
the Districts above named, parts of Purnea, Monghyr, and Bhagal-
pur. According to tradition, the court of king Janaka was attended
by philosophers and religious teachers as early as 1000 h.c. Little
is really known of the early history of Mithila. In the ninth cen-
tury A. D. it seems to have been conquered by the Pal dynasty of
Magadha, and it was again subjugated by Ballal Sen of Bengal soon
after he ascended the throne in a. n. 1069. The Lakshman era, which
he inaugurated to celebrate the birth of his son, is in use by the
pandits of Mithila to this day. Mithila was conquered by Muham-
mad-i-Bakhtyar Khiljl in 1203, but from the middle of the fourteenth
century it was for 200 years under the rule of a line of Brahmans
given up to learning and poetry. The best known of this line was
Siva Singh, who reigned for four years from 1446. In 1556 Mithila
became merged in the Mughal empire. Mithila has given its name
to one of the five classes of Northern Brahmans, the Maithilas, whose
recognized head is the Maharaja of Darbhanga.

Miyagam. — Village in the Choranda tdluka, Baroda prdtif, Baroda
State, situated in 22° i' N. and 73° Y E., on the Bombay, Baroda,
and Central India Railway, at the terminus of a State line from
Dabhoi. Population (1901), 2,654. It is inhabited chiefly by Jains,
who carry on a thriving trade.

Mobye. — State in the Southern Shan States, Burma. See Mongpai.

Modasa. — Town in the Parantlj idhika of Ahmadabad District,
Bombay, situated in 23° 18' N. and 73° 18' E., on the river Majhani,
52 miles north-east of Ahmadabad city. Population (1901), 7,276.
Modasa occupies an important strategical position between Gujarat
and the hilly tracts constituting the Native States of Idar and Durv
garpur. In the reign of Sultan Ahmad of Gujarat (141 1-43) it was
a fortified post ; and at the close of the sixteenth century it was the
chief place in a tract of 162 villages, yielding a revenue of 8 lakhs.
It is an old town with several inscriptions. The chief industries are
dyeing, calico-printing, and oil-pressing. Mahta oil is exported for

.\fOGALTrRRr 3'''^

soap. There is a through camel traffic in raw cotton and opium with
Malwa. Modasa was constituted a municipality in 1859. The income
during the decade ending 1901 averaged about Rs. 6,000, and in
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 6,800. The town contains a dispensary and
five schools, of which one is an English middle school for boys with
22 pupils, and four are vernacular schools — namely, three for boys
with 392 pupils and one for girls with 86 pupils.

Modhera. — Village in the Vadavli tdluka, Kadi prdttt, Baroda
State, situated in 23° 35' N. and 72° 8' E. In ancient times this
town must have been very populous and wealthy, judging from the
ruins still to be seen. The chief of these is vSlta's Chavdi or marriage
hall, about which Dr. Burgess remarks : —

' The Sita's Chavdi is rich in carving beyond anything I have met
with elsewhere. The central dome is supported by eight columns of
great elegance with toranas between each pair, outside of which are
eight similar ones. The mandapa is similar to the central dome. The
proportions of the building are beautiful, as it is not deficient in height.'

The temple is really dedicated to the Sun, and was probably built
early in the eleventh century. Modhera is known in Jain legends
as Modherpura or Modhbank Patau, and it has given its name to
the Modha Brahmans and the Modhas.

Moga Tahsil. — Tahsll of Ferozepore District, Punjab, lying
between 30° 8' and 30° 54' N. and 74° 54' and 75° 26' E., with
an area of 807 square miles. It is bounded on the south by Patiala,
and on the west by the Farldkot State. It lies almost wholly in the
upland plateau known as the Rohi, which has a good loam soil and
is irrigated by the Sirhind Canal. The population in 1901 was
245,857, compared with 235,806 in 189 1. Moga Town (population,
6,725) is the head-quarters. The tahsil also contains 202 villages.
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 4-7 lakhs. The
village of Mahraj is of some religious importance.

Moga Town.— Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in
Ferozepore District, Punjab, situated in 30° 49' N. and 75° 10'' E.,
35 miles south-east of Ferozepore town on the Ferozepore road.
Population (1901), 6,725. The Tayyan fair is held here in the
month of Chet (March- April). The chief educational institutions
are the Dev Samaj Anglo-vernacular high school (unaided), and an
Anglo-vernacular middle school maintained by the municipality.
There is also a Government dispensary.

Mogalturru. — Village in the Narasapur idbik of Kistna District,
Madras, situated in 16° 25' N. and 81° 36' E., on the Narasapur canal.
Population (1901), 6,348. It contains the fort of the former zaminddrs
of Mogalturru, and was the head-quarters of one of the early Col-
lectorates. There is a small salt factory close by.

1! b 3

38- Afoc/irxc; siwuui'/siox

Mogaung Subdivision. Subdivision of Myitkyinl nisirict. I'pper
Burma, consisting of the Mogaung and Kamaixg townships.

Mogaung Township. — Western township of Myitkyina District,
Upper Burma, lying between 24° 42' and 25° 45' N. and 96° o' and
96° 16' E., with an area of 3,490 square miles. The population in
1901 was 18,867, Shans numbering more than 8,000 and Kachins
more than 7,000, while Burmans and Burmese Shans to the number
of 2,000 inhabited Mogaung itself, and some of the larger river villages.
The township contains 226 villages, of which 172 are in the Kachin
Hill tracts. The head-quarters are at Mogaung (population, 2,742), a
market of importance situated on the Mogaung stream and the rail-
way, about 30 miles west of Myitkyina town. Except in the immediate
neighbourhood of Mogaung, the township is a mass of forest-clad
upland, and the density of population is very low. In 1903-4 the area
cultivated was 6 square miles, in addition to tmaigyas : and the land
revenue and thaihameda amounted to Rs. 42,000.

Mogok Subdivision. — Southern subdivision and township of the
Ruby Mines District, Upper Burma, consisting of a mass of hills
broken up by ravines, lying between 22° 46' and 23° 4' N. and 96° 14'
and 96° 43' E., with an area of 610 square miles. The population was
18,810 in 1891, and 24,590 in 1901, distributed in one town, Moook
(population, 6,078), the head-quarters, and 112 villages. The im-
portance of the township is derived from the ruby mines, which are
described in the District article. About 10 miles north-west of Mogok
is Bernardmyo (called after the late Sir Charles Bernard), situated at
an altitude of over 5,000 feet above the sea, where European troops
were once quartered. The township contained about 3,500 acres under
cultivation in 1903-4, and the land revenue and thathameda in the
same year amounted to Rs. 53,000.

Mogok Town. — Head-quarters of the Ruby Mines District, Upper
Burma, situated in 22° 55' N. and 96'' 30' E., in hilly country,
about 4,000 feet above the sea. It lies 36 miles due east of the
Irrawaddy, with which it is connected by a road 60 miles in length
leading to Thabeikkyin. Population (1901), 6,078. The town, which
occupies the middle of a very picturesque mountain-girt valley, is the
head-quarters of the ruby-mining industry in Burma, and is a thriv-
ing trade centre with a large and flourishing masonry bazar, which
brings in a revenue of between Rs. 30,000 and R.s. 40,000. A certain
amount of stone-cutting, polishing, and setting is carried on, but
the work is of a primitive character. Mogok is less a town than a
collection of villages, and is divided into nine quarters. 'J'he actual
population of the group of villages that surrounds the District head-
quarters, and owes its existence to the Ruby Mines Company, is about
15,000. Mogok has not, despite its size, been constituted a munici-


pality, nor has any modified form of local self-government yet been
introduced into it. The District fund benefits by the receipts from
the bazar. Brick buildings are becoming common in the town, and
frequent fires in the past have popularized the use of corrugated iron
for roofing purposes. The usual public buildings include a hospital,
and substantial residences have been built for the local officials and
for the staff of the Ruby Mines Company. A jail is at present in
course of construction.

Mohan Tahsil. — North-eastern tahsll of Unao District, United
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Mohan Auras, Gorinda Parsan-
dan, Jhalotar Ajgain, and Aslwan Rasulabad, and lying between 26° 2,2)
and 27° \' N. and 80° 25' and 80° 55' E., with an area of 436 square
miles. Population fell from 257,449 in 1891 to 255,389 in 1901.
There are 474 villages and three towns, AsIwan (population, 6,153)
and Mohan (5,798), the former tahsil head-quarters, being the largest.
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,27,000, and for
cesses Rs. 43,000. The density of population, 586 persons per square
mile, is the highest in the District. Mohan is intersected by the Sai,
which flows sluggishly through a tortuous channel and is liable to
sudden floods, though in ordinary years its valley is very fertile. The
south and the east of the tahsil are interspersed with barren patches of
mar and stretches of hard clay, which produce excellent rice crops in
favourable years. The north and west consist of loam with sandy
ridges, and are generally fertile. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation
was 262 square miles, of which 118 were irrigated. Nearly half the
irrigated area is supplied from wells, and the remainder from the Sai
and from tanks, which are more important sources here than in any
other fahsil of Unao.

Mohan Town. — Former head-quarters of the tahsil of the same
name in Unao District, United Provinces, situated in 26° 47' N. and
80° 41' E., on a metalled road from Ajgain railway station. Population
(1901), 5,798. It is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Sai, which
is here crossed by a fine stone bridge built by Maharaja Nawal Rai,
minister of the Nawab Safdar Jang. The old road from Lucknow to
Cawnpore passes through Mohan, which was once a place of some
importance. It has always been celebrated for its Muhammadan
physicians and mimics and actors. The town is administered under
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 900. A good deal
of fruit is grown in the neighbourhood, and the town is flourishing.
There is a school with 150 pupils.

Mohanlalganj. — Southern tahsil of Lucknow District, United
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Mohanlalganj and Nigohan,
and lying between 26° 30' and 26° 51' N. and 80° 52' and 8i° 13' E.,
with an area of 273 square miles. Population increased iVoiu 150,160


in 1891 to 154,115 in 1901. There are 226 villages and two towns,
the largest being Ameth! (population, 6,447). I^^ 1903-4 the demand
for land revenue was Rs. 2,53,000, and for cesses Rs. 51,000. The
density of population, 565 persons per square mile, is below the District
average. Mohanlalganj is bounded on the north by the Gunitl and
on the south by the Sai. The banks of both rivers are sandy ; but the
tahsil contains a large area of fertile loam, which in the centre turns
to clay interspersed with many tanks and y7«A. In 1903-4 the area
under cultivation was 150 square miles, of which 66 were irrigated.
Wells supply rather more than half the irrigated area, and tanks most
of the remainder.

Mohanpur. —Petty State in M.\Hi Kantha, Bombay.

Moharbhanj. — Native State in Orissa, Bengal. See Mavurbhanj.

Mohgaon. — Town in the Sausar tahsil of Chhindwara District,
Central Provinces, situated in 21° 38' N. and 78° 45' E., on a tributary
of the river Jam, 37 miles south of Chhindwara town, and 5 miles
from the Nagpur road. Population (1901), 5,730. The municipality
has recently been abolished, and a town fund is now raised for purposes
of sanitation. A cotton-ginning factory was opened in 1892 with a
capital of Rs. 50,000, and cotton cloths are woven by hand. Mohgaon
contains a vernacular middle school.

Mohindargarh Nizamat (or Kanaud). — A nizdmaf or administra-
tive district of the Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 27° 18' and
28° 28' N. and 75° 56' and 76° 18' E., with an area of 575 square
miles. It is bounded on the north by the Dadri tahsli of the Jind
State ; on the west and south by Jaipur State territory ; and on the
east by the State of Alwar and the Bawal ?iizd/iia/ of Nabhu. The
population in 1901 was 140,376, compared with 147,912 in 1891.
The fiizdmat contains the towns of Narnaul and Mohindargarh or
Kanaud, the head-quarters; and 268 villages. The land revenue and
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 3-9 lakhs. Situated in the extreme
south-east of the Province, it is geographically part of the Rajputana
desert, and forms a long narrow strip of territory lying north by south.
It is partially watered by three streams : the Dohan, which rises in the
Jaipur hills, traverses the whole length of the nizdmaf, and passes into
Jind territory to the north; the Krishnawati, which also rises in Jaipur