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and flows past Narnaul town into Nabha territory in the east ; and the
Gohli. It is divided into two tahstls : Mohindargarh, or Kanaud,
and Narnaul.

Mohindargarh Tahsil (or Kanaud). — Head-quarters fa/isU of the
Mohindargarh nizdmat, Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 28° d' and
28° 28' N. and 75' 56' and 76° 18' E., with an area of 299 square
miles. The population in 1901 was 55,246, compared with 59,867 in
1891. The tiilisil contains the town of Kanaud (population, 9,984),


the head-quarters, and in villages. The land revenue and cesses
in 1903-4 amounted to 1-5 lakhs.

Mohindargarh Fort.— The fort at Kanaud in Patiala State,
Punjab, was so named in 1861 by Maharaja Narindar Singh, in honour
of his son Mohindar Singh. The fort contains the public offices of
the Mohindargarh nizdmat and tahsil, and the treasury, jail, ^c.

Mohmand Country. — A tract north-west of Peshawar District,
North-West Frontier Province; lying between ^^ 30' and 34° 40' N. and
70° 30' and 71° 30' E., with an area of about 1,200 square miles.
Its boundaries are : on the east and north, the Swat and Ambhar
rivers ; on the west, the Afghan territory of Kunar ; and on the
south, the watersheds of the Kabul river. Those of the Mohmands
who live west of the Afghan boundary are subject to the Amir.
The majority of the tribe, who live between Afghanistan and the
border of Peshawar District, are under the political control of the
Deputy-Commissioner of Peshawar ; but there is an increasing ten-
dency to settle in the District, in the dodbs between the rivers. The
Mohmand settlers seldom remain, however, during the summer
months, being what is described as Do-Kora (' two homes '). The
tract is naturally divided into the rich alluvial lands along the Kabul
river from Jalalabad to Lalpura, and a network of hills and valleys
from Lalpura eastward. The aspect of the Mohmand hills is dreary
in the extreme, coarse grass, scrub wood, and dwarf-palms being the
only vegetation. In summer the desert tracts radiate an intolerable
heat, and water is scarce. This, coupled with the unhealthiness of
the river lowlands, accounts for the inferiority of the Mohmands to
their Afrldi and Shinwari neighbours in physique; and they are
little recruited for the Indian army. The crops are largely dependent
on the rainfall, and should this fail, considerable distress ensues.
The hills, indeed, cannot support the population. The country
exports little except grass, firewood, dwarf-palm, and charcoal. But
there is a considerable through trade, the carrying of which supple-
ments the people's resources. They also levy dues on the timber
rafted down from Kabul. Since the Khyber Pass was opened, however,
the routes through the Mohmand country have lost much of their
importance. The Mohmands are closely allied to the Yusufzai
Pathans. Under them are two vassal tribes : the Safis, probably Kafirs
converted to Islam, of whom little is known ; and the MuUagoris,
who inhabit the country between the Kabul river and the Khyber
Pass. This tribe is a small one and cannot muster more than 500
to 800 fighting men, but has now for many years maintained its
independence and denies ever having held a position of subordination
to the Mohmands. The Mohmands formed one of the group of
Afghan tribes which, driven eastward by Mongol inroads between


the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, overran the cuuniry west and
north of Peshawar District, expelling or subduing the Hindu and
non-Afghan races. Their success was in great measure due to their
possession of hereditary chiefs or Khans, who kept together forces
which have gradually worn down the resistance of the disunited Shin-
waris. The chief of these is the Khan of Lalpura, but there are several
minor Khans, and one family claims tliat title as the hereditary
guardian of the sarislita or code of tribal law and custom. The
Khans of Lalpura at various times owed allegiance to Akbar and
Shah Jahan, to Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Durrani. About
1782, however, Arsala Khan of Lalpura revolted against Timur Shah
Durrani, but was compelled to submit, and was executed at Peshawar
in 1 79 1. 'I'hereafter the history of the family is one of constant
bloodshed. Saadat Khan, who held the Khanship for forty years,
was a faithful vassal of the Barakzai dynast)- of Afghanistan ; but in
1864 he was arrested by the Amir for constant aggressions on the
British border and died a prisoner at Kabul. After a period of
anarchy, Akbar Khan was appointed in 1880 by the British Govern-
ment. His extravagance and dissipation, however, greatly diminished
his influence, and in 1896 he resigned his position and now lives
at Kabul. In 1896 also the Utmanzai, Dawezai, Halimzai, Tarakzai,
and Pindiali Mohmands came under the sole control of the British
Government, and have received allowances from that date. In 1903
allowances were also fixed for the Musa Khel Mitai Mohmands.
The Mohmands have a great reputation for bravery among the neigh-
bouring tribes, and can nmsler about r 8,000 fighting men. They are
fairl}- well armed.

During the early [period of British rule the Mohmands ga\c more
trouble than any other frontier tribe ; and for many years their his-
tory was a series of wanton outrages in British territory, culminating
in the unprovoked murder of a British officer in 1873, and followed
by the usual punitive expeditions. In 1895 the Mohmands, with
no other justification than the Adda MuUa's fiinatical preaching, joined
in the resistance to the Chitral relief force. In 1897 they were among
the first to raise the standard ol jihad against the British power, and
attacked Shabkadar. The Mohmand country was accordingly in-
vaded from Bajaur by two brigades of the Malakand field force under
Sir Bindon Blood, and from Shabkadar by two more under Sir Edmond

A branch of the tribe has settled in the south-west corner of
Peshawar District, and is now quite separate from the main body.

MohoL— \illage in the Madha tdliika of Sholapur District,
Bombay, situated in 17^ 49' N. and 75° 39' E., on the Poona-
Sholapur road, about 20 miles south-east of Madha, on the Great


Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 4)904- ^ weekly
market is held on Sunday. A school is maintained by the American
Mission. The town contains two temples, an old fort used under
Maratha rule for the offices of the former Mohol subdivision, and two
ruined forts outside the town, built about 200 years ago by the local
Deshmukhs. The two temples of Bhaneshwar and Nilkantheshwar
or Chandramauli are both said to have been built by Hemadpant.
A yearly fair is held at the Nilkantheshwar temple during three
days, beginning with the fourth of the bright half of Vaishakh (April-
May). According to local tradition, Mohol is a very old town. It is
supposed to have suffered severely in the war between Hindus and
Musalmans at the close of the thirteenth century, and the present
Deshmukh and Deshpande families of the Madha tdluka claim
descent from officers appointed by the victorious Musalmans. During
the great Durga-devI famine (i 396-1408) the town is said to have
been abandoned and to have taken twenty-five years to recover.
Another local story says that Mohol was the residence of the god
Nagnath, who afterwards proceeded to Vadval, 5 miles to the
south-east. Nagnath's temples at Mohol and Vadval were built
about 1730 by Ghongre, a rich merchant of Vairag.

Mohpa.— Town in the Katol tahsil of Nagpur District, Central
Provinces, situated in 21° 19' N. and 78° 50' E., 21 miles north-
west of Nagpur city by road. Population (1901), 5,336. Mohpa is
not a municipality, but a town fund is raised for sanitary purposes.
A cotton-ginning factory with a capital of about Rs. 35,000 has
been opened, and another is under construction. The town is sur-
rounded by gardens, from which vegetables are sent to Nagpur. It
has a vernacular middle school.

Mokameh {Mukamd). — Town in the Barh subdivision of Patna
District, Bengal, situated in 25° 25' N. and 85° 53' E., on the right
or south bank of the Ganges. Population (1901), 13,861. It is a
station on the East Indian Railway, 283 miles distant from Calcutta,
and is a junction for passengers proceeding by the Bengal and
North-Western Railway. The town contains a large number of
European and Eurasian railway employes, and is an important centre
of trade.

Moka Pagina Muvada.— Petty State in Rewa Kantha,

Mokokchung. — Subdivision of the Naga Hills District, Eastern
Bengal and Assam, lying between 26"^ 6' and 26° 48' N. and 94° 16'
and 94*^ 50' E., with an area of 733 square miles. The population
rose from 26,416 in 1891 to 33,783 in 1901, giving a density of
46 persons per square mile. A large portion of this increase was
due to the immigration of tribes from beyond the frontier. The

388 . MOKOKCH UNG was formed in 1889, in order lo protect the Ao Nagas
from the aggression of the tribes that Hve to the east of the Dikho
river, and is in charge of a European officer of police. The annual
rainfall at Mokokchung village averages 96 inches. The principal
source of revenue is house tax, which in 1903-4 amounted to
Rs. 23,800.

Mokundurra. — A'illage and pass in Kotah State, Rajputilna. See


Molakalmuru.— North-eastern td/uk of Chitaldroog District,
Mysore, lying between 14° 34' and 15° 2' N. and 76° 36' and
76° 52' E., with an area of 290 square miles. The population in
1901 was 37,744, compared with 32,560 in 1891. There are three
towns, Molakalmuru (population, 2,915), the head-quarters, Deva-
samudra (2,004), ^^nd Rampura (1,845); '^^''^^ 94 villages. The land
revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 54,000. The taluk is a long
and narrow strip of country jutting into Bellary District. A few
isolated villages on the west are entirely separated from the re-
mainder. The surface is very undulating, and except where rice
and garden lands exist is covered with rocks and loose stones. A
range of bare rocky hills runs right across the tdhtk from south-
east to north-west, among which are the Nunke Bhairava hill (3,022
feet) and the Jatinga Ramesvara hill (3,469 feet). More than a
third of the surface is occupied by these hills, which are so barren
that not a blade of grass or a tree will grow on their sides. Nearly
9 square miles in the south are taken up with kaminar jungle. The
south is comparatively level, but the soil very poor. The Janagahalla
river flows along the western boundary for a short distance, and then
turns north-east across the taluk under the name of Chinna-Haggari,
receiving the drainage of the bare rocky hills around. All tanks of any
importance are close to the river and fed by channels from it. ^^'ells
are numerous, and two crops of rice are raised in the year by their
means. Betel-vines, tobacco, wheat, and jola are also grown, the first
in the north for the Bellary market. Blankets, coarse cotton cloth,
women's sdrls with silk borders, and tape for belts, are the principal
manufactures. Iron ore from the Kumarasvami hill in Sandur State
is smelted in one or two villages.

Momeik.— Shan State and subdivision of the Ruby Mines District,
Uj^pcr Burma. See Mongmit.

Mominabad. — Town in Bhir District, Hyderabad State. See
Amija Town.

Mone. — One of the Southern Shan States, Burma. See Mononai.

Mong. — One of the three circles into which the Chittagong Hill
Tracts, Eastern Bengal atid Assam, arc divided for administrative
pur[)oses. It occupies tlic nurth-wcsL corner of the District, lying


between 22^ 45' and 23° 47' N. and 91*^ 41' and 92*^ 1' E., with an
area of 653 square miles. The greater part of the country consists of
hills and ravines covered with dense tree jungle. The population
in 1 90 1 was 31,898, compared with 22,708 in 1891. Most of the
people are Tipperas {see Hill Tippera). There are 128 villages,
of which Manikcheri is the residence of the chief who administers
the circle. The title of Mong Raja is hereditary ; the present in-
cumbent is Raja Nephru Sain.

Mong {Mung). — Village in the Phalia tahsi/ of Gujrat District, Pun-
jab, situated in 32° 39' N. and 73° 2>2>' E., 35 miles from Gujrat town.
It stands on an old ruined mound, the modern houses being built
of large ancient bricks. Greek and Indo-Scythian coins are found
in numbers among the ruins, many of them bearing the monogram
NIK ; but General Cunningham's identification of Mong as the
site of Nikaia, the city built by Alexander to commemorate his
victory over Porus, is no longer accepted. Tradition assigns the
origin of the mound to Raja Moga, whom Cunningham identified
with the Maues of the coins. The head-works of the Jhelum
Canal are situated in the neighbourhood.

Monghsu and Mongsang (Burmese, Maingshu and Maingsin). —
Two small States (recently amalgamated) in the north of the eastern
division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 21° 31'
and 22° 5' N. and 98° 11' and 98° 32' E., with an area of 164 square
miles. Both States used formerly to be part of the Northern Shan
State of North Hsenwi, but were made separate charges in 1857.
The combined State is bounded on the north and east by Manglon ;
on the south by Mongnawng ; and on the west by Mongnawng and
Kehsi Mansam. It consists mainly of rugged hills and broad valleys,
watered by the Nam Pang and its affluents ; and rice is the only
crop grown to any extent. The population in 1901 was 17,480,
distributed in 265 villages. More than 14,000 of this total consisted
of Shans, and the greater part of the remainder were Yins. A few
Palaungs live in the hills. The residence of the Myoza is at Monghsu
(population, 244), to the east of the Nam Pang on a tributary of that
stream. The revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 11,000 (all from
thathameda) ; and the chief items of expenditure were Rs. 5,600
tribute to the British Government, Rs. 2,700 privy purse, and Rs. 1,700
general charges on account of administration.

Monghyr District (^//^;/^^/>).— District in the Bhagalpur Division
of Bengal, lying between 24° 22' and 25° 49' N. and 85° 36' and
86° 51' E., with an area of 3,922 square miles. Monghyr is bounded
on the north by the Districts of Bhagalpur and Darbhanga ; on the
east by Bhagalpur ; on the south by the Santal Parganas and
Hazaribagh \ and on the west by Gaya, Patna, and Darbhanga.


The Cianges flows through tlie District from west to east, dividing
it into two portions of unequal size and of very different character.
The northern portion is a great alluvial plain,
Physica differing but little from the adjoining portions

of Darbhanga and Ehagalpur. This portion is
again subdivided by the Burhi Gandak, the country to the west
of that river being similar to the indigo-growing tracts of North
Bihar. The remaining portion is traversed by the Tiljuga, also
called the Kamla, and by the Baghmati, which was possibly at one
time a continuation of the river of the same name which joins
the Gandak to the east of Muzaffarpur. It is seamed by deserted
channels ; and the whole area, which covers about 200 square miles,
is low-lying, swampy, and liable to inundation. The south of the
District is also to a great extent alluvial ; but the general level
is higher and the surface more undulating, and several ranges of
hills, outliers of the Vindhyan series, enter the District from the
south and converge towards Monghyr town. The principal are the
Kharagpur hills, which form a distinct watershed, the Kiul river
draining the western, and the Man and other streams the eastern
portion of the range. The main channel of the Ganges has several
times shifted both to the east and to the west of the rock on which
the Monghyr fort stands, alternately forming and washing away large
areas of didra lands ; but since the earliest times of which any record
exists, it has washed the base of the rock immediately to the north
of the fort. The largest areas of alluvial deposit formed by these
changes in the main channel are comprised in the Government estates
of Kutlupur to the west, and Binda didra to the east of Monghyr
town. A large marsh, known as the Kabartal, in the north of tlie
Begusarai subdivision, apparently marks the old bed of one of the
large rivers, and drains eastward through the low tract lying in
the north-east of the District.

North of the (ianges the older rocks are concealed by the alluvium
of the Gangetic plain ; but south of the river the level rises rapidly
and the older rocks soon appear, first as more or less disconnected
hill groups, and farther south as a continuous uninterrupted outcrop.
These rocks consist of the oldest system recognized by geologists,
that known as Archaean. They include a vast series of crystalline
rocks of varied composition, including granitic and dioritic gneisses,
hornblende and mica-schists, epidiorites, crystalline limestones, and
many other rocks collectively known as Bengal gneiss ; another very
ancient series consisting of liighly altered sedimentary and volcanic
rocks, including quartzites, quartz-schists, hornblendic, micaceous,
talcose, and ferruginous schists, potsloncs, ph\llites, slates, X:c., forming
an assemblage very similar to that which has received the name


of l^harwar schists in Southern India : and vast granitic masses
and innumerable veins of coarse granitic pegmatite, intruded amongst
both the schists and the Bengal gneiss. The Bengal gneiss occupies
principally the southernmost part of the District. The ancient
stratified series assimilated with the Dharwars forms several hill
groups situated between the southern gneissose area and the valley
of the Ganges : these are the Kharagpur hills, the largest of the
hill masses situated south of Monghyr and east of Luckeesarai, the
Sheikhpura hills and the Gidhaur range, respectively west and south
of Luckeesarai. The rocks of the Gidhaur range are highly meta-
morphosed by innumerable veins of coarse granitic pegmatites, which
are of great economic importance on account of the mica they contain,
and constitute the eastern portion of the great mica-belt of Bengal.
The coarsest grained, and consequently the most valuable, pegmatites
are the comparatively narrow sheets which intersect the schists of the
metamorphosed stratified series. The larger and more uniform com-
paratively fine-grained intrusions are valueless so far as mica is
concerned, though they belong to the same system of intrusions.
On account of its habit of weathering in the shape of large rounded
hummocks, the rock forming these more massive intrusions has often
been described under the name of dome-gneiss, which, more accurately,
should be dome-granite. The rocks of the Kharagpur hills are not
nearly so much altered as those of the Gidhaur range. The strata
originally constituted by shales, which, in the latter range, have been
transformed into schists, are only altered to slates in the Kharagpur
hills. These slates, which are regularly cleaved and of fairly good
quality, are quarried to a certain extent^.

In the portions of the District near the Ganges the rice-fields
abound with the usual weeds of such localities. In the swampy
tract to the east of the BurhT Gandak, rank pod grass and the
graceful pampas grow in abundance, and below them dubh and
other succulent grasses. Near villages there are often considerable
groves of mango-trees and palmyra palms ; and north of the Ganges
perhaps nine-tenths of the trees are mangoes, the fruit of which forms
an important item in the food-supply of the poorer classes. Farther
from the river on the south the country is more diversified ; and,
though no Government forests exist, an area estimated at about
427 square miles is under forest, chiefly towards the southern con-
fines of the District and in the Kharagpur estate of the Maharaja
of Darbhanga. The principal trees growing in the alluvial and

' T. H. Holland, ' Mica Deposits of India,' Memoirs, Geological SiDuey of India,
vol. xxxiv, pt. ii. The above account was contributed by Mr. E. Vredenburg,
Deputy-Superintendent, Geological Survey of India.

;,92 .]ro.\rriryR district

cultivated areas are tlie mango {.\fa)igifera indica), p'lpal {Fiais
religiosa), hanyan {Fiti/s ifidioi), sin's [Miinosn Sir/ssa), >n?>i {Afe/ia
Azadirac/ifa), jdmwi {Eugenia Jambolana), sissu {Dalbergia Sissoo),
red cotton-tree {Bombax malabaricuni)^ pdkar {Ficus infeciorid), jack-
fruit tree {Artocarpus integrifolid), ^